UI - 2193952
AU - Friedman-Kien AE; Saltzman BR
Clinical manifestations of classical, endemic African, and epidemic
AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
SO - J Am Acad Dermatol 1990 Jun;22(6 Pt 2):1237-50
AD - Department of Dermatology and Microbiology, New York University Medical
Center, NY 10016.
Kaposi's sarcoma, first described in 1972, is a rare, chronic neoplasm
that occurs most often in elderly men of Eastern European origin. In the
mid-twentieth century, more aggressive forms of Kaposi's sarcoma were
found to be an endemic disease especially common among young black men
in central Africa. Kaposi's sarcoma also occurs in iatrogenically
immunosuppressed patients, such as kidney transplant recipients. In
1981, the sudden occurrence of an unusual, disseminated form of Kaposi's
sarcoma in homosexual men in New York and California heralded the
epidemic now known as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Ninety-five percent of all AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS)
has been in homosexual men; however, the incidence of AIDS-KS has
diminished from greater than 40% of men with AIDS since 1981 to less
than 20% in 1989. The remaining 5% of AIDS-KS has been seen in all other
populations at risk for AIDS. The reasons for the remarkable persistent
increased prevalence of AIDS-KS among homosexual men remains obscure.
Clinically, AIDS-KS is a highly varied neoplastic disease characterized
by multifocal mucocutaneous lesions often with lymphatic and visceral
involvement. The etiology of Kaposi's sarcoma remains unknown although
various hypotheses have been suggested, including endothelial-tumor
growth factors, oncogenic expression, genetic predisposition, and
environmental cofactors. An as-yet unidentified viruslike agent has been
proposed as a possible direct cause of this neoplasm. Different
treatment modalities for Kaposi's sarcoma have been employed with
varying success, these include localized radiation therapy, cryotherapy,
electrocauterization, surgical excision, and a variety of systemic
chemotherapeutic regimens, as well as alpha-interferon. Although all
available treatments help control the lesions, none lengthens survival.
UI - 2261787
AU - Felman YM
Recent developments in sexually transmitted diseases: is Kaposi's
sarcoma a sexually transmitted disease?
SO - Cutis 1990 Oct;46(4):303-6
AD - Downstate Medical School, New York.
UI - 1765111
AU - Wahman A; Melnick SL; Rhame FS; Potter JD
The epidemiology of classic, African, and immunosuppressed Kaposi's
SO - Epidemiol Rev 1991;13():178-99
AD - Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of
Minnesota, Minneapolis 55454-1015.
The etiology of Kaposi's sarcoma remains somewhat obscure. While lesions
of classic Kaposi's sarcoma, African Kaposi's sarcoma, and
immunosuppressed Kaposi's sarcoma have been found to be
indistinguishable from one another, the reasons for the variations in
type and severity have not been established. The origin of the spindle
cell is yet to be agreed on. Geographic variation does not seem as
important as ethnic variation. The very young and the very old, perhaps
two ages of weakened immunity, tend to have a higher incidence of
Kaposi's sarcoma. Children and AIDS patients tend to develop more
virulent disease. Males tend to get Kaposi's sarcoma at higher rates
than do females. Jewish and Mediterranean males have the highest
incidence of classic Kaposi's sarcoma, and African Bantu have the
highest incidence of African Kaposi's sarcoma, classifications which do
not apply to the Kaposi's sarcoma population in the United States. Male
homosexuals have much higher incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma than do male
heterosexuals, but since the early 1980s, its incidence as the
presenting manifestation of AIDS has decreased dramatically. There is no
unequivocal association with HLA haplotype (though DR5 carriers may be
at especially high risk) or evidence of family clustering. There is an
impressive but not always consistent association between Kaposi's
sarcoma development and immunodeficiency. Environmental factors, such as
nitrite use, immunosuppression, and repeated cytomegalovirus infection,
are associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, but the exact mechanism is unclear
and the associations remain inconsistent. Finally, it is still unclear
if there is a causative infectious agent for Kaposi's sarcoma. While
cytomegalovirus has been linked to Kaposi's sarcoma, there are
weaknesses in its hypothetical role as an etiologic agent as is the case
for HIV itself.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
UI - 1821323
AU - Beral V
Epidemiology of Kaposi's sarcoma.
SO - Cancer Surv 1991;10():5-22
AD - ICRF Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford.
The AIDS epidemic drew attention to KS, a previously rare and little
studied condition. The epidemiological evidence summarized here strongly
suggests that the disease is caused by a transmissible agent, in
addition to HIV. Sexual contact is the most important mode of
transmission of the agent, although transmission by blood and
perinatally may also occur (Beral et al, 1990).
