National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: April 1, 2002
UI - 11569231
AU - Medvedev VL
TI - [Hormone-resistant epithelial cancer of the prostate]
SO - Urologiia 2001 Jul-Aug;(4):29-33
The study of the prognostic criteria of hormone-resistant prostatic cancer (PC) by specifying expression of androgen receptor protein as well as Bcl-2 and p53 proteins, apoptosis regulators, has demonstrated that tumor cells of hormone-sensitive and hormone-resistant PC forms have different variants of immunophenotype. Hormone-resistance is typical for tumors from urothelial, basal and neuroendocrine PC cells, glandular epithelium cells which lost androgen receptors (AR) and tumors consisting of cells which retain AR but simultaneously express Bcl-2 and/or p53 genes. The discovery of androgen-resistant cancer from glandular epithelium which has immunophenotype characteristics of a hormone-dependent tumor indicates the existence of other mechanisms of protection against apoptosis. The development of hormone-resistant cancer 2.5-3 years after hormonal therapy is associated with changes in immunophenotype of tumor cells. They become Bcl-2- and/or p53-positive while part of them lose AR. Thus, immunophenotype of tumor cells may serve a prognostic marker of hormonal resistance of the tumor and dictate the treatment policy.
UI - 11774033
AU - Maliner-Stratton MS; Klein RD; Udayakumar TS; Nagle RB; Bowden GT
TI - Interleukin-1beta-induced promatrilysin expression is mediated by NFkappaB-regulated synthesis of interleukin-6 in the prostate carcinoma cell line, LNCaP.
SO - Neoplasia 2001 Nov-Dec;3(6):509-20
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Previously, our laboratory showed that interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) secreted by lipopolysaccharide-activated monocytes induces promatrilysin expression in the prostate carcinoma cell line, LNCaP. We now demonstrate that IL-1beta-induced promatrilysin expression is mediated by an indirect mechanism that requires nuclear factor Kappa B (NFkappaB)-dependent synthesis of IL-6. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide blocked IL-1beta-mediated induction of matrilysin mRNA suggesting that synthesis of one or more additional factors is required for IL-1beta-induced promatrilysin protein expression. Blockage of NFkappaB transactivation activity abrogated IL-1beta-induced promatrilysin expression to baseline levels suggesting that NFkappaB transactivation activity is necessary. Inhibition of IL-6 activity attenuated IL-1beta-induced promatrilysin, but not NFkappaB transactivation activity indicating that IL-6 acts downstream of NFkappaB in potentiation of IL-1beta-mediated promatrilysin expression. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide did not alter IL-6-induced induction of matrilysin mRNA indicating that, contrary to the mechanism by which IL-1beta regulates promatrilysin expression, IL-6-mediated matrilysin mRNA expression does not require new protein synthesis. Transient transfection with dominant negative STAT3 inhibited IL-1beta- and IL-6-induced promatrilysin. These data provide evidence that NFkappaB-mediated IL-6 synthesis is required for IL-1beta-induced promatrilysin expression, and IL-6 signaling through STAT3 plays a role in IL-1beta-induced promatrilysin expression.
UI - 11839815
AU - Abdulkadir SA; Magee JA; Peters TJ; Kaleem Z; Naughton CK; Humphrey PA;
TI - Milbrandt J Conditional loss of Nkx3.1 in adult mice induces prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.
SO - Mol Cell Biol 2002 Mar;22(5):1495-503
AD - Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA. email@example.com
The homeodomain-containing transcription factor NKX3.1 is a putative prostate tumor suppressor that is expressed in a largely prostate-specific and androgen-regulated manner. Loss of NKX3.1 protein expression is common in human prostate carcinomas and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions and correlates with tumor progression. Disruption of the murine Nkx3.1 gene results in defects in prostate branching morphogenesis, secretions, and growth. To more closely mimic the pattern of NKX3.1 loss that occurs in human prostate tumors, we have used Cre- and loxP-mediated recombination to delete the Nkx3.1 gene in the prostates of adult transgenic mice. Conditional deletion of one or both alleles of Nkx3.1 leads to the development of preinvasive lesions that resemble PIN. The pattern of expression of several biomarkers (Ki-67, E-cadherin, and high-molecular-weight cytokeratins) in these PIN lesions resembled that observed in human cases of PIN. Furthermore, PIN foci in mice with conditional deletion of a single Nkx3.1 allele lose expression of the wild-type allele. Our results support the role of NKX3.1 as a prostate tumor suppressor and indicate a role for this gene in tumor initiation.
