UI - 9365295
AU - Hackshaw AK; Law MR; Wald NJ
The accumulated evidence on lung cancer and environmental tobacco smoke.
SO - BMJ 1997 Oct 18;315(7114):980-8
AD - Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute
of Preventive Medicine, St Bartholomew's, London.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of lung cancer in lifelong non-smokers
exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. DESIGN: Analysis of 37 published
epidemiological studies of the risk of lung cancer (4626 cases) in
non-smokers who did and did not live with a smoker. The risk estimate
was compared with that from linear extrapolation of the risk in smokers
using seven studies of biochemical markers of tobacco smoke intake. MAIN
OUTCOME MEASURE: Relative risk of lung cancer in lifelong non-smokers
according to whether the spouse currently smoked or had never smoked.
RESULTS: The excess risk of lung cancer was 24% (95% confidence interval
13% to 36%) in non-smokers who lived with a smoker (P < 0.001).
Adjustment for the effects of bias (positive and negative) and dietary
confounding had little overall effect; the adjusted excess risk was 26%
(7% to 47%). The dose-response relation of the risk of lung cancer with
both the number of cigarettes smoked by the spouse and the duration of
exposure was significant. The excess risk derived by linear
extrapolation from that in smokers was 19%, similar to the direct
estimate of 26%. CONCLUSION: The epidemiological and biochemical
evidence on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, with the supporting
evidence of tobacco specific carcinogens in the blood and urine of
non-smokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, provides compelling
confirmation that breathing other people's tobacco smoke is a cause of
UI - 11845930
AU - Sharma CP; Behera D; Aggarwal AN; Gupta D; Jindal SK
Radiographic patterns in lung cancer.
SO - Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2002 Jan-Mar;44(1):25-30
AD - Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical
Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
Three hundred seventy three previously diagnosed patients with lung
cancer, attending the Lung Cancer Clinic at this institute were studied.
Chest radiographs were interpreted in all cases. Radiography was
compared in different cell types. Squamous cell carcinoma 158 (42.4%),
followed by small cell lung cancer 122 (32.7%), was the commonest
histological subtype. Upper zone was involved in maximum number of cases
158 (42%), followed by mid zone 122 (32.7%), lower zone 60 (16%) and the
entire lung 33(8.8%). Adenocarcinoma presented as a peripheral mass in
37 (61%) cases and in 23 (38.3%) as a central lesion. Presentation as a
central mass (114, 72.2% cases) was more common among squamous cell
carcinoma than as a peripheral lesion (44, 27.8% cases). Similarly,
small cell cancer also presented more commonly as a central lesion (102,
83.6% cases) than as a peripheral lesion (20, 16.4% cases). Isolated
pleural effusion was present in 3.8% in squamous cell lung cancer, 22%
in adenocarcinoma and only 4% in small cell lung cancer.
UI - 11577757
AU - Yamamoto Y; Nishiyama Y; Fukunaga K; Satoh K; Fujita J; Ohkawa M
99mTc-MIBI SPECT in small cell lung cancer patients before chemotherapy
and after unresponsive chemotherapy.
SO - Ann Nucl Med 2001 Aug;15(4):329-35
AD - Department of Radiology, Kagawa Medical University, Japan.
We evaluated the accumulation of 99mTc-MIBI in small cell lung cancer
patients before chemotherapy and after unresponsive chemotherapy. The
pre-chemotherapeutic group included 22 newly diagnosed patients. These
patients underwent a 99mTc-MIBI SPECT study before starting
chemotherapy. After chemotherapy, based on changes in tumor size, three
different patterns of response (complete remission: CR, partial
remission: PR and no change: NC) were defined. The post-chemotherapeutic
group included 11 patients after chemotherapy who did not respond to
chemotherapy. These patients underwent a 99mTc-MIBI SPECT study after
completion of chemotherapy. SPECT images were acquired 15 min (early)
and 2 hr (delayed) after injection of 99mTc-MIBI. With a region of
interest technique, the early ratio, delayed ratio and retention index
were calculated. Early and delayed ratios in pre-chemotherapeutic
patients were significantly higher than those in post-chemotherapeutic
patients. There were no significant differences between the
pre-chemotherapeutic and post-chemotherapeutic patients in the retention
index. In the pre-chemotherapeutic patients, early and delayed ratios
for the CR and PR groups were significantly higher than those for the NC
group. There were no significant differences in the retention index with
respect to the tumor response. 99mTc-MIBI might be useful for evaluating
the tumor chemosensitivity in patients with small cell lung cancer.