UI - 7903022
AU - Jacobson LP; Kirby AJ; Polk S; Phair JP; Besley DR; Saah AJ; Kingsley
LA; Schrager LK
Changes in survival after acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS):
SO - Am J Epidemiol 1993 Dec 1;138(11):952-64
AD - Johns Hopkins University, School of Public Health, Department of
Epidemiology, Baltimore, MD 21205.
In a prospective cohort of 2,647 human immunodeficiency virus type 1
(HIV-1) seropositive homosexual men enrolled in Baltimore, Chicago, Los
Angeles, and Pittsburgh, 891 developed clinical acquired
proportional hazards models were used to examine temporal trends in
survival after AIDS for specific diagnoses, controlling for level of
immunosuppression at diagnosis, age, race, and geographic location.
Median survival time following AIDS onset increased from 11.6 months in
1984-1985 to 19.5 months in 1988-1989; for those diagnosed in 1990-1991,
the median survival time dropped to 17.2 months. Trends in improved
survival were diagnosis-specific. Survival after Pneumocystis carinii
pneumonia consistently improved from 1984 to 1991 (p < 0.001). Compared
with men diagnosed in 1984-1985, those diagnosed with P. carinii
pneumonia in 1990-1991 had one-tenth the hazard of dying. For men with >
or = 100 helper T-lymphocytes (CD4+ cells) when diagnosed with Kaposi's
sarcoma, the relative hazards (95% confidence intervals) of dying after
Kaposi's sarcoma were 0.8 (0.42-1.60) in 1986-1987, 0.7 (0.34-1.58) in
1988-1989, and 0.6 (0.19-1.61) in 1990-1991 compared with those
diagnosed before 1986. Men with < 100 CD4+ cells when diagnosed with
Kaposi's sarcoma did not demonstrate a consistent change in their
subsequent survival. After a nonsignificant (p > 0.05) initial
improvement in prognosis, there has not been a significant improvement
in survival for men who presented with other opportunistic infections.
Observed increases in overall survival probably relate to improved
treatment of patients who develop P. carinii pneumonia. Limited
improvement in survival following other AIDS diagnoses indicates the
need for developing effective treatment against these diseases.
UI - 8270582
AU - Shroff HJ; Dashatwar DR; Deshpande RP; Waigmann HR
AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in an Indian female.
SO - J Assoc Physicians India 1993 Apr;41(4):241-2
AD - Department of Dermatology & STD, Grant Medical College, Bombay.
We report the first case of AIDS-associated Kaposi's Sarcoma in a 35
year old Indian female, a commercial sex worker, with lesions involving
skin and mucous membranes. Diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology,
electron microscopy, seropositivity, (ELISA and Western Blot) as well as
Pepti-LAV test and viral culture. Antibodies to human immunodeficiency
virus, both HIV-1 & 2, were present. HLA DR5,7 was positive on
oligotyping. Genetic predisposition, therefore, may be suspected.
UI - 2982306
AU - Lind SE; Gross PL; Andiman WA; Stone GC; Schooley RT; Harris NL
Malignant lymphoma presenting as Kaposi's sarcoma in a homosexual man
with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
SO - Ann Intern Med 1985 Mar;102(3):338-40
A homosexual man had Kaposi's sarcoma of the skin and lymph nodes. After
a brief response to interferon, the patient developed new skin lesions.
Massive bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract prompted endoscopy, which
showed tumor involvement of the stomach, believed to be Kaposi's
sarcoma. At autopsy, a diffuse lymphoma was found involving the skin and
gastrointestinal tract, forming collision tumors in regions that
contained Kaposi's sarcoma. Lymphomatous tissue, but not uninvolved
lymph node or spleen, contained Epstein-Barr virus DNA, as shown by DNA
hybridization studies. Epstein-Barr virus may play a role in the
development of lymphoma in immunosuppressed patients. Unusual
manifestations of tumors, such as the massive gastrointestinal bleeding
seen in this case, may indicate the development of a second neoplasm.
UI - 3901851
AU - Safai B; Johnson KG; Myskowski PL; Koziner B; Yang SY;
Cunningham-Rundles S; Godbold JH; Dupont B
The natural history of Kaposi's sarcoma in the acquired immunodeficiency
SO - Ann Intern Med 1985 Nov;103(5):744-50
Kaposi's sarcoma is a multifocal systemic neoplasm histologically
characterized by proliferating fibroblastic and microvascular elements.
