National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: November 21, 2001
UI - 20277954
AU - Fong IW; Ho J; Toy C; Lo B; Fong MW
TI - Value of long-term administration of acyclovir and similar agents for protecting against AIDS-related lymphoma: case-control and historical cohort studies.
SO - Clin Infect Dis 2000 May;30(5):757-61
AD - Department of Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
Acyclovir or similar agents with activity against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) theoretically may prevent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in AIDS. A case-control study of 29 patients with AIDS-related NHL and 58 matched control subjects assessed the frequency with which daily acyclovir (>/=800 mg/d) or similar agents were used for > or =1 year. In a historical cohort of 304 patients with AIDS for > or =2 years, the prevalence of NHL was assessed among 3 groups of patients: those who received long-term treatment with high-dose acyclovir (or similar agents) or low-dose or intermittent acyclovir; those treated with ganciclovir/foscarnet for <1 year; and those who had not previously been treated with acyclovir, ganciclovir, or foscarnet. In the case-control study, 22 patients (72.4%) with NHL never received acyclovir or similar drugs versus 19 control subjects (32.8%; P=. 002); 2 patients (6.9%) with NHL received acyclovir (> or =800 mg/d) for > or =1 year versus 27 (46.6%) of control subjects (P=.0001). In the cohort study, 6 (6.8%) of 88 patients who received acyclovir (> or =800 mg/d) for > or =1 year developed NHL versus 15 (15.5%) of 97 patients who received intermittent or lower-dose acyclovir and 30 (25.2%) of 119 patients who never received these agents (P=.002). Long-term administration (>1 year) of high-dose acyclovir or similar agents with anti-EBV activity may prevent NHL in patients with AIDS. A prospective, randomized study is warranted to confirm these results.
UI - 21245395
AU - Biggar RJ
TI - AIDS-related cancers in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
SO - Oncology (Huntingt) 2001 Apr;15(4):439-48; discussion 448-9
AD - Viral Epidemiology Branch National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Biggarb@epndce.nci.nih.gov
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has shown great efficacy in reducing human immunodeficiency virus levels, increasing immunity, and prolonging the survival of persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The risk of life-threatening infections has been greatly reduced. However, the impact of HAART on the incidence of malignancy has been less clear. Published studies generally show that the risk of developing Kaposi's sarcoma declined by about two-thirds between 1994 and 1995 and from 1996 onward (considered the HAART era). Even before 1994, the risk for Kaposi's sarcoma in persons with AIDS had declined considerably and this cancer has now become relatively uncommon. The mechanism by which this decline in incidence was achieved appears to involve improved immunity. Data on the reduction in the risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are mixed. Several studies conducted between 1997 and 1999 found no reduction in the risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, although the most recent data (from 1997 to 1999) show a 42% decrease in risk. Even with a one-third reduction, the risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma remains considerably elevated. This high risk may be related to the fact that HAART therapy does not restore the immune system to normalcy. The increased lymphocyte turnover, with its accompanying risk of genetic errors, may increase the risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Most reports have insufficient data to analyze the impact of HAART therapy on incidence of central nervous system lymphomas, but recent data (from 1997 to 1999) showed a significant reduction in that risk. The mechanism by which this might occur is unclear because the central nervous system is an immunologic sanctuary. The relatively low incidence of other cancers in persons with AIDS makes it difficult to gauge the effect of HAART on their incidence, but to date, no significant trends have been reported for specific tumor types or for the overall risk of non-AIDS-related cancers.
UI - 21290389
AU - Levine AM; Seneviratne L; Tulpule A
TI - Incidence and management of AIDS-related lymphoma.
SO - Oncology (Huntingt) 2001 May;15(5):629-39; discussion 639-40, 645-6
AD - Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Over time, the spectrum of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic has changed, especially with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The goal of this article is to delineate changes occurring in the incidence and management of lymphoma over the course of the AIDS epidemic. Lymphoma usually occurs rather late in the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and is the cause of death in up to 20% of HIV-infected individuals. It is seen in all population groups at risk for HIV and is more common in men than in women. It is usually diagnosed in patients with markedly decreased CD4 cell counts, consistent with prolonged periods of HIV infection and subsequent immunosuppression. Recent data from several large series have demonstrated a substantial decline in the median CD4 cell count among patients with newly diagnosed AIDS-related lymphoma despite the recent widespread use of HAART. While still somewhat controversial, use of HAART has generally not produced a significant decline in the incidence of AIDS-related lymphoma. Patients treated with low-dose vs standard-dose chemotherapy for AIDS-related lymphoma have achieved similar response and survival rates, although standard-dose therapy is associated with greater toxicity. Adapting therapy to prognostic factors has not produced a significant improvement in survival. Use of antiretroviral therapy along with chemotherapy appears safe, and may be associated with longer survival. An infusional regimen called EPOCH (etoposide, prednisone, vincristine [Oncovin], cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin HCl) shows promise in the future management of AIDS-related lymphoma. No regimen is currently considered the standard of therapy for patients with relapsed AIDS-related lymphoma, and survival is short in this setting.
