Smoking Rates Are Lower in ADHD Patients on Stimulants

Tuesday, May 13, 2014 (Last Updated: 05/14/2014)

TUESDAY, May 13, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Stimulant treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with lower smoking rates, according to research published online May 12 in Pediatrics.

Erin N. Schoenfelder, Ph.D., of Duke University in Durham, N.C., and colleagues performed a meta-analysis using data from 14 studies involving 2,360 patients. The studies compared cigarette smoking outcomes for stimulant-treated and untreated individuals with ADHD.

The researchers observed a significant association between stimulant treatment and lower smoking rates in individuals with ADHD. Analysis with meta-regression showed that effect sizes were larger for studies that involved clinical samples, included more women, measured smoking in adolescence rather than adulthood, defined stimulant treatment as consistent, and accounted for comorbid conduct disorder. These findings have implications for further research, treatment of ADHD, and smoking prevention.

"Strategies to improve treatment engagement and retention for youth with ADHD may not only maximize the effectiveness of medication, but could have additional benefits to reduce the smoking risk status of this population," the authors write.

Several authors disclosed financial ties to pharmaceutical companies.

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Family Practice

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