Initial signs include macules, papules, or nodules on the skin or
mucosal surface. Lesions are frequently found on the trunk, arms, and
head and neck. In general, sites of involvement and tumor load do not
correlate with prognosis. A general decrease in the functional
capacities of T and B cells is found in most patients. Kaposi's sarcoma
is reported as the initial manifestation of the acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in approximately 30% of cases. Most
cases are in men, although it has been reported in all risk groups.
Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS is more frequent among whites and homosexuals
than blacks and intravenous drug abusers. Overall mortality is
approximately 41%, with over 60% of patients alive at 1 year and 50% at
22 months. Overall survival is 18 months; however, some patients who
have had the disease for 3 to 4 years are still doing well.
UI - 3878602
AU - Haverkos HW; Pinsky PF; Drotman DP; Bregman DJ
Disease manifestation among homosexual men with acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome: a possible role of nitrites in Kaposi's
SO - Sex Transm Dis 1985 Oct-Dec;12(4):203-8
To identify risk factors that determine the major manifestations of the
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the authors analyzed data
from three epidemiologic studies conducted by the Centers for Disease
Control. The authors compared patients by outcome of disease.
Eighty-seven homosexual patients (47 with Kaposi's sarcoma, 20 with
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and 20 with both) had participated in
the earlier studies, and their interviews and laboratory test results
were available. Compared with patients who have Pneumocystis carinii
pneumonia only, patients with Kaposi's sarcoma and those with both
diseases reported more different sexual partners, more recreational drug
use, higher incomes and higher rates of non-B hepatitis. Multivariate
analysis showed that the variable most strongly associated with Kaposi's
sarcoma was the use of large quantities of nitrite inhalants. A
multifactorial model is postulated to explain the various disease
manifestations of AIDS. This study suggests that the use of nitrite
inhalants may be a cofactor in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma. By
identifying other cofactors, investigators may be able to define
additional opportunities for prevention of the development of AIDS.
UI - 3021963
AU - Otu AA
Kaposi's sarcoma and HTLV-III: a study in Nigerian adult males.
SO - J R Soc Med 1986 Sep;79(9):510-4
Sera from 37 adult Nigerian men with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), 30
contemporaneous controls bearing primary cell carcinoma of the liver
(PCL), and 150 healthy non-tumour-bearing negative controls were tested
for antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy
associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays
(ELISA). Certain immunocellular functions were also measured: the
chemotactic locomotion of peripheral blood monocytes towards casein,
delayed-type cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction to tuberculoprotein and
opportunistic infection with the fungus Candida albicans. Sera from all
these groups were also tested for markers of previous infections with
the viruses cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B
(HBV) and hepatitis A (HAV). All serum samples tested were reproducibly
and consistently negative for anti-HTLV-III/LAV. Peripheral blood
monocytes from both KS and PCL patients showed profound depression of
chemotaxis; similarly all tumour patients gave markedly depressed
cutaneous reactivity to tuberculoprotein and uniformly exhibited
seropositivity to CMV, EBV, HBV and HAV. A great majority showed
evidence of infection with Candida albicans. It is concluded that
tropical African KS is not associated with HTLV-III/LAV infection.
UI - 3470530
AU - Marquart KH; Muller HA; Hartter P; Oku JC; Ayuko WO
Lymphadenopathic type of Kaposi's sarcoma in a Ugandan child
seropositive for LAV/HTLV-III antibodies.
SO - J Trop Med Hyg 1987 Apr;90(2):93-4
The authors report a case of a lymphadenopathic type of Kaposi's sarcoma
in a Ugandan boy aged 2 years and 1 month who was seropositive for
antibodies to lymphadenopathy-associated virus/human T-lymphotropic
virus type III (LAV/HTLV-III).
UI - 6299151
AU - Pitchenik AE; Fischl MA; Dickinson GM; Becker DM; Fournier AM; O'Connell
MT; Colton RM; Spira TJ
Opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma among Haitians: evidence
of a new acquired immunodeficiency state.
SO - Ann Intern Med 1983 Mar;98(3):277-84
had Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, central nervous system
toxoplasmosis, esophageal candidiasis, cryptococcosis, disseminated
cytomegalovirus, progressive herpes simplex virus, chronic enteric
coccidiosis, or invasive Kaposi's sarcoma. Ten patients died.
