Table of Contents
CancerMail from the National Cancer Institute
UI - 21374478
AU - Blakely ML; Ritchey ML
TI - Controversies in the management of Wilms' tumor.
SO - Semin Pediatr Surg 2001 Aug;10(3):127-31
AD - Department of Surgery, University of Texas-Houston Medical School, Houston, TX, USA.
Wilms' tumor is the most common malignant renal tumor of childhood; it represents 5% to 6% of childhood cancers in the United States. The survival rate of children with Wilms' tumor has improved dramatically, partly due to large multicenter studies conducted by the National Wilms' Tumor Study Group and the International Society of Pediatric Oncology. To ensure optimal patient outcome, the surgical management of these patients must be appropriate. Controversial issues in the management of Wilms' tumor include the value of preoperative chemotherapy; whether pre-resection biopsy is indicated and if so, how this is best performed; indications for partial nephrectomy; the treatment of low-risk patients with surgery only; and the reliability of preoperative imaging to assess the contralateral kidney. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company
UI - 21230823
AU - Weirich A; Leuschner I; Harms D; Vujanic GM; Troger J; Abel U; Graf N; Schmidt D; Ludwig R; Voute PA
TI - Clinical impact of histologic subtypes in localized non-anaplastic nephroblastoma treated according to the trial and study SIOP-9/GPOH.
SO - Ann Oncol 2001 Mar;12(3):311-9
AD - Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Histologic subtypes of standard histology Wilms' tumor (WT) and the effect of preoperative therapy on their clinical and histologic features, deserve to be analysed in respect to outcome to find an adequate baseline for therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The German Society of Paediatric Oncology & Haematology enrolled patients from January 1989 to March 1994 for therapy according the International Society of Paediatric Oncology trial & study 9. Standardised preoperative therapy with dactinomycin and vincristine for 4-8 weeks was generally applied in patients between 0.5 and 16 years with localized renal tumors and imaging typical for WT. In 99.5% of cases representative material was sent for review to the Kiel Paediatric Tumour Registry. For prospective subtyping of 329 WT (258 after preoperative therapy, 71 with immediate surgery) modified Beckwith & Palmer criteria were used. Reduction in volume measured by imaging prior to chemotherapy and surgery was used to assess response (poor response: reduction < 40%; good response: reduction > or = 40%). RESULTS: There were 39% of patients treated with immediate surgery and 12.4% of patients with preoperative therapy in the age group up to 12 months. The difference in age (P = 0.022) was linked with different amounts of epithelial WT (15.5% vs. 3.1%), median age: 0.58 and 0.93 years. Due to the effect of chemotherapy the amount of other WT changed: stromal 0% to 14%, mixed 45.1% to 29.4%, blastemal 39.4% to 9.3%). After preoperative therapy 37.6% of WT were predominantly regressive, 6.6% completely necrotic. Poor response was frequent in differentiated WT (86% of stromal, 75% of epithelial WT) but none relapsed. In the other WT with viable tumor left after preoperative therapy > 70% had good response, poor response was a risk factor (P = 0.0057). CONCLUSIONS: Subtyping according modified Beckwith & Palmer can be used in WT after preoperative therapy to stratify postoperative therapy in future. A milder therapy could be tested in differentiated WT at low stages and an intensified in the others with viable tumor left and poor response, i.e., mainly blastemal WT.
UI - 21372067
AU - Gronskov K; Olsen JH; Sand A; Pedersen W; Carlsen N; Bak Jylling AM; Lyngbye T; Brondum-Nielsen K; Rosenberg T
TI - Population-based risk estimates of Wilms tumor in sporadic aniridia. A comprehensive mutation screening procedure of PAX6 identifies 80% of mutations in aniridia.
