Classification: Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor
Pazopanib is a type of targeted therapy called a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. This means it works by targeting receptors present on cancer cells. Pazopanib targets several different receptors, which, in turn, blocks tumor growth and angiogenesis (the development of a blood supply to the tumor).
Pazopanib comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken on an empty stomach once a day, at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal. Take pazopanib at around the same time every day.
The blood levels of this medication can be affected by certain foods and medications, so they should be avoided. These include: grapefruit, grapefruit juice, dexamethasone, ketoconazole, rifampin, phenytoin, St. John’s wort, and modafanil. Be sure to tell your healthcare provider about all medications and supplements you take.
There are a number of things you can do to manage the side effects of Pazopanib. Talk to your doctor or nurse about these recommendations. They can help you decide what will work best for you. These are some of the most common side effects:
White blood cells (WBC) are important for fighting infection. While receiving treatment, your WBC count can drop, putting you at a higher risk of getting an infection. You should let your doctor or nurse know right away if you have a fever (temperature greater than 100.4°), sore throat or cold, shortness of breath, cough, burning with urination, or a sore that doesn't heal.
Tips to preventing infection:
For more suggestions, read the Neutropenia Tip Sheet.
Platelets help your blood clot, so when the count is low you are at a higher risk of bleeding. Let your doctor or nurse know if you have any excess bruising or bleeding, including nose bleeds, bleeding gums or blood in your urine or stool. If the platelet count becomes too low, you may receive a transfusion of platelets.
Read the thrombocytopenia tip sheet for more information.
Take anti-nausea medications as prescribed. If you continue to have nausea or vomiting, notify your doctor or nurse so they can help you manage this side effect. In addition, dietary changes may help. Avoid things that may worsen the symptoms, such as heavy or greasy/fatty, spicy or acidic foods (lemons, tomatoes, oranges). Try antacids, (e.g. milk of magnesia, calcium tablets such as Tums), saltines, or ginger ale to lessen symptoms. Read the Nausea & Vomiting Tip Sheet for more suggestions.
Call your doctor or nurse if you are unable to keep fluids down for more than 12 hours or if you feel lightheaded or dizzy at any time.
Your oncology team can recommend medications to relieve diarrhea. Also, try eating low-fiber, bland foods, such as white rice and boiled or baked chicken. Avoid raw fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads, cereals and seeds. Soluble fiber is found in some foods that absorbs fluid and can help relieve diarrhea. Foods high in soluble fiber include: applesauce, bananas (ripe), canned fruit, orange sections, boiled potatoes, white rice and products made with white flour, oatmeal, cream of rice, cream of wheat, and farina. Drink 8-10 glasses on non-alcoholic, un-caffeinated fluid a day to prevent dehydration. Read Low Fiber Diet for Diarrhea for more tips.
High blood pressure (hypertension) was seen in clinical trials and typically occurred within the first few months of therapy. Patients should have their blood pressure checked regularly during therapy. Any hypertension should be treated appropriately. If hypertension cannot be controlled, the pazopanib dose may be reduced or stopped.
Your doctor will perform blood tests to check the function of your thyroid. If your thyroid gland becomes under active, a medication will be prescribed to correct this problem.
Pazopanib can cause your hair to change color (typically a yellowing of the hair is noticed). Pazopanib can cause liver toxicity, which your doctor may monitor for using blood tests called liver function tests.
Because pazopanib inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, it may interfere with wound healing. The manufacturer recommends stopping the drug at least 7 days before any surgical procedure and not restarted until there is adequate wound healing.
In clinical trials, some patients developed proteinuria, which is the presence of protein in the urine and can be a sign of kidney damage. Your oncology team will periodically check your urine for protein.The following side effects are rare, but can be serious. This medication can cause heart rhythm abnormalities (arrhythmias) and your healthcare provider will monitor you with electrocardiogram (ECG). Let your healthcare provider know if you have a history of heart problems. Bleeding, stroke, myocardial infarction (heart attack) and chest pain have also been seen in patients taking this medication.