Opportunistic infections were frequently multiple and were recurrent in
three patients. In seven patients disseminated tuberculosis preceded the
other infections by 2 to 15 months. There was no evidence of an
underlying immunosuppressive disease, and no history of homosexuality or
intravenous drug abuse. At least three patients probably acquired the
syndrome in Haiti. Lymphadenopathy was common. Seventeen patients tested
had anergy, and 18 had lymphopenia. Monoclonal antibody analysis of
peripheral-blood T-cell subsets done on 11 patients showed a marked
decrease in T-helper cells and an inversion of the normal ratio of
T-helper cells to T-suppressor cells. This syndrome among heterosexual
Haitians is strikingly similar to the syndrome of immunodeficiency
described recently among American homosexuals.
UI - 3603645
AU - Coker R; Wood PB
Changing patterns of Kaposi's sarcoma in N.E. Zaire.
SO - Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1986;80(6):965-6
A minor change in the pattern of Kaposi's sarcoma has been noticed in
north-east Zaire. This is characterized by a small increase of the
number of confirmed diagnoses, together with the appearance of the
disease amongst women, who tend to be of a younger age group. These data
suggests the appearance of a new aetiological factor in the area. From
recent reports from other parts of Africa we speculate that this might
be the appearance of HTLV-III virus.
UI - 6598311
AU - Longo DL; Steis RG; Lane HC; Lotze MT; Rosenberg SA; Preble O; Masur H;
Rook AH; Fauci AS; Jacob J; et al
Malignancies in the AIDS patient: natural history, treatment strategies,
and preliminary results.
SO - Ann N Y Acad Sci 1984;437():421-30
UI - 3257865
AU - Craighead J; Moore A; Grossman H; Ershler W; Frattini U; Saxinger C;
Hess U; Ngowi F
Pathogenetic role of HIV infection in Kaposi's sarcoma of equatorial
SO - Arch Pathol Lab Med 1988 Mar;112(3):259-65
AD - Department of Pathology, University of Vermont, Burlington 05405.
Thirty residents of north-central Tanzania with various forms of
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) were evaluated. The absolute number of peripheral
blood OKT4 lymphocytes in patients and Tanzanian control subjects tended
to be low (in comparison with healthy young American adults), and many
had inverted T4/T8 ratios. Plasma polyclonal beta- and gamma-globulin
concentrations were increased in many patients with KS and in control
patients in Tanzania with chronic dermatopathies, but not in African
hospital employees and patients undergoing elective surgery. Three of
nine patients with locally aggressive KS possessed antibodies to human
T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/lyphadenopathy-associated virus
(HIV), but none had evidence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
(AIDS) or the AIDS-related complex. Three patients with disseminated,
rapidly progressive KS and high HIV-antibody titers had an immunologic
and clinical picture consistent with AIDS. Two of 13 patients with the
classic plaque/nodular form of KS had low plasma titers of HIV antibody,
but the significance of these serologic findings is not known. The
evidence suggests that HIV plays a role in the pathogenesis of some
cases of KS in East Africa, but most patients with KS in East Africa
have no evidence of overt immunologic deficiency or HIV infection.
UI - 2905140
AU - Lesbordes JL; Martin PM; Ravisse P; Georges-Courbot MC; Georges AJ
Clinical and histopathological aspects of Kaposi's sarcoma in Africa:
relationship with HIV serology.
SO - Ann Inst Pasteur Virol 1988 Apr-Jun;139(2):197-203
AD - Centre National Hospitalier et Universitaire, Bangui (Republique
From 1983 to 1987, 45 Kaposi's sarcomas (KS) were diagnosed at the
University Hospital in Bangui; 37 cases were easily classified as either
endemic or AIDS-related KS on clinical grounds and HIV serology.
Moreover, probably due to the stage at which patients consulted and
lesions were sampled, noticeable histopathological differences were
observed between the two clinical presentations. But for 8/45 which we
classified as "borderline KS", strong discrepancies occurred between
clinical aspects, patient evolution, HIV serology and histopathology. In
two cases, HIV-positive patients had typical endemic non-evolutive KS
and have survived 15 and 36 months.
UI - 2889930
AU - Des Jarlais DC; Stoneburner R; Thomas P; Friedman SR
Declines in proportion of Kaposi's sarcoma among cases of AIDS in
multiple risk groups in New York City.
SO - Lancet 1987 Oct 31;2(8566):1024-5
UI - 2929857
AU - Bouquety JC; Siopathis MR; Ravisse PR; Lagarde N; Georges-Courbot MC;
Lympho-cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in an African pediatric AIDS case.
SO - Am J Trop Med Hyg 1989 Mar;40(3):323-5
AD - Department of Pediatrics, CHNU, Bangui, Central African Republic.
A case of disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma with lymphoid and mucocutaneous
involvement in an African infant with acquired immune deficiency
syndrome is reported. The child died within 2 months after recognition.