SO - Hum Genet 2001 Jul;109(1):11-8
AD - Department of Medical Genetics, The John F. Kennedy Institute, Gl. Landevej 7, DK2600 Glostrup, Denmark. email@example.com
Aniridia is a severe eye disease characterized by iris hypoplasia; both sporadic cases and familial cases with an autosomal dominant inheritance exist. Mutations in the PAX6 gene have been shown to be the genetic cause of the disease. Some of the sporadic cases are caused by large chromosomal deletions, some of which also include the Wilms tumor gene (WAGR syndrome), resulting in an increased risk of developing Wilms tumor. Based on the unique registration of both cancer and aniridia cases in Denmark, we have made the most accurate risk estimate to date for Wilms tumor in sporadic aniridia. We have found that patients with sporadic aniridia have a relative risk of 67 (confidence interval: 8.1-241) of developing Wilms tumor. Among patients investigated for mutations, Wilms tumor developed in only two patients out of 5 with the Wilms tumor gene (WT1) deleted. None of the patients with smaller chromosomal deletions or intragenic mutations were found to develop Wilms tumor. Our observations suggest a smaller risk for Wilms tumor than previous estimates, and that tumor development requires deletion of WT1. We report a strategy for the mutational analysis of aniridia cases resulting in the detection of mutations in 68% of sporadic cases and 89% of familial cases. We also report four novel mutations in PAX6, and furthermore, we have discovered a new alternatively spliced form of PAX6.
UI - 21424059
AU - Green DM; Breslow NE; Beckwith JB; Ritchey ML; Shamberger RC; Haase GM; D'Angio GJ; Perlman E; Donaldson M; Grundy PE; Weetman R; Coppes MJ; Malogolowkin M; Shearer P; Coccia P; Kletzel M; Thomas PR; Macklis R; Tomlinson G; Huff V; Newbury R; Weeks D
TI - Treatment with nephrectomy only for small, stage I/favorable histology Wilms' tumor: a report from the National Wilms' Tumor Study Group.
SO - J Clin Oncol 2001 Sep 1;19(17):3719-24
AD - Department of Pediatrics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE: Children younger than 24 months with small (< 550 g), favorable histology (FH) Wilms tumors (WTs) were shown in a pilot study to have an excellent prognosis when treated with nephrectomy only. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A study of nephrectomy only for the treatment of selected children with FH WT was undertaken. Stringent stopping rules were designed to insure closure of the study if the true 2-year relapse-free survival rate was 90% or lower. RESULTS: Seventy-five previously untreated children younger than 24 months with stage I/FH WTs for which the surgical specimen weighed less than 550 g were treated with nephrectomy only. Three patients developed metachronous, contralateral WT 1.1, 1.4, and 2.3 years after nephrectomy, and eight patients relapsed 0.3 to 1.05 years after diagnosis (median, 0.4 years; mean, 0.51 years). The sites of relapse were lung (n = 5) and operative bed (n = 3). The 2-year disease-free (relapse and metachronous contralateral WT) survival rate was 86.5%. The 2-year survival rate is 100% with a median follow-up of 2.84 years. The 2-year disease-free survival rate (excluding metachronous contralateral WT) was 89.2%, and the 2-year cumulative risk of metachronous contralateral WT was 3.1%. CONCLUSION: Children younger than 24 months treated with nephrectomy only for a stage I/FH WT that weighed less than 550 g had a risk of relapse, including the development of metachronous contralateral WT, of 13.5% 2 years after diagnosis. All patients who experienced relapse on this trial are alive at this time. This approach will be re-evaluated in a clinical trial using a less conservative stopping rule.
UI - 21438693
AU - Delahunt B; Lewis ME; Pringle KC; Wiltshire EJ; Crooke MJ
TI - Serum creatine kinase levels parallel the clinical course for rhabdomyomatous Wilms tumor.
SO - Am J Clin Pathol 2001 Sep;116(3):354-9
AD - Dept of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Wellington School of Medicine, PO Box 7343, Wellington South, New Zealand.
A right-sided renal mass in an 11-month-old girl was diagnosed by percutaneous needle biopsy as Wilms tumor, which on histologic examination was found to be predominantly rhabdomyomatous. As part of the examination, serum creatine kinase (CK) and CK-MB levels were measured and were significantly elevated at 994 U/L (reference range, 42-180 U/L) and 40 U/L (reference range, 0-3 U/L), respectively. Subsequently, an 8-month-old girl was admitted to the hospital with septicemia and was found to have an abdominal mass. A diagnosis of bilateral Wilms tumor was made following percutaneous biopsy of both kidneys; histologic examination confirmed that the tumor was predominantly rhabdomyomatous. Serum CK and CK-MB levels also were measured and were significantly elevated at 685 U/L and 84.4 U/L, respectively. In both cases, the serum CK and CK-MB levels reflected the clinical course; elevation in serum levels was associated with tumor recurrence, infarction, or chemotherapy-related necrosis. We conclude that these enzymes have clinical usefulness as markers for Wilms tumor showing rhabdomyomatous morphologic features.