UI - 11872282
AU - Sloan JA; Bonner JA; Hillman SL; Allmer C; Shanahan TG; Brooks BJ; Marks
RS; Vargas-Chanes D; Jett JR
A quality-adjusted reanalysis of a Phase III trial comparing once-daily
thoracic radiation vs. twice-daily thoracic radiation in patients with
limited-stage small-cell lung cancer(1).
SO - Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002 Feb 1;52(2):371-81
AD - Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
PURPOSE: We undertook an analysis of quality-adjusted survival using the
Q-TWiST (Quality Time Without Symptoms or Toxicity) methodology and
developed a new graphic representation called a quality-adjusted
life-years plot, which presents a complete and concise Q-TWiST analysis
on a single plot. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The Q-TWiST plot incorporates
the time without symptoms or toxicity and several combinations of
utility coefficients for toxicity and relapse days into the same plot.
In addition, the plot includes threshold lines, to judge whether a
particular combination of utility coefficients reaches a significance
level. RESULTS: The differential in toxicity incidence and severity
between the two thoracic radiation treatment arms was inconsequential.
Sensitivity analyses were run using Q-TWiST plots. For all combinations
of the various toxicity definitions and utility coefficients, the median
Q-TWiST was greater for the once-daily thoracic radiation treatment arm
than for the twice-daily treatment arm, without achieved significance.
CONCLUSION: This work refines the results previously reported for this
Phase III clinical trial in patients with limited-stage small-cell
cancer, and there was no significant difference in survival after
adjusting for toxicity and progression. Furthermore, the new methods
developed for this trial allow for a more detailed and parsimonious
presentation of survival and toxicity data for all oncology clinical
UI - 11872284
AU - Okamoto Y; Murakami M; Yoden E; Sasaki R; Okuno Y; Nakajima T; Kuroda Y
Reirradiation for locally recurrent lung cancer previously treated with
SO - Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002 Feb 1;52(2):390-6
AD - Department of Radiology, Tenri Hospital, Nara, Japan.
PURPOSE: Local recurrence of lung cancer after previous external beam
irradiation poses some problems for subsequent management. We
retrospectively reviewed our series of patients with local recurrence of
lung cancer to evaluate the efficacy and safety of reirradiation.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1979 and 2000, 34 patients with local
recurrence of lung cancer were retreated with external radiation. There
were 29 males and 5 females ranging in age from 38 to 85 years (median:
69 years). At the time of reirradiation, the clinical stage was I or II
in 2 patients, IIIa in 5 patients, IIIb in 14 patients, and IV in 13
patients. Reirradiation was performed in 18 patients with the aim of
achieving a cure or prolongation of survival (radical treatment), while
16 patients were treated for improvement of their symptoms (symptomatic
treatment). RESULTS: The median interval between the initial radiation
therapy and reirradiation was 23 months, with a range of 5 to 87 months.
The dose of initial irradiation delivered to the tumor ranged from 30 to
80 Gy (median: 60 Gy) in 1.5--2.0-Gy fractions per day. During
reirradiation, it ranged from 10 to 70 Gy (median: 50 Gy) in 1.8--3.0-Gy
fractions per day. The cumulative dose delivered to the tumor by
treatments of both initial and second irradiation ranged from 56.5 to
150 Gy (median: 110 Gy). A response was observed in 14 out of 18
patients given radical treatment (complete response, 6; partial
response, 8). Twelve of the 16 patients (75%) given symptomatic
treatment also showed a symptomatic benefit. The overall survival rate
after reirradiation was 43% at 1 year and 27% at 2 years, with a median
survival time of 8 months. The median survival time after radical
treatment was 15 months, with a range of 3 to 58 months, whereas that
after symptomatic treatment was 3 months, with a range of 1 to 14
months. Six long-term survivors lived for more than 20 months.
Reirradiation-induced toxicity included symptomatic radiation
pneumonitis in 19 patients and symptomatic radiation esophagitis in 6
patients. These toxicities were not fatal, and radiation myelopathy was
not caused by reirradiation. CONCLUSION: Based on this study, external
beam reirradiation can achieve satisfactory results for local recurrence
of lung cancer provided that attention is paid to the possible hazards.
UI - 11848543
AU - Hirashima T; Yoshitaka O; Nitta T; Sasada S; Kobayashi M; Masuda N;
Matsui K; Nakagawa K; Yasumitsu T; Takada Y; Kikui M; Kawase I
Telomerase activity in endoscopically visible lung cancer.
SO - Anticancer Res 2001 Sep-Oct;21(5):3685-9
AD - Second Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Prefectural Habikino
Hospital, Habikino-Shi, Japan.
