UI - 12255037
AU - Hertz R; Bailar JC 3RD
Estrogen-progestogen combination for contraception.
SO - J Am Med Assoc 1966 November 28;198(9):136-42
UI - 12332236
AU - Wilson RA
The roles of estrogen and progesterone in breast and genital cancer.
SO - J Am Med Assoc 1962 October 27;182(4):327-31
UI - 12256232
AU - Cutler SJ; Heise HW
Long-term end results of treatment of cancer.
SO - J Am Med Assoc 1971 April 12;216(2):293-7
UI - 12333972
AU - Sperling MA
Complications of systemic oral contraceptive therapy: neoplasm - breast,
uterus, cervix and vagina.
SO - West J Med Surg 1975 January;122(1):42-9
UI - 12258712
AU - Anonymous
Doubts about oestrogen therapy in postmenopausal women.
SO - Res Reprod 1976 January;8(1):1-2
UI - 12334535
AU - Fremont-smith M; Meigs JV; Graham RM; Gilbert HH
Cancer of endometrium and prolonged estrogen therapy.
SO - J Am Med Assoc 1946 July 6;131(10):805-8
UI - 12277690
AU - Lipsett MB
Estrogen use and cancer risk.
SO - J Am Med Assoc 1977 March 14;237(11):1112-5
UI - 12334981
AU - Austin DF
Estrogens and endometrial cancer. (Letter).
SO - J Am Med Assoc 1977 March 7;237(10):959
UI - 12309741
AU - Wolff JP; George M
[Estrogens and cancer of the endometrium (author's transl)]
SO - Contracept Fertil Sex (Paris) 1980 Mar;8(3):245-9
UI - 12311600
AU - Anonymous
Oral contraceptives have beneficial effects.
SO - PIACT Prod News 1982 Aug;4(2):1, 4
UI - 12338511
AU - International Planned Parenthood Federation IPPF
Statement on injectable contraception.
SO - IPPF Med Bull 1982 Dec;16(6):3-4
UI - 12279633
AU - Edgren RA
[Oral contraceptives: recent safety studies (author's transl)]
SO - Contracept Fertil Sex (Paris) 1983 Sep;11(9):975-83
UI - 12279918
AU - Rubin GL; Peterson HB
Researchers can now investigate long-term effects of OCs on cancer.
SO - Contracept Technol Update 1985 Jan;6(1):7-12
UI - 12339856
AU - Vessey MP
Cancer and the pill--some recent findings.
SO - J Obstet Gynaecol 1984 Jan;4(Suppl 1):S52-6
UI - 12280203
AU - Pike MC
[The present state of research on the relationship of oral
contraceptives to breast cancer]
SO - Contracept Fertil Sex (Paris) 1985 Jan;13(1 Suppl):329-38
UI - 12280204
AU - Vessey MP
[Cancers of the uterus and ovary and the contraceptive pill]
SO - Contracept Fertil Sex (Paris) 1985 Jan;13(1 Suppl):339-43
UI - 12267399
AU - Zhuang LQ; Yang BY
[Duration of use for stainless steel ring--15 years of follow-up for
SO - Shengzhi Yu Biyun 1983 Aug;3(3):36-40
This study was to observe the longterm safety in using stainless steel
ring (metal ring). 6250 cases have been followed up for 15 years. The
net cumulative pregnancy rate was 5.51, expulsion rate 17.74, rate of
removal due to medical reasons 21.74, continuation rate 6.48/women (life
table) after 15 years of insertion. Events took place more frequently
in the 1st year of insertion, gradually decreased in the second, and
tended to be stabilized to a low level thereafter. The removal rate for
nonmedical reasons had been increasing with the increase in the period
of insertion. 5 cases of cervical cancer and 2 of endometrial carcinoma
occurred within the 15 years of observation. The incidence was not
higher than that in the 1971-72 general survey at Shanghai. Among the
6250 cases, there were 43 cases (0.85%) of removal due to infection, and
9 cases of ectopic pregnancy, of which 6 cases occurred within the first
2 years of insertion, and 2 cases of intraperitoneal metal ring were
found but with no severe complications. The duration of using the metal
ring was also discussed. According to clinical and pathological
observations, the metal ring did not increase the risk of uterine cancer
and caused only a few mild complications. Therefore, it can be used for
15-20 years, provided there are no clinical symptoms. The relationship
between the IUD and ectopic or PID remains to be further explored.
UI - 12267511
AU - Huezo C
Oral contraceptives and cancer of the reproductive organs.
SO - IPPF Med Bull 1985 Dec;19(6):3-4
UI - 12268773
AU - Gwinn ML
Oral contraceptives and breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. The
Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study Group, Atlanta Georgia.
SO - J Obstet Gynaecol 1985 Jan;5 Suppl 2():S83-7
UI - 12342374
AU - International Planned Parenthood Federation IPPF. International Medical
Advisory Panel IMAP
IPPF statement on oral contraceptives and cancer of the breast.
SO - IPPF Med Bull 1989 Apr;23(2):4
UI - 12282188
AU - Belaisch J; Hommais-loufrani B
[Oral contraception and its beneficial gynecological effects]
SO - Fertil Contracept Sex 1988 Mar;16(3 Suppl):3-7
UI - 12315867
AU - Anonymous
Oral contraceptives and breast cancer.
SO - IPPF Med Bull 1989 Aug;23(4):3
UI - 12344620
AU - Anonymous
FDA gives final approval to Depo amid concerns over safety, cost and
SO - Wash Memo Alan Guttmacher Inst 1992 Nov 12;(17):2-3
UI - 12345024
AU - Chandran R
Contraception and the big "C".
SO - Malays J Reprod Health 1992 Jun;10(1):1-5
UI - 12287020
AU - Diczfalusy E
Oral contraception: where do we stand?
SO - Contemp Rev Obstet Gynaecol 1992 Jul;4(3):148-53
UI - 12345575
AU - Herbst AL
OCs and genital tract malignancies.
SO - Dialogues Contracept 1994 Summer;4(3):5-7
UI - 12345576
AU - Mishell Dr Jr
Expanded role for OCs. Question and answer.
SO - Dialogues Contracept 1994 Summer;4(3):8
UI - 12179509
AU - Ibekwe J
The myth about contraceptives and breast cancer.
SO - Dly Times 1993 Mar 18;():7
UI - 12222224
AU - Potts M
Time to end bias against the pill.
SO - Entre Nous Cph Den 1992 May;(20):10-1
UI - 12307303
AU - Proudfit CM
Estrogens and menopause.
SO - J Am Med Assoc 1976 August 23;236(8):939-40
UI - 12229501
AU - Anonymous
More critics raise voices against estrogen therapy.
SO - J Am Med Assoc 1976 Feb 23;235(8):787-8
UI - 12342312
AU - Coppens M; Thiery M
Endometrial response to the use of a sequential oral contraceptive.
SO - J Obstet Gynaecol 1988;8(3):281-4
Belgium is 1 of the few countries where sequential oral contraceptives
are still commercially available. The authors investigated the
endometrial effect of Ortho-Novum SQ (14 tablets of 100 mcg mestranol
and 7 tablets of 100 mcg mestranol + 2 mg norethisterone) in 222 biopsy
specimens obtained from 184 asymptomatic Caucasian women (mean +or- s.d,
age and parity, 34.6 +or- 6.7 and 2.0 +or- 1.0, respectively) who had
used this sequential OC during an average of 52.5 months.
Notwithstanding predominantly longterm use of Ortho-Novum SQ, 43% of the
tissue samples had normal proliferative or luteal endometrium. The data
suggest a positive correlation between the endometrial response and the
duration of pill use. No premalignant or malignant changes were found.
In 15 of 24 subjects for whom multiple biopsy specimens were available,
the histological picture was static; 7 showed regression and only in 2
were the changes progressive, although never more severe than minor
'class 2' lesions. These results, which are at variance with those
reported for users of other sequential brands (mainly Oracon), suggest
that prolonged use of Ortho-Novum SQ does not enhance the risk of
endometrial cancer in premenopausal women having no additional risk
factors for the development of this type of neoplasia.
UI - 12346920
AU - Kaunitz AM
Injectable contraception: the USA perspective.
SO - IPPF Med Bull 1992 Dec;26(6):1-3
UI - 12292200
AU - Anonymous
Non-contraceptive benefits of oral contraceptives.
SO - Prog Hum Reprod Res 1996;(39):6-7
UI - 12287845
AU - Ursin G; Spicer DV; Pike MC
Contraception and cancer prevention.
SO - Adv Contracept Deliv Syst 1994;10(3-4):369-86
UI - 12288949
AU - Anonymous
There's good news about birth control pills.
SO - Contracept Technol Update 1992 Oct;13(10 Suppl):1-2
UI - 12289977
AU - Anonymous
Long-term use of hormonal contraceptive DMPA not linked to breast
SO - Prog Hum Reprod Res 1995;(33):5
UI - 12291591
AU - Finger WR
OC relationship to cancer, cardiovascular disease.
SO - Network 1996 Summer;16(4):6
UI - 12349660
AU - Liu X; Mao J; Chen X; Wang Z; Jin Y; Wu X; Li H; Zhang J; Zhu H; Su Z
The safety of Sino-implant -- 3-year clinical observation.
SO - Shengzhi Yu Biyun 1999;10(4):234-41
UI - 12179663
AU - Victoriano MJ
Endometrial adenocarcinoma coexisting with an intrauterine pregnancy: a
SO - Philipp J Obstet Gynecol 1998 Oct-Dec;22(4):135-46
A rare case of adenocarcinoma of the endometrium discovered during
curettage for incomplete abortion was presented and 12 similar cases in
the literature were reviewed. In 7 of the 12 patients, a complication
of pregnancy led to the discovery of the tumor. In the remaining five,
the pregnancy occurred in patients known to have endometrial carcinoma.
Most of the cases were well differentiated and minimally invading the
myometrium. The pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment,
and prognosis were described.
UI - 12179673
AU - Boronow RC
Endometrial cancer and surgical staging: a personal assessment.
SO - Philipp J Obstet Gynecol 1998 Jul-Sep;22(3):71-7
In 1998, FIGO introduced a new staging system for endometrial cancer
that is now surgical rather than clinical. The addition of extensive
lymph node surgery, either formal lymphadenectomy or liberal sampling of
the pelvic and aortic lymph nodes, represents the most significant and
controversial component of this system. The yield of metastatic nodes is
relatively low. The controversy surrounding this staging system are
reviewed and some practical options considered.
UI - 1559340
AU - Petitti DB; Porterfield D
Worldwide variations in the lifetime probability of reproductive cancer
in women: implications of best-case, worst-case, and likely-case
assumptions about the effect of oral contraceptive use.
SO - Contraception 1992 Feb;45(2):93-104
AD - Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California,
San Francisco School of Medicine 94143.
Cancer incidence in countries representative of three patterns of
reproductive cancer and age-specific mortality was used to estimate the
effect of oral contraceptive use on the lifetime probability of
reproductive cancer under three sets of assumptions about the effects of
oral contraceptives. Under the set of assumptions considered likely,
oral contraceptives were estimated to reduce or increase only slightly
the lifetime probability of any reproductive cancer in each setting.
Under worst-case assumptions, oral contraceptives were estimated to
increase the lifetime probability of reproductive cancer only modestly
in settings with low cancer rates and in settings with high rates of
breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancer, but it might have a large
impact on lifetime probability of reproductive cancer in settings with
high cervical cancer rates. Under best-case assumptions, oral
contraceptives were estimated to decrease the lifetime probability of
reproductive cancer in each setting; this reduction was estimated to be
greatest in settings where endometrial and ovarian cancer incidence are
UI - 1622631
AU - Spicer DV; Pike MC
The prevention of breast cancer through reduced ovarian steroid
SO - Acta Oncol 1992;31(2):167-74
AD - University of Southern California School of Medicine, Department of
Preventive Medicine, Los Angeles 90033-9987.
Analysis of epidemiologic data on cancers of the breast, ovary and
endometrium; the effects of endogenous hormones on cell proliferation;
and current carcinogenesis concepts, suggest that hormonal
contraceptives can be developed that will reduce lifetime risk of all 3
cancers. The 'unopposed-estrogen hypothesis' accounts for endometrial
cancer risk factors. Ovarian cancer risk is closely related to the total
frequency of ovulation. The risk of breast cancer can be explained by an
'estrogen-plus-progestogen hypothesis'. On the basis of this analysis an
hormonal contraceptive regimen has been developed consisting of a
gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHA) plus continuous low-dose
add-back estrogen and a short course of progestogen every fourth month.
The total dose of add-back estrogen is estimated to be approximately 38%
that in present-day low-dose combination-type oral contraceptives
(COCs). The total dose of progestogen is approximately 15% that in COCs.
This regimen prevents ovulation and should thus reduce ovarian cancer
risk. It also reduces the exposure of the endometrium to unopposed
estrogen, and the exposure of the breast to estrogen-plus-progestogen.
It is estimated that use of such a regimen for 10 years will only reduce
lifetime risk of endometrial cancer by one-sixth, but lifetime risk of
ovarian cancer is estimated to be reduced by two-thirds, and lifetime
risk of breast cancer is estimated to be reduced by one-half.
UI - 8426144
AU - Murphy NJ; Wallace DL; Behrend AE
Menometrorrhagia in an oral contraceptive user.
SO - J Fam Pract 1993 Feb;36(2):229-31
AD - Department of Medical Education, St Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, MO
Endometrial carcinoma is the most frequent malignancy of the female
reproductive tract, and irregular vaginal bleeding is the most common
presenting symptom. Endometrial carcinoma is found most commonly among
postmenopausal women and is associated with obesity, nulliparity, and
anovulation. Oral contraceptive (OC) use and tobacco smoking have been
reported to protect against endometrial carcinoma. Irregular vaginal
bleeding is a common side effect of OC therapy. We report the case of an
obese, premenopausal nulliparous woman with normal menses who developed
menometrorrhagia and was then found to have endometrial carcinoma
despite her youth and her use of both tobacco and combination OC.
UI - 8486426
AU - Stanford JL; Brinton LA; Berman ML; Mortel R; Twiggs LB; Barrett RJ;
Wilbanks GD; Hoover RN
Oral contraceptives and endometrial cancer: do other risk factors modify
SO - Int J Cancer 1993 May 8;54(2):243-8
AD - Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research
Center, University of Washington, Seattle 98104.
The joint effect of use of combination-type oral contraceptives and
other exposure factors on risk of endometrial cancer was examined in
data from a multicenter case-control study conducted in 5 areas of the
United States. Cases were 405 women with histologically confirmed
invasive epithelial endometrial cancer first treated at one of 7
participating hospitals. A total of 297 population-based controls of
similar age, race, and geographic area were selected as a comparison
group. Information on exposure factors was derived from in-person
interviews. Combination-type oral contraceptive (COC) use was associated
with a significant reduction in risk of endometrial cancer, with an
adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.4 (95% confidence interval 0.3 to 0.7) for
ever compared to never use. Long-term (> or = 10 years) users
experienced a markedly lower risk (OR = 0.2). Women who discontinued COC
use > or = 20 years earlier remained at reduced risk (OR = 0.7) compared
with non-users. The negative association with COC use was apparent
regardless of the presence or level of several other risk factors for
endometrial cancer, including age, menopausal status, parity, obesity,
ever-use of menopausal estrogens, smoking history, or history of
infertility. The magnitude of the negative association observed in COC
users, however, was considerably diminished in women with no full-term
births and in women who subsequently used replacement estrogens for 3 or
more years. These results provide new evidence that the protective
effect of COC use lasts for 20 or more years after use is discontinued,
and highlight several sub-groups of users in whom the level of
protection is attenuated by the presence of other risk factors for this
UI - 8499348
AU - Wild MJ; Rudland PS; Back DJ
Metabolism of the oral contraceptive steroids ethynylestradiol,
norgestimate and 3-ketodesogestrel by a human endometrial cancer cell
line (HEC-1A) and endometrial tissue in vitro.
SO - J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1993 May;45(5):407-20
AD - Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, England.
Human endometrial cancer cells and human endometrial tissue have been
extensively used to study steroid hormone action and metabolism. The
natural estrogens estradial (E2) and estrone (E1) are known to be
metabolized by both cells and tissue with the interconversion of the two
steroids and the formation of sulphate conjugates. The aim of the
present work was to see if the commonly used oral contraceptive steroids
ethynylestradiol (EE2), norgestimate (Ngmate) and 3-ketodesogestrel
(3-KDG) were metabolized by a human endometrial cancer cell line
(HEC-1A) and human endometrial tissue in vitro. Metabolites were
analysed by on-line radiometric HPLC. Endometrial tissue was obtained
from women undergoing dilation and curettage or hysterectomy operations.
In preliminary studies with endogenous estrogens, HEC-1A cells were able
to interconvert E1 and E2; the equilibrium favouring the formation of
E2. Normal endometrial tissue extensively converted E2 to E1, tumour
tissue appeared to catalyse this reaction much less avidly. In addition
sulphate conjugates were formed by normal tissue from some patients.
Cell line and endometrial tissue was able to hydrolyse estrone
3-sulphate. With EE2 as substrate there was no evidence of phase I
metabolism by cell line or tissue. However, conversion to the presumed
3-sulphate conjugate was observed following incubation with normal
tissue from some women. Deacetylation of the progestogen Ngmate to
norgestrel oxime (NgOx) was complete within 24 h. There was also some
loss of the oxime moiety to give norgestrel (Ng) following incubation
with HEC-1A cells. Metabolism of Ngmate was also complete within 24 h
following incubation with endometrial tissue. There were both
qualitative and quantitative differences in metabolite formation between
tissue obtained from different women. In contrast, 3-KDG was relatively
resistant to metabolism by cell line and tissue. The major metabolite
formed by HEC-1A cells accounted for only 3.3 +/- 0.4% of total added
radiolabelled steroid and co-chromatographed with 3
alpha-hydroxydesogestrel. Smaller amounts of other radiometabolites were
formed. No phase I metabolites of 3-KDG were formed by normal
endometrial tissue, however small amounts of radiometabolites appeared
to be formed by malignant tissue. These studies have provided evidence
to suggest that the oral contraceptives EE2, Ngmate and 3-KDG are
metabolized in the human endometrium. Knowledge of the metabolism of
these in target tissues such as the endometrium may be pertinent
considering the possibility that metabolites may exert specific effects.
UI - 7917915
AU - Parazzini F; La Vecchia C; Moroni S
Intrauterine device use and risk of endometrial cancer.
SO - Br J Cancer 1994 Oct;70(4):672-3
AD - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy.
The relationship between intrauterine device (IUD) use and risk of
endometrial cancer has been analysed in a case-control study conducted
in Italy between 1983 and 1992, including 453 patients with
histologically confirmed endometrial cancer and 1,451 controls admitted
for acute, non-gynaecological, non-hormonal, non-neoplastic conditions
to the same network of hospitals where cases had been identified. Two
(0.4%) cases versus 36 (2.3%) controls reported ever using an IUD. The
corresponding multivariate relative risk was 0.4 (95% CI 0.1-1.0). The
results of this study and the few published available epidemiological
data suggest a protective role of IUD use on endometrial carcinogenesis,
but potential selective mechanisms for IUD utilisation (indication bias)
should be carefully considered in the interpretation.
UI - 7895220
AU - Mant JW; Vessey MP
Ovarian and endometrial cancers.
SO - Cancer Surv 1994;19-20():287-307
AD - Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Oxford,
Trends in the incidence and mortality of endometrial and ovarian cancer
are described for England and Wales from 1950 to 1991 and for other
selected countries from 1955 to 1985. The mortality from endometrial
cancer has been falling in England and Wales since 1950 in all age
groups. This has not been reflected by a decline in incidence. Most of
the other countries show a similar decline in mortality in all ages but
stable incidence rates. Mortality from ovarian cancer has been declining
in women aged under 55 in England and Wales since the early 1970s but
has been rising in women over 55. The international pattern is varied,
but several countries show a decline in mortality in younger women that
began in the early 1970s. The incidence in younger women has not fallen
to the same degree. It is difficult to explain the trends in endometrial
cancer mortality in terms of the known risk factors for the disease. The
trends in ovarian cancer mortality are consistent with an effect of the
combined oral contraceptive pill.
UI - 8549598
AU - Fishman A; Friedman JA; Kaplan AL
Synchronous endometrial and ovarian cancer in young woman taking oral
SO - Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 1995;16(5):346-8
AD - Department of Ob./Gyn., Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Medical
Center, Houston, USA.
Oral contraceptives have been reported to confer protective effect
against tendometrial and ovarian carcinoma. An uncommon presentation of
concomitant endometrial and ovarian cancer in a young patient using oral
contraception is reported.
UI - 8598311
AU - Castellsague X; Thompson WD; Dubrow R
Tubal sterilization and the risk of endometrial cancer.
SO - Int J Cancer 1996 Mar 1;65(5):607-12
AD - Servei d'Epidemiologia i Registre del Cancer, Institut Catala
d'Oncologia, Barcelona, Spain.
Several animal and human studies suggest that tubal occlusion may
curtail ovarian function, altering the production and balance of
endogenous estrogens and progesterone, 2 hormones closely related to
endometrial carcinogenesis. Despite this, and the increasing world-wide
popularity of this method of contraception, little is known about its
relationship with the risk of developing endometrial cancer. To assess
whether tubal sterilization influences a woman's risk of developing
epithelial endometrial carcinoma, data from a large multicenter
population-based case-control study of endometrial cancer were analyzed.
Cases were 437 women aged 20 to 54 years with histologically confirmed
epithelial endometrial cancer ascertained through 6 population-based
cancer registries in the United States. Controls were 3200 women
selected at random from the populations of the areas from which the
cases were detected. As compared with women who had never had tubal
sterilization, women who had had this surgery had a crude odds ratio of
0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43-0.78]. However, after adjusting
for the combined confounding effects of age and parity, the magnitude of
the protective association decreased to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.63-1.20). The
magnitude of the protective effect did not significantly change with
years since surgery or age at surgery. Although a modest,
non-significant protective effect is suggested, these findings indicate
that tubal sterilization does not substantially alter the risk of
developing epithelial endometrial cancer in women 20 to 54 years of age.
If there is an increase in risk, these data indicate that it is unlikely
to be any greater than 20%.
UI - 9033627
AU - Hill DA; Weiss NS; Voigt LF; Beresford SA
Endometrial cancer in relation to intra-uterine device use.
SO - Int J Cancer 1997 Jan 27;70(3):278-81
AD - Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
Data from a population-based case-control study were used to evaluate
the risk of endometrial cancer among women who have used an
intra-uterine device (IUD). Incident cases were identified between 1985
and 1991 among women aged 45-74 years who were residents of one of 3
counties in Washington State. Controls were selected by random digit
dialing, and both groups of subjects received an in-person detailed
interview. In this study population, women who had ever used an IUD were
estimated to have a risk of endometrial cancer that was 0.61 times that
of other women (95% CI 0.41-0.89). The reduction in cancer risk was not
found to be dependent on duration of IUD use. There was a suggestion
that women who had used intra-uterine contraception relatively late in
reproductive life experienced a greater reduction in risk than those
whose use was more distant or at a younger age. The relative risk among
the small number of women who were currently using an IUD was 0.49 (95%
CI 0.12-2.80). These results apply to the use of inert and copper IUDs
as there was no use of progestin-releasing IUDs among women in the study
population. The data from this and several other studies of the question
support the hypothesis that use of an IUD has a favorable effect on the
subsequent risk of endometrial cancer. The reason(s) for such a reduced
risk is unclear.
UI - 9363696
AU - Schlesselman JJ
Risk of endometrial cancer in relation to use of combined oral
contraceptives. A practitioner's guide to meta-analysis.
SO - Hum Reprod 1997 Sep;12(9):1851-63
AD - Department of Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, University of
Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.
UI - 9222773
AU - Sturgeon SR; Brinton LA; Berman ML; Mortel R; Twiggs LB; Barrett RJ;
Wilbanks GD; Lurain JR
Intrauterine device use and endometrial cancer risk.
SO - Int J Epidemiol 1997 Jun;26(3):496-500
AD - Environmental Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda,
Maryland 20852, USA.
BACKGROUND: Because intrauterine devices (IUD) invoke acute and chronic
inflammatory responses in the endometrium, it is possible that prolonged
insertion of an IUD could induce endometrial cancer. METHODS: We
examined the relation between use of an IUD and endometrial cancer risk
using data from a multicentre case-control study involving 405
endometrial cancer cases and 297 population controls. RESULTS: A total
of 20 (4.9%) cases and 34 (11.4%) controls reported any use of an IUD.
After adjustment for potential confounders, IUD use was not associated
with an increased risk of endometrial cancer (RR = 0.56 for ever use;
95% CI: 0.3-1.0). Little reduction in risk was observed among women who
last used an IUD within 10 years of the index date (RR = 0.84; 95% CI:
0.3-2.4) but risk was decreased among women who used an IUD in the more
distant past (RR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.2-1.0). Risk did not vary
consistently with number of years of IUD use or with years since first
use. Risk was not increased among women who used inert devices (RR =
0.46; 95% CI: 0.3-3.6) or those who used devices containing copper (RR =
1.08; 95% CI: 0.1-3.6). CONCLUSION: These data are reassuring in that
they do not provide any evidence of an increased risk of endometrial
cancer among women who have used IUD.
UI - 9815528
AU - Medl M
[Oral contraceptives and endometrial and ovarian carcinomas]
SO - Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch 1998;38(2):105-8
AD - Gynakologisch-geburtshilfliche Abteilung, Krankenhaus Lainz, Wien,
Combined oral contraceptives reduce the risk of endometrial and ovarian
cancer by about 50%. The risk of both carcinomas decreases with an
increasing duration of oral contraceptive use. The reduced risk lasts
for 10-15 years after cessation. A significantly lower risk of
developing an endometrial carcinoma can be observed for contraceptives
with a high progestin and a low estrogen concentration. Due to the
protective effect, the use of oral contraceptives is a useful means for
primary prevention (chemoprevention) in women at high risk of
endometrial and ovarian cancers.
UI - 11954889
AU - Docquier Ch; Majois F; Mitine C
Palmar fasciitis and arthritis: association with endometrial
SO - Clin Rheumatol 2002 Feb;21(1):63-5
AD - Department of Internal Medicine, Jolimont Hospital, Belgium.
A 74-year-old woman was referred because of rheumatic symptoms
consisting of pain, swelling of the hands, contracture and flexion of
the fingers and severe palmar erythrosis. One year earlier she had
undergone a total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) for uterine
adenocarcinoma. A paraneoplastic syndrome with palmar fasciitis and
arthritis was then suspected and an evolutive peritoneal carcinomatosis
was confirmed by abdominal CT scan. The patient was first treated with
hormonal therapy (progestagen) and then with chemotherapy. This,
associated with calcitonin, corticosteroids and physiotherapy, allowed a
temporary recovery, but the patient died 10 months later from
progressive peritoneal carcinomatosis.
UI - 11956614
AU - Nagai N; Uebaba Y; Oshita T; Sakata K; Murakami J; Shigemasa K; Ohama K
Endometrial cytodiagnosis using a new softcyte versus a conventional
SO - Oncol Rep 2002 May-Jun;9(3):483-7
AD - Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hiroshima University School of
Medicine, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan. email@example.com
A new endometrial cytologic sampling device, softcyte, was used in
cytological screening for endometrial cancer, and was compared with the
endocyte with regard to manipulability, adverse effects (including pain
and hemorrhage), and cellular findings (including the quantity of cells
collected, the success rate, cell freshness, and cellular clumping). A
total of 315 women (premenopause 251, postmenopause 64) were randomly
assigned to two groups who underwent the endometrial cytological
screening with either the softcyte or the endocyte. To assess the value
of the softcyte we compared it with the endocyte. Endometrial cytology
using a softcyte or an endocyte achieved high correct diagnosis rate for
cancer, and both instruments are valuable as endometrial cytologic
sample devices. The softcyte causes only mild pain on introduction and
during collection, and a large quantity of cells could be harvested.
These results suggest that the softcyte is a useful cytologic sampling
device in screening for endometrial cancer.
UI - 12173004
AU - Oshima H; Miyagawa H; Sato Y; Satake M; Shiraki N; Nishikawa H; Arakawa
A; Ogino H; Hara M
Adenofibroma of the endometrium after tamoxifen therapy for breast
cancer: MR findings.
SO - Abdom Imaging 2002 Sep-Oct;27(5):592-4
AD - Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Medical School, 1
Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601, Japan.
We report a case of adenofibroma of the endometrium in a 69-year-old
woman. This patient was receiving tamoxifen therapy after surgery for
breast cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an intracavitary mass
containing multiple cystic components. We suggest adenofibroma as a
possible diagnosis in cases of uterine masses with multiple cystic
components and no clinical evidence of malignancy.
UI - 12206983
AU - Bremond A; Bataillard A; Thomas L; Achard JL; Fervers B; Fondrinier E;
Lansac J; Bailly C; Hoffstetter S; d'Anjou J; Descamps P; Farsi F;
Jean-Paul G; Laffargue F; Rodier JF; Vincent P; Pigneux J; Groupe de
[Standards, Options and Recommendations 2000: non metastatic endometrial
SO - Bull Cancer 2002 Jul-Aug;89(7-8):697-706
AD - FNCLCC, Standards, Options, Recommandations, 101, rue de Tolbiac, 75654
Paris Cedex 13, France.
CONTEXT: The "Standards, Options and Recommendations" (SOR) project,
started in 1993, is a collaboration between the Federation of French
Cancer Centers (FNCLCC), the 20 French Cancer Centers, and specialists
from French Public Universities, General Hospitals and Private Clinics,
and some specialists learned societies. The main objective is the
development of clinical practice guidelines to improve the quality of
health care and the outcome of cancer patients. The SORs are developed
using a methodology based on a literature review and critical appraisal
by a multidisciplinary group of experts, with feedback from specialists
in cancer care delivery. Objectives: To develop clinical practice
guidelines for the management of patients with carcinoma of the
endometrium according to the definitions of the Standards, Options and
Recommendations project. METHODS: Data were identified by searching
Medline , web sites, and using the personal reference lists of members
of the expert groups. Once the guidelines were defined, the document was
submitted for review to 63 independent reviewers. RESULTS: The main
recommendations for the management of carcinoma of the endometrium are:
1) The diagnosis of carcinoma of the endometrium is based on biopsy and
histological examination. However, as first intention, the first
elements for diagnosis can be obtain from a hysterography, or
particularly, a endovaginal ultrasound examination. Ultrasound allows
locoregional metastases to be detected, the CT scan allows the lymph
node involvement to be assessed and magnetic resonance imaging allows
the myometrium invasion to be evaluated. 2) For the majority of
patients, surgery is the initial treatment, both for localised and
advanced-stage carcinomas. The excised sample can be used for
pathological analysis and tumour staging, using the FIGO (Federation
internationale de gynecologie obstetrique) classification. Surgery for
patients with stage I and II carcinomas involves total extrafascial
hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy., In patients with
stage III and IV carcinomas radical surgery should be performed, when
possible. If this is not possible, then surgery should be as complete as
possible and be associated with a complementary treatment. In patients
with the most advanced carcinomas, tumour reduction by surgery should be
performed. 3) Complementary treatment includes external-beam
radiotherapy and brachytherapy. The decision concerning the extent and
type of irradiation should be taken taking into consideration the stage
and the prognostic factors present. For patients with stage I and II
carcinoma, complementary treatment with brachytherapy can be performed,
if the myometrium invasion is not deep, or if the carcinoma is grade 2
or 3. Patients with stage III carcinomas can be treated with pelvic or
abdominal-pelvic complementary irradiation. In patients that cannot
undergo surgery, exclusive radiotherapy can be performed. 4) In the
absence of any symptoms, surveillance should include a general clinical
and gynaecological examination. All patients with symptoms should
undergo an additional work-up.
UI - 12101317
AU - Lippert LJ
Images in endoscopy. Endometrial polyp.
SO - J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 2002 Aug;9(3):247
AD - Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Huntington Hospital,
Huntington, New York, USA.
UI - 12365393
AU - Pelosi E; Arena V; Baudino B; Bello M; Gargiulo T; Giusti M; Bottero A;
Leo L; Armellino F; Palladin D; Bisi G
Preliminary study of sentinel node identification with 99mTc colloid and
blue dye in patients with endometrial cancer.
SO - Tumori 2002 May-Jun;88(3):S9-10
AD - Servizio de Medicina Nucleare Universitaria, Ospedale S Giovanni
Batista, Turin, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Intraoperative lymphatic mapping and sentinel node
(SLN) biopsy have generated a tremendous amount of interest and are
already established as part of the standard practice in the surgical
management of breast cancer and melanoma. To reduce extensive radical
procedures and decrease the morbidity in the treatment of gynecologic
malignancies, much effort is being made to use less aggressive
interventions. The purpose of our study was to determine the feasibility
of SLN mapping in a group of patients with endometrial cancer at early
patients with endometrial cancer FIGO stage Ib (n = 10) and IIa (n = 1)
underwent laparoscopic SNL detection during laparoscopy-