UI - 2767104
AU - Marfella A; Ruocco V; Capobianco A; Perna M; Santelli G; Frigione G;
Kyalwazi SK; Mugerwa RD; Serwadda D; Beth-Giraldo E; et al
Neopterin and alpha-interferon in patients affected by Kaposi's sarcoma
SO - Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1989 Aug;25(8):1145-50
AD - Laboratory of Clinical Pathology, National Cancer Institute Fondaz. Sen.
G. Pascale, Naples, Italy.
The presence of circulating alpha-interferon and neopterin was
investigated in sera of 47 patients affected by African Kaposi's
sarcoma, both HIV-seropositive (13 patients) and HIV-seronegative (34
patients). For comparison, analyses were also performed in 20
HIV-seropositive symptomatic African subjects as well as in 20 African
and 20 Italian healthy individuals. Alpha-interferon and neopterin
levels appeared significantly higher in comparison with healthy control
groups (P less than 0.001) but not with HIV-seropositve African
individuals without Kaposi's sarcoma. Moreover, alpha-interferon and
neopterin levels were significantly higher in progressive Kaposi's
sarcoma (27 patients) than in regressive Kaposi's sarcoma (20 patients)
(P less than 0.001). A significant correlation between alpha-interferon
and neopterin was observed (r = 0.57; P less than 0.01). Furthermore,
alpha-interferon levels of HIV-seropositive Kaposi's sarcoma patients
resulted significantly higher in comparison with the seronegative ones
(P less than 0.05). It is concluded that alpha-interferon and neopterin
may be reliable prognostic markers in Kaposi's sarcoma patients.
UI - 7519802
AU - Stein M; Spencer D; Kantor A; Lakier R; Lachter J; Ben-Yosef R; Bezwoda
Radiation therapy in epidemic, AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in southern
SO - Tumori 1994 Jun 30;80(3):216-9
AD - Department of Medical Oncology & Hematology, University of the
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
associated Kaposi's Sarcoma (EKS) is widely spread in the Southern
African Region. No large studies concerning the role of radiation
therapy in the Southern African variant of EKS have been reported to
date. METHODS: Over a 10 year period (1982-1992) 25 patients with EKS
(disseminated skin involvement) were treated primarily with radiation
therapy at the Johannesburg General Hospital. Radiation fields were
individually tailored to the extent of the disease. Total administered
doses ranged between 8-12 Gy (single fraction) to 24-30 Gy fractionated
over 2-3 weeks. RESULTS: Overall response and symptomatic relief rates
were 72% and 80%, respectively. Toxicity was mild and manageable.
CONCLUSIONS: Our retrospective analysis supports the use of radiation
therapy for the Southern African type of EKS.
UI - 7812024
AU - Ravera M; Reggiori A; Cocozza E; Andreata M; Ciantia F
Kaposi's sarcoma and AIDS in Uganda: its frequency and gastrointestinal
SO - Ital J Gastroenterol 1994 Sep;26(7):329-33
AD - Hoima Hospital, Italian Cooperation, Kampala, Uganda.
The frequency and distribution of gastrointestinal Kaposi's sarcoma were
investigated in 63 consecutive AIDS patients. The main risk factor for
AIDS was heterosexual intercourse. Gastrointestinal lesions were found
in 24 cases (38.1%): 12 patients (11.1%) had both upper and lower GI
tract involvement, 7 patients (11.1%) had only oesophago-gastroduodenal
lesions and 5 (7.9%) only lower tract disease. Our results show that in
heterosexual Africans, the tumours closely resemble the tumours of
western homosexuals in endoscopic appearance, in being multicentric and
in the gastro-intestinal tract involved. We conclude that even in the
heterosexual African AIDS population, the gastrointestinal tract is
frequently involved and this phenomenon, if more widely studied might
give us new elements about the aetiophatogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma
which is still unclear.
UI - 7570833
AU - Stein ME; Spencer D; Kantor A; Ruff P; Haim N; Bezwoda WR
Epidemic AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in southern Africa: experience at
the Johannesburg General Hospital (1980-1990).
SO - Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1994 Jul-Aug;88(4):434-6
AD - Department of Medical Oncology, Johannesburg General Hospital, Republic
of South Africa.
Epidemic acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related Kaposi's sarcoma
(AKS) in tropical and southern Africa is a highly varied neoplastic
disease, characterized by multifocal mucocutaneous, lymphatic and
visceral involvement. It follows a clinical course similar to AKS in
Europe and the USA. However, lack of adequate medical facilities in many
African countries hampers successful palliation of this fatal disease.