To examine the correlation between telomerase activity and clinical
features in patients with lung cancer, we examined 86 patients with
endoscopically visible lung cancer including 61 with non-small cell lung
cancer (NSCLC) and 25 with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Telomerase
activity was detected by using Telomerase ELISA Kit (Bohringer Manheim,
Germany). The median and interquartile ranges of telomerase activity in
normal lung, NSCLC and SCLC were 65 and 51-75, 106 and 58-349 and 285
and 117-2214, respectively. Normal lung, NSCLC and SCLC had
significantly different telomerase activity (p < or = 0.0001). Between
NSCLC and SCLC, SCLC exhibited higher telomerase activity than did NSCLC
(p=0.0029). A cut-off level of absorbance [A450nm-A690nm] of 86 derived
from 90% specificity in normal lung was used; sensitivity for overall
lung cancer, NSCLC and SCLC was 62.8%, 54.1% and 84.0%, respectively.
There was no significant difference in telomerase activity between each
stage in NSCLC (p=0.9243). In SCLC, however, the median and
interquartile range of telomerase activity in extensive disease (2128
and 292-2681) was significantly higher than those in limited disease
(207 and 97-252) (p=0.0285).
UI - 11605006
AU - Matsumoto S; Teramoto H; Nakamoto M; Igishi T; Kawasaki Y; Shimizu E
Presence of antibodies against retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein
in patients with lung cancer.
SO - Int J Oncol 2001 Nov;19(5):1035-9
AD - Third Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori
University, Yonago 683-8504, Japan.
Retinoblastoma (RB) protein and antibody against RB protein in sera from
45 lung cancer patients and 30 healthy volunteers were examined using
bacterially synthesized glutathione S-transferase (GST) RB fusion
protein and immunoblot analysis. RB protein was not detected in sera
from any individuals with lung cancer or in any healthy volunteers. Sera
from 6 patients, including 4 with non-small cell carcinoma and 2 with
small cell carcinoma, reacted to a GST-RB fusion protein but not with a
GST protein. Sera from 30 normal volunteers reacted to neither GST-RB
fusion protein nor GST protein. The backgrounds such as age, gender,
performance status, histology, stage, smoking history, and prior
treatment were not significantly different between the patients with and
without anti-RB antibodies. This is the first report describing the
presence of anti-RB antibody in patients with malignant tumors. Further
studies are needed to establish clinical significance for anti-RB
UI - 11220063
AU - Dalrymple-Hay MJ; Drury NE
Screening for lung cancer.
SO - J R Soc Med 2001 Jan;94(1):2-5
AD - Wessex Cardiothoracic Centre, Mailpoint 46, Southampton General
Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK.
UI - 11824322
AU - Fisseler-Eckhoff A
[Malignant lung tumors--histomorphological classification,
immunohistological techniques and prognostic factors]
SO - Kongressbd Dtsch Ges Chir Kongr 2001;118():590-5
AD - Institut fur Pathologie, Zentralklinik Emil-von-Behring, Gimpelsteig
3-9, 14165 Berlin.
Histological typing of lung tumors is based on the new WHO-IASLC
classification of lung and pleural tumors published in 1999. Based on
histological growth pattern, the major light microscopic categories of
lung carcinomas are squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma,
adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. The further subclassification
within the main categories resembles the high degree of lung tumor
heterogeneity. Immunohistochemistry may detect differentiation that
cannot be seen by routine light microscopy on small bioptically obtained
specimens. Evaluation of the proliferation index of tumor cells,
hormonal receptors, oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes is possible.
Oncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes, angiogenetical factors as well as
single cell dissemination of tumor cells in lymph nodes are discussed as
possible prognostic factors.
UI - 11824323
AU - Allica E; Serke M; Loddenkemper R; Kaiser D
[Multimodality therapy concept in stage I-IIIA small cell bronchial
carcinoma. Case follow-up over 15 years]
SO - Kongressbd Dtsch Ges Chir Kongr 2001;118():596-600
AD - Zentralklinik Emil von Behring, Department Lungenklinik Heckeshorn, Zum
Heckeshorn 33, 14109 Berlin.
We analysed our results of multimodal therapy including chemotherapy,
radiotherapy and surgery in 150 consecutive patients with SCLC stage
I-IIIa operated on in our hospital between 1983 and 2000. Median age: 58
years, stages see Table 2. Patients with proven SCLC had induction
chemotherapy prior to surgery. All patients received three cycles of
adjuvant chemotherapy, some with additional radiotherapy. Perioperative
mortality: 2%. Median survival: 22.4 months. R0 resection was possible
in 84% of all patients. Pre- and post-surgery staging differed in the
majority of the patients. Rotes of 1-, 2- and 5-year survival were 79%,
47%, and 32%, respectively. A median survival of 22.4 months in
multimodally treated LD-SCLC, most of them stage IIb/IIIa appears
promising. Randomized studies based on clinical staging procedures are
not recommended. Survival data are promising.