UI - 21450697
AU - Murray PG; Swinnen LJ; Flavell JR; Ragni MV; Baumforth KR; Toomey SM;
TI - Filipovich AH; Lowe D; Schnell CS; Johl J; Gulley M; Young LS; Ambinder RF Frequent expression of the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 in latent membrane protein 1-positive posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease and HIV-associated lymphomas.
SO - Hum Pathol 2001 Sep;32(9):963-9
AD - Division of Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, England.
The tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1) participates in the signal transduction of various members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family, including TNFR2, CD40, CD30, and the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). In vitro, TRAF1 is induced by LMP1, and previous studies have suggested that expression of TRAF1 is higher in EBV-associated tumors than in their EBV-negative counterparts. To determine whether this was the case in posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) and related disorders, we used immunohistochemistry to analyze expression of TRAF1 in a total of 42 such lesions arising in a variety of immunosuppressive states. The specimens consisted of 22 PTLD lesions, 18 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated lymphomas, including 6 primary central nervous system lymphomas, and 2 cases of Hodgkin disease. The presence of latent EBV infection was determined by EBER in situ hybridization, and expression of EBV-LMP1 was detected by immunohistochemistry. Latent EBV infection, as determined by a positive EBER signal, was detected in 36 of 42 tumors. Of the EBER-positive specimens, 30 of 36 also expressed LMP1. Twenty-four of 30 LMP1-positive tumors, including both Hodgkin disease specimens, expressed TRAF1, compared with only 3 of 12 LMP1-negative tumors. This difference was statistically significant (P <.005). These results show frequent expression of TRAF1 at the protein level in LMP1-positive PTLD and related disorders and suggest an important role for LMP1-mediated TRAF1 signaling in the pathogenesis of EBV-positive tumors arising in immunosuppressive states. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company
UI - 21254045
AU - Ferrozzi F; Tognini G; Mulonzia NW; Bova D; Pavone P
TI - Primary effusion lymphomas in AIDS: CT findings in two cases.
SO - Eur Radiol 2001;11(4):623-5
AD - Istituto di Scienze Radiologiche, Universita di Parma, Viale Gramsci, 14, 43100 Parma, Italy. email@example.com
Primary effusion lymphomas represent an unusual subset of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. They are associated with herpes virus 8 and Epstein-Barr virus and characterized by predominant involvement of the serous body cavities (pleura, pericardium, peritoneum) as lymphomatous effusion without any identifiable tumour mass. We report herein CT findings in two patients with primary effusion lymphoma emphasizing the possible neoplastic nature of a pleural effusion in a patient with AIDS.
UI - 21395695
AU - Antinori A; Cingolani A; Alba L; Ammassari A; Serraino D; Ciancio BC;
TI - Palmieri F; De Luca A; Larocca LM; Ruco L; Ippolito G; Cauda R Better response to chemotherapy and prolonged survival in AIDS-related lymphomas responding to highly active antiretroviral therapy.
SO - AIDS 2001 Aug 17;15(12):1483-91
AD - National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani, IRCCS, Rome, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the natural history of AIDS non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and to analyse the feasibility, efficacy and toxicity of HAART in combination with chemotherapy. DESIGN: Prospective observational study in two AIDS clinical centres in Italy. METHODS: All consecutive HIV-infected patients with NHL were included (n = 44; 48% high-risk group) and prospectively followed for 27 months. HAART was administered concomitantly with chemotherapy. The association between response to HAART and clinical presentation, response to chemotherapy and toxicity was analysed by univariate and multivariate models. Survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS: A complete response (CR) to chemotherapy was achieved in 71% of HAART responders and 30% of non-responders. Virological response to HAART was the only variable associated with tumour response on multivariate analysis. A higher relative dose intensity (RDI) of chemotherapy was administered in patients with virological response compared with those without. The probability of 1 year survival was higher in patients with virological or immunological response. At Cox regression analysis, immunological response, a higher RDI and a CR to chemotherapy were all associated with a reduced risk of death. CONCLUSION: In HIV-infected patients with NHL, response to HAART was strongly associated with a better response to chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Concurrent treatments were well tolerated, and HAART-responder patients could receive a higher RDI of chemotherapy. In patients with AIDS lymphomas, combining HAART with chemotherapy could be a feasible and effective approach.
UI - 21439157
AU - Clarke CA; Glaser SL
TI - Epidemiologic trends in HIV-associated lymphomas.
SO - Curr Opin Oncol 2001 Sep;13(5):354-9
AD - Northern California Cancer Center, Union City, California 94587, USA. email@example.com
Infection with HIV increases the risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma and, to a lesser extent, Hodgkin disease. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996 changed the natural history of HIV disease, but the HIV-infected population also has changed in composition. Accordingly, the epidemiology of HIV-associated lymphomas now differs from that observed in the first 15 years of the HIV epidemic. In populations with access to HAART, reductions in lymphoma risk have been reported for NHL and suggested for Hodgkin disease, but long-term risks are as yet unknown. Lymphomas are increasingly common cancers in persons with HIV and are fatal in most patients, warranting continued attention to their incidence and etiology.
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