In this retrospective analysis, we summarize our experience with 52
patients with AKS treated at Johannesburg General Hospital, South
Africa, between 1980 and 1990. Radiation therapy can provide good to
excellent palliation with only minimal side-effects, producing a lesser
impact on the haematological and immunological system than chemotherapy.
UI - 7585156
AU - Schalling M; Ekman M; Kaaya EE; Linde A; Biberfeld P
A role for a new herpes virus (KSHV) in different forms of Kaposi's
SO - Nat Med 1995 Jul;1(7):707-8
AD - Department of Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institute and Hospital,
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a previously rare, tumour-like lesion of
controversial biological nature. KS has since the early 1980s become
frequent in patients with AIDS, particularly in homosexuals. KS is also
endemic in Central Africa predominantly in otherwise healthy men but
also in women and children. Recently, evidence for the presence of
novel, herpes virus DNA sequences in more than 90% of AIDS Kaposi
lesions (AKS) was presented. This DNA was identified using
representational difference analysis (RDA) generating short, unique
sequences with variable homology to several herpes virus, but no intact
virus was recovered. If these DNA-sequences are also present in other,
non-HIV-associated forms of Kaposi's sarcoma this would strongly suggest
a specific, aetiopathological involvement of this putative new herpes
virus in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma, rather than a
contamination of yet another opportunistic virus in immunosuppressed
UI - 8537166
AU - Stein ME; Lachter J; Spencer D; Bezwoda WR
Chemotherapy for AIDS-related and endemic African Kaposi's sarcoma in
SO - Int J Dermatol 1995 Oct;34(10):729-32
AD - Northern Israel Oncology Center, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.
BACKGROUND. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), either in its endemic (African) form
or its AIDS-related variant, is a common neoplastic disorder seen in
Southern Africa. Chemotherapy has been proven to be very effective in
advanced or relapsed African Kaposi's sarcoma, but much less so in
AIDS-related, endemic KS. PATIENTS AND METHODS. The study consists of a
retrospective analysis of the results of chemotherapy alone in 17
patients with African KS (AKS) and in 32 patients with epidemic
AIDS-related KS (EKS), treated at the Johannesburg General Hospital
between 1982 and 1992. Single agents included vinblastine, actinomycin
D, bleomycin, and vincristine; combined regimens were largely
doxorubicin/vincristine/bleomycin or etoposide/methotrexate. Outcome
classifications were: complete remission (CR), partial remission (PR),
and treatment failure (TF). RESULTS. Four of the 17 patients with AKS
had CR, 10 a PR, and three were TF and died rapidly from their disease.
The combined chemotherapeutic regimens produced marked symptomatic
relief and even long-term remission in AKS. In patients with EKS, the
response rate to chemotherapy was very low and of brief duration. No
patient had a CR and debilitating side effects were common. CONCLUSIONS.
The African type of AKS is a chemo-sensitive tumor, whereas the endemic
type EKS, like its Western counterpart, has a dismal prognosis.
UI - 8567117
AU - Ziegler JL; Katongole-Mbidde E
Kaposi's sarcoma in childhood: an analysis of 100 cases from Uganda and
relationship to HIV infection.
SO - Int J Cancer 1996 Jan 17;65(2):200-3
AD - Uganda Cancer Institute, Kampala, Uganda.
We report 100 cases of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in children under 15 years
of age treated at the Uganda Cancer Institute in the 6-year period
1989-1994. The incidence of childhood KS has risen more than 40-fold in
the era of AIDS, and 78% of 63 cases tested were seropositive for HIV-1.
There were 63 boys and 37 girls. The median age was 4 years and the
median age of onset was 33 months. Tumour distribution was
lymphadenopathic and muco-cutaneous, with 2 major patterns: pattern I,
oro-facial dominant (79%); and pattern II, inguinal-genital dominant
(13%). A newly described herpes-like virus is implicated as the cause of
KS (KSHV), and DNA sequences of this virus were present in all of 8
childhood cases tested. If KSHV is a direct cause of KS, this tumour
distribution in children suggests mucosal routes of virus entry,
possibly during birth or breast feeding. The dramatic increase of
childhood KS implies that the prevalence of causative factors is rising
UI - 8640089
AU - Su IJ; Huang LM; Wu SJ; Jin YT; Kao YF; Tsai TF; Lee JY; Hsu YH; Hsiao
CH; Chang YC; Wang YW; Lee CY
Detection and sequence analysis of a new herpesvirus-like agent in AIDS
and non-AIDS Kaposi's sarcoma in Taiwan.
SO - J Formos Med Assoc 1996 Jan;95(1):13-8
AD - Department of Pathology, National Cheng Kung University Medical College
and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC.
A new herpesvirus-like DNA sequence (KSHV) has been recently identified
in Kaposi's sarcoma from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and
non-AIDS patients. In order to verify the role of this new viral agent
in Taiwan, a series of Kaposi's sarcoma specimens obtained from AIDS and
non-AIDS patients in three medical centers representing different
geographic locations of Taiwan were surveyed. A total of seven specimens
from AIDS patients and 22 specimens from non-AIDS patients were tested
for the presence of this herpesvirus-like agent by polymerase chain
reaction (PCR) using the published Kaposi's sarcoma 330-233 primers. The
tumor DNA was also tested for cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus
(EBV), and human herpes-virus type 6 (HHV-6). The Kaposi's sarcoma
specimens from AIDS and non-AIDS patients were positive for KSHV except
in one case. Only occasional specimens were positive for CMV and EBV,
with a slightly higher positive rate for HHV-6 in AIDS and non-AIDS
patients. Cloning and sequence analysis of the PCR products from two
cases of Kaposi's sarcoma (one each for AIDS and non-AIDS) revealed only
minor differences in this DNA sequence, as compared with the published
data from north America. These results further support the assumption
that this new KSHV is strongly associated with Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS
and non-AIDS patients in Taiwan.
UI - 8783952
AU - Bakari M; Pallangyo K; Kitinya J; Mbena E; Urassa W
The importance of clinical features in differentiating HIV related from
non-HIV related Kaposi's sarcoma: experience from Dar es Salaam,
SO - Trop Doct 1996 Jul;26(3):104-7
AD - Department of Internal Medicine, Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es
UI - 9365767
AU - Ziegler JL; Newton R; Katongole-Mbidde E; Mbulataiye S; De Cock K;
Wabinga H; Mugerwa J; Katabira E; Jaffe H; Parkin DM; Reeves G; Weiss R;
Risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-positive subjects in Uganda.
SO - AIDS 1997 Nov;11(13):1619-26
AD - International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization,
BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is associated epidemiologically with
HIV infection and with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 or KSHV). Both KS and
HIV infection are common in Uganda. We conducted a case-control study of
458 HIV-seropositive. Ugandan adults with KS and 568 HIV-seropositive
subjects without KS to examine risk factors for HIV-associated KS.
METHODS: We recruited newly diagnosed adult KS cases from five hospitals
in Kampala, Uganda and controls from a large referral clinic for HIV
infection at Mulago Hospital. All cases and controls were counselled and
tested for HIV and answered an interviewer-administered questionnaire
about their home, socio-economic conditions, lifestyle and sexual
behaviour before they became ill. Only HIV-seropositive subjects were
included in the analysis. RESULTS: There were 295 males and 163 females
with KS and 227 male and 341 female controls. Age distribution was
similar but there was a higher proportion of cases (45%) than controls
(29%) residing in rural regions of Uganda. KS cases were more likely
than controls to have a higher level of education (X2 for trend, 4.8; P
= 0.03), to have occupations associated with affluence [chi 2 for
heterogeneity, 17.3 on 5 degrees of freedom (df); P = 0.004] and to come
from larger settlements [adjusted odds ratio (OR) for settlements of >
1000 versus 10-99 houses, 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-3.0].
Cases were more likely than controls to have high household income (chi
2 for trend, 32.6; P < 0.001) and other markers of urban or rural wealth
such as owning several cows (chi 2 for trend, 9.5; P = 0.002). Cases
were more likely to travel away from home (adjusted OR, 1.6; 95% CI,
1.1-2.3) and more likely to have spent increasing time in contact with
water (chi 2 for trend, 12.3; P < 0.001). Few indices of sexual
behaviour were related to risk of KS, including reported number of
sexual partners. Cases were more likely than controls to be married to
one rather than several spouses (adjusted OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.2) and
to have reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases (STD)
(adjusted OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.3). CONCLUSIONS: Among HIV-infected
subjects, KS cases are characterized by better education and greater
affluence, compared with controls. Urban address, travel away from home,
exposure to water, monogamous marriage and self-reported STD were also
more frequent among KS cases than controls. The higher socio-economic
status of persons with HIV and KS may be a marker for enhanced exposure
to a possibly sexually transmitted agent, or for a delayed exposure to a
childhood infection. The risk posed by exposure to water among KS cases
requires further study.
UI - 12049697
AU - Podzamczer D; Miralles P; La Calle Md M; Zarco C; Berenguer J; Lopez
Aldeguer J; Valencia E; Rubio R; Ribera JM
[Recommendations of GESIDA/Spanish National Plan of AIDS on diagnosis
and treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma and cervical cancer in HIV-infected
SO - Med Clin (Barc) 2002 Jun 1;118(20):788-95
AD - Ciutat Sanitaria de Bellvitge, L'Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain.
UI - 12297590
AU - Polk S; Munoz A; Sacktor NC; Jenkins FJ; Cohen B; Miller EN; Jacobson LP
A case-control study of HIV-1-related dementia and co-infection with
SO - Neurology 2002 Sep 24;59(6):950-3
AD - Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of
Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
This nested case-control study assessed the putative protective effect
of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) against HIV-1-related dementia
(dementia). The HHV-8 seropositivity of 210 male age- and HIV disease
stage-matched cases and controls was compared. The overall HHV-8
seropositivity of 66% was similar among demented HIV-infected cases and
nondemented HIV-infected controls.
UI - 12204098
AU - van der Kuyl AC; van den Burg R; Zorgdrager F; Dekker JT; Maas J; van
Noesel CJ; Goudsmit J; Cornelissen M
Primary effect of chemotherapy on the transcription profile of
AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
SO - BMC Cancer 2002 Sep 2;2(1):21
AD - Department of Human Retrovirology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef
15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Drugs & used in anticancer chemotherapy have severe effects
upon the cellular transcription and replication machinery. From in vitro
studies it has become clear that these drugs can affect specific genes,
as well as have an effect upon the total transcriptome. METHODS: Total
mRNA from two skin lesions from a single AIDS-KS patient was analyzed
with the SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression) technique to assess
changes in the transcriptome induced by chemotherapy. SAGE libraries
were constructed from material obtained 24 (KS-24) and 48 (KS-48) hrs
after combination therapy with bleomycin, doxorubicin and vincristine.
KS-24 and KS-48 were compared to SAGE libraries of untreated AIDS-KS,
and to libraries generated from normal skin and from isolated CD4+
T-cells, using the programs USAGE and HTM. SAGE libraries were also
compared with the SAGEmap database. RESULTS: In order to assess the
primary response of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) to
chemotherapy in vivo, we analyzed the transcriptome of AIDS-KS skin
lesions from a HIV-1 seropositive patient at two time points after
therapy. The mRNA profile was found to have changed dramatically within
24 hours after drug treatment. There was an almost complete absence of
transcripts highly expressed in AIDS-KS, probably due to a transcription
block. Analysis of KS-24 suggested that mRNA pool used in its
construction originated from poly(A) binding protein (PABP) mRNP
complexes, which are probably located in nuclear structures known as
interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs). IGCs are known to fuse after
transcription inhibition, probably affecting poly(A)+RNA
distribution.Forty-eight hours after chemotherapy, mRNA isolated from
the lesion was largely derived from infiltrating lymphocytes, confirming
the transcriptional block in the AIDS-KS tissue. CONCLUSIONS: These in
vivo findings indicate that the effect of anti-cancer drugs is likely to
be more global than up- or downregulation of specific genes, at least in
this single patient with AIDS-KS. The SAGE results obtained 24 hrs after
chemotherapy can be most plausibly explained by the isolation of a
fraction of more stable poly(A)+RNA.
UI - 7724724
AU - Villone G
[AIDS in Naples in 1800. 12 cases of Kaposi sarcoma described by Tommaso
SO - Hist Philos Life Sci 1994;16(2):275-309
AD - Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Clinica Universita degli Studi di
Reggio Calabria, Catanzaro, Italy.
In 1882, Tommaso de Amicis, dermatologist and venereologist at the
University of Naples, Italy, published a description of twelve cases of
Kaposi's sarcoma. This article is the second report about the
above-mentioned disease after the first description of five cases by
Moritz Kaposi ten years earlier. The publication by De Amicis was
organized as a collection of case reports followed by a section
containing general considerations about the etiopathogenesis, pathology,
diagnosis and therapy of Kaposi's sarcoma. Ten cases are typical of the
so-called 'classic' form of the disease, that has a peculiar indolent
chronic course, while two out of the twelve cases strongly resemble the
clinical form of Kaposi's sarcoma currently recognized as that
associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The
nature of Kaposi's sarcoma is still being debated, but current evidence
suggests that it is a viral-associated, if not viral-induced, tumor and
its relationship with AIDS is that of an opportunistic disease. Thus,
the presence of the clinical form of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma can
be used as a marker of the presence of sporadic cases of AIDS much
earlier than its pandemic diffusion.
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