UI - 11847027
AU - Barlesi F; Gimenez C; Pibarot M; Kleisbauer JP
[Recent progress and perspectives in the management of patients with
SO - Bull Cancer 2002 Jan;89(1):57-66
AD - Service d'oncologie respiratoire, Departement des maladies
respiratoires, Hopital Sainte-Marguerite, 270, bd Sainte-Marguerite, BP
29, 13274 Marseille Cedex 09. email@example.com
Lung cancer is still actually a leading cause of death in industrial
countries, while the major etiologic agent, the tobacco smoke, is
clearly identified. Primary or secondary prevention's strategies are
frequently unsuccessful. The main survival chance is an early diagnosis
of the disease. Efforts in the lung cancer screening have to be
continued. Therapeutic strategies improved but progress in terms of
survey are disappointing. Hopes relies on new drugs development coming
from fundamental research, for whom first clinical trials are ongoing.
UI - 11845792
AU - Kefalides PT; Savides TJ
Evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy with endoscopic US-guided
fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
SO - Gastrointest Endosc 2002 Feb;55(2):294-6; discussion 296-7
UI - 11821018
AU - Sakai H; Shimizu T; Hori K; Ikari A; Asano S; Takeguchi N
Molecular and pharmacological properties of inwardly rectifying K+
channels of human lung cancer cells.
SO - Eur J Pharmacol 2002 Jan 25;435(2-3):125-33
AD - Department of Pharmaceutical Physiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani,
930-0194, Toyama, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Properties of inwardly rectifying K+ channels in small-cell lung cancer
(SCLC) cells have not been clarified in detail. Here, we found inwardly
rectifying K+ channels in a human SCLC cell line (RERF-LC-MA), which
expresses no multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and
multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (MDR1). Extracellular Ba2+ and Cs+
inhibited inwardly rectifying K+ currents of RERF-LC-MA cells in a
concentration-dependent manner, but tetraethylammonium ion and
glibenclamide were ineffective. Okadaic acid, an inhibitor of
phosphatases 1 and 2A, and phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate, an activator of
protein kinase C, significantly decreased the inwardly rectifying K+
current. Lowering the intracellular pH but not the extracellular pH
decreased the K+ current. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain
reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting analysis showed that RERF-LC-MA
cells express Kir2.1 mRNA and protein. The inwardly rectifying K+
current is suggested to be generated by Kir2.1 protein in the human
small-cell lung cancer cell, and that the K+ channel is negatively
regulated by protein kinase C and the intracellular acidic pH.
UI - 11870537
AU - Fontanini G; Faviana P; Lucchi M; Boldrini L; Mussi A; Camacci T;
Mariani MA; Angeletti CA; Basolo F; Pingitore R
A high vascular count and overexpression of vascular endothelial growth
factor are associated with unfavourable prognosis in operated small cell
SO - Br J Cancer 2002 Feb 12;86(4):558-63
AD - Department of Oncology, Transplants and Advanced Technologies in
Medicine, University of Pisa, via Roma 57, 56126 Pisa, Italy.
It has been widely demonstrated that neo-angiogenesis and its mediators
(i.e. vascular endothelial growth factor), represent useful indicators
of poor prognosis in non small cell lung carcinoma. In order to verify
whether neovascularization and vascular endothelial growth factor may be
considered useful markers of clinical outcome also in the small cell
lung cancer subgroup, we retrospectively investigated a series of 75
patients with small cell lung carcinoma treated by surgery between 1980
and 1990. Immunohistochemically-detected microvessels and vascular
endothelial growth factor expressing cells were significantly associated
with poor prognosis, as well as with nodal status and pathological
stage. In fact, patients whose tumours had vascular count and vascular
endothelial growth factor expression higher than median value of the
entire series (59 vessels per 0.74 mm(2) and 50% of positive cells,
respectively), showed a shorter overall and disease-free survival
(P=0.001, P=0.001; P=0.008, P=0.03). Moreover, the presence of hilar
and/or mediastinal nodal metastasis and advanced stage significantly
affected overall and disease-free interval (P=0.00009, P=0.00001;
P=0.0001, P=0.00001). At multivariate analysis, only vascular
endothelial growth factor expression retained its influence on overall
survival (P=0.001), suggesting that angiogenic phenomenon may have an
important role in the clinical behaviour of this lung cancer subgroup.
The above citations and abstracts reflect those newly added to CANCERLIT for the month and topic listed in the title. The citations have been retrieved from CANCERLIT using a predefined search strategy of indexed subject terms. Although the search strategy has been refined as best as possible, citations may appear that are not directly related to the topic, and occasionally relevant references may be omitted.