UI - 11584064
AU - Lynch HT; Sanger WG; Pirruccello S; Quinn-Laquer B; Weisenburger DD
TI - Familial multiple myeloma: a family study and review of the literature.
SO - J Natl Cancer Inst 2001 Oct 3;93(19):1479-83
AD - Department of Preventive Medicine, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68178, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: The etiology of multiple myeloma (MM) remains obscure, although reports of familial clustering have implicated both a host susceptibility factor and environmental effects. Here we describe the medical histories of members of a family prone to MM. METHODS: We developed a pedigree for an MM-prone family by using information obtained from a questionnaire. Protein immunoelectrophoresis of serum and urine from the proband and from 19 family members was performed to detect monoclonal immunoproteins. Peripheral blood obtained from the proband and from five relatives was subjected to standard cytogenetic studies to detect constitutional chromosomal abnormalities. Multifluor-fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) and standard FISH studies were performed on peripheral blood from the proband and from two other affected living relatives to determine their karyotypes and to detect clonal chromosomal abnormalities frequently seen in patients with MM. RESULTS: Within this family, a sibship of seven included three individuals (including the proband) with histologically verified MM and two individuals with a monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), as determined by immunoelectrophoresis of serum and urine. This family also had members with acute lymphocytic leukemia, malignant melanoma, and prostate cancer. In the family members tested, we detected no constitutional chromosomal abnormality. None of the three individuals analyzed by FISH had a deletion of the retinoblastoma (Rb-1) locus, which is frequently deleted in patients with MM, and only one (the proband) had a translocation involving chromosomes 11 and 14, a clonal abnormality commonly seen in MM. CONCLUSION: The study of familial MM may provide insights into the pathogenesis and, ultimately, the control and prevention of MM and related disorders.
UI - 11720249
AU - Panz VR; Joffe BI; Spitz I; Lindenberg T; Farkas A; Haffejee M
TI - Tandem CAG repeats of the androgen receptor gene and prostate cancer risk in black and white men.
SO - Endocrine 2001 Jul;15(2):213-6
AD - Department of Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. email@example.com
The most common malignancy in men worldwide is cancer of the prostate. Androgens play a direct role in normal and malignant growth of prostate cells via the androgen receptor (AR). This study analyzed the polymorphic CAG repeat sequence in exon 1 of the AR gene to determine if the number of repeats might be an indicator of prostate cancer risk or aggressive disease. DNA was extracted from blood samples of 20 black and 20 white men with well-documented prostate cancer and 40 healthy controls (20 blacks and 20 whites). PCR amplification was followed by gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. This region normally contains between 9 and 29 repeats. Patients and controls both had minor variations in the number of repeats, which ranged from 13 to 27 with 21 being the most frequent allele. Black controls and patients both had a mean of 20 +/- 3 repeats; in whites the mean was significantly lower in patients than controls (21 +/- 2 versus 23 +/- 2; p = 0.004). Combined black and white patients also had a lower number than the combined group of controls (20 +/- 3 versus 22 +/- 3; p = 0.02). Similarly, black and white patients with aggressive disease had a lower number than patients whose disease was more slowly progressive (19 +/- 2 versus 22 +/- 3; p = 0.02). We conclude that the small differences in the number of CAG repeats in both black and white patients do not appear to be a strong indicator of risk or aggressive disease but that this size polymorphism may be one of many genetic and environmental risk factors involved in prostate cancer.
UI - 11818495
AU - Schmitt JF; Millar DS; Pedersen JS; Clark SL; Venter DJ; Frydenberg M;
TI - Molloy PL; Risbridger GP Hypermethylation of the inhibin alpha-subunit gene in prostate carcinoma.
SO - Mol Endocrinol 2002 Feb;16(2):213-20
AD - Monash Institute of Reproduction and Development, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.
Inhibin is composed of an alpha- and a beta-subunit. Transgenic studies assigned a tumor-suppressive role to the inhibin alpha-subunit, and in human prostate cancer inhibin alpha-subunit gene expression was down-regulated. This study examined the inhibin alpha-subunit gene promoter and gene locus to determine whether promoter hypermethylation or LOH occurred in DNA from prostate cancer. The 5'-untranslated region of the human inhibin alpha-subunit gene was sequenced and shown to be highly homologous to the bovine, rat, and mouse inhibin alpha-subunit promoter sequences. A 135-bp region of the human promoter sequence that continued a cluster of CpG sites was analyzed for hypermethylation. Significant (P < 0.001) hypermethylation of the inhibin alpha-subunit gene promoter occurred in DNA from Gleason pattern 3, 4, and 5 carcinomas compared with nonmalignant tissue samples. A subset of the carcinomas with a cribriform pattern were unmethylated. LOH at 2q32-36, the chromosomal region harboring the inhibin alpha-subunit gene, was observed in 42% of prostate carcinomas. These data provide the first demonstration that promoter hypermethylation and LOH are associated with the inhibin alpha-subunit gene and gene locus in prostate cancer.
UI - 11888886
AU - Mousses S; Bubendorf L; Wagner U; Hostetter G; Kononen J; Cornelison R;
TI - Goldberger N; Elkahloun AG; Willi N; Koivisto P; Ferhle W; Raffeld M; Sauter G; Kallioniemi OP Clinical validation of candidate genes associated with prostate cancer progression in the CWR22 model system using tissue microarrays.
SO - Cancer Res 2002 Mar 1;62(5):1256-60
AD - Cancer Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
To explore molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer progression, we applied tissue microarrays (TMAs) to analyze expression of candidate gene targets discovered by cDNA microarray analysis of the CWR22 xenograft model system. A TMA with 544 clinical specimens from different stages of disease progression was probed by mRNA in situ hybridization and protein immunohistochemistry. There was an excellent correlation (r = 0.96; n = 16) between the expression levels of the genes in the xenografts by cDNA microarray and mRNA in situ hybridization on a TMA. One of the most highly overexpressed genes in hormone-refractory CWR22R xenografts was the S100P gene. This gene, coding for a calcium signaling molecule implicated in the loss of senescence, was also significantly associated with progression in clinical tumors by TMA analysis (P < 0.001), suggesting dysregulation of this pathway in hormone-refractory and metastatic prostate cancers. Conversely, two genes that were down-regulated during tumor progression in the CWR22 model system were validated in vivo: crystallin mu (CRYM) and a LIM-domain protein LMO4 both showed significantly lower mRNA levels in hormone-refractory tumors as compared with primary tumors (P < 0.001). These results illustrate a strategy for rapid clinical validation at the mRNA and protein level of gene targets found to be differentially expressed in cDNA microarray experiments of model systems of cancer.
UI - 11693967
AU - Hsieh CL; Chung LW
TI - New prospectives of prostate cancer gene therapy: molecular targets and animal models.
SO - Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 2001;11(1-3):77-120
AD - Department of Urology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville 22908, USA.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among North American men. The low cure rate for prostate cancer is associated with the fact that many patients have metastatic disease at the time of disease presentation. Currently available therapeutic modalities for prostate cancer, such as surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy, have failed to cure patients because these therapies are not sufficiently tumor-specific, resulting in dose-limiting toxicity. Therefore, gene therapy may offer great promise in this regard. In this article, we summarize current advances in gene therapy technologies for the treatment of cancer in general, and future prospects for treatment of human prostate cancer metastasis. We specifically emphasize current studies for improvement, both in the efficiency and the specificity of viral and nonviral vectors, and restricted transgene expression in tumors, to achieve selective targeting with minimized host organ toxicity, based on the molecular understanding of potential regