National Cancer Institute


Posted Date: May 23, 2005

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Overview of Prevention

Back Up


Prevention

Doctors cannot always explain why one person gets cancer and another does not. However, scientists have studied general patterns of cancer in the population to learn what things around us and what things we do in our lives may increase our chance of developing cancer.

Anything that increases a person's chance of developing a disease is called a risk factor; anything that decreases a person's chance of developing a disease is called a protective factor. Some of the risk factors for cancer can be avoided, but many cannot. For example, although you can choose to quit smoking, you cannot choose which genes you have inherited from your parents. Both smoking and inheriting specific genes could be considered risk factors for certain kinds of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Prevention means avoiding the risk factors and increasing the protective factors that can be controlled so that the chance of developing cancer decreases.

Although many risk factors can be avoided, it is important to keep in mind that avoiding risk factors does not guarantee that you will not get cancer. Also, most people with a particular risk factor for cancer do not actually get the disease. Some people are more sensitive than others are to factors that can cause cancer. Talk to your doctor about methods of preventing cancer that might be effective for you.


Purposes of this summary

The purposes of this summary on endometrial cancer prevention are to:

  • Give information on endometrial cancer and how often it occurs.
  • Describe endometrial cancer prevention methods.
  • Give current facts about which women or groups of women would most likely be helped by following endometrial cancer prevention methods.

You can talk to your doctor or health care professional about cancer prevention methods and whether these methods would be likely to help you.


Endometrial Cancer Prevention

Back Up

The endometrium is the layer of tissue that lines the inside of the uterus. It is part of the female reproductive system.


Significance of endometrial cancer

In the United States, endometrial cancer is the most common cancer of the female reproductive system. This disease primarily affects women after menopause. The number of new cases of endometrial cancer has been decreasing, as has the number of deaths from this disease.

Endometrial cancer is found more often in white women than in black women. When found in black women, endometrial cancer is usually more advanced and less likely to be cured.


Endometrial cancer prevention

Endometrial cancer can sometimes be associated with known risk factors for the disease. Many risk factors can be changed though not all can be avoided.

Hormone Replacement Therapy: Women with a uterus who take estrogen replacement therapy alone for 5 years or more to treat symptoms of menopause have a 10 times greater risk of endometrial cancer than those not taking estrogen therapy. Adding progestin therapy to estrogen therapy (combined hormone therapy) decreases the risk of developing endometrial cancer or precancerous lesions, such as atypical hyperplasia.

Selective Estrogen Receptor Modifiers: Tamoxifen and raloxifene are selective estrogen receptor modulators or SERMs that are being studied to prevent breast cancer. Using tamoxifen increases a woman's risk of developing endometrial cancer. The risk is greater in postmenopausal women. Using raloxifene has not been shown to increase the risk of developing endometrial cancer.

Oral Contraceptive Use: The use of combination oral contraceptives by premenopausal women is associated with a decreased risk of developing endometrial cancer, ranging from a 50% decrease after 4 years of use, to a 72% decrease after 12 or more years of use.

Age at Onset of Menstruation and Menopause: Beginning menstruation at an early age and beginning menopause at a late age increase the risk of developing endometrial cancer.

Diet and Lifestyle: The risk of developing endometrial cancer is increased in women who are obese. Women who eat diets low in saturated fats, high in fruits and vegetables, and rich in soy products may have a reduced risk of endometrial cancer. Women who exercise regularly tend to have a reduced risk of endometrial cancer.

Hereditary Conditions: Women who carry the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) genetic abnormality have an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The risk of developing endometrial cancer is higher in women who have polycystic ovarian syndrome (a disorder of the hormones made by the ovaries).

Number of Children and Breastfeeding: Women who have never been pregnant have a greater risk of developing endometrial cancer than women who have had children. Women who breastfeed may have a reduced risk of developing endometrial cancer.


Get More Information From NCI

Back Up

Call 1-800-4-CANCER

For more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 9:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Deaf and hard-of-hearing callers with TTY equipment may call 1-800-332-8615. The call is free and a trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.

Chat online

The NCI's LiveHelp online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 9:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer.

Write to us

For more information from the NCI, please write to this address:

  • NCI Public Inquiries Office
  • Suite 3036A
  • 6116 Executive Boulevard, MSC8322
  • Bethesda, MD 20892-8322

Search the NCI Web site

The NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support and resources for cancer patients and their families. For a quick search, use our Best Bets search box in the upper right hand corner of each Web page. The results that are most closely related to your search term will be listed as Best Bets at the top of the list of search results.

There are also many other places to get materials and information about cancer treatment and services. Hospitals in your area may have information about local and regional agencies that have information on finances, getting to and from treatment, receiving care at home, and dealing with problems related to cancer treatment.

Find Publications

The NCI has booklets and other materials for patients, health professionals, and the public. These publications discuss types of cancer, methods of cancer treatment, coping with cancer, and clinical trials. Some publications provide information on tests for cancer, cancer causes and prevention, cancer statistics, and NCI research activities. NCI materials on these and other topics may be ordered online or printed directly from the NCI Publications Locator. These materials can also be ordered by telephone from the Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237), TTY at 1-800-332-8615.


Changes to This Summary (05/23/2005)

Back Up

The PDQ® cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.

Changes were made to this summary to match those made to the health professional version. Links to the NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms were added.


Questions or Comments About This Summary

Back Up

If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.


About PDQ®

Back Up

PDQ® is a comprehensive cancer database available on NCI's Web site.

PDQ® is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. Most of the information contained in PDQ® is available online at NCI's Web site. PDQ® is provided as a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health, the federal government's focal point for biomedical research.

PDQ® contains cancer information summaries.

The PDQ® database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries are available in two versions. The health professional versions provide detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions provide current and accurate cancer information.

The PDQ® cancer information summaries are developed by cancer experts and reviewed regularly.

Editorial Boards made up of experts in oncology and related specialties are responsible for writing and maintaining the cancer information summaries. The summaries are reviewed regularly and changes are made as new information becomes available. The date on each summary ("Date Last Modified") indicates the time of the most recent change.

PDQ® also contains information on clinical trials.

A clinical trial is a study to answer a scientific question, such as whether a certain drug or nutrient can prevent cancer. Trials are based on past studies and what has been learned in the laboratory. Each trial answers certain scientific questions in order to find new and better ways to help cancer patients and those who are at risk for cancer. During prevention clinical trials, information is collected about the effects of a new prevention method and how well it works. If a clinical trial shows that a new method is better than one currently being used, the new method may become "standard." People who are at high risk for a certain type of cancer may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial.

Listings of clinical trials are included in PDQ® and are available online at NCI's Web site. Descriptions of the trials are available in health professional and patient versions. Many cancer doctors who take part in clinical trials are also listed in PDQ®. For more information, call the Cancer Information Service 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237); TTY at 1-800-332-8615.


News
Early Palliative Care in Lung CA Focuses on Coping, Symptoms

Jan 31, 2013 - Early palliative care clinic visits, integrated with standard oncologic care for patients with metastatic lung cancer, emphasize symptom management, coping, and psychosocial aspects of illness, according to research published online Jan. 28 in JAMA Internal Medicine.



OncoLink Treatment Binder

Select the side effects and forms for your patient's treatment binder

Learn More







OncoLink OncoPilot

Facing a new cancer diagnosis or changing the course of your current treatment? Let our cancer nurses help you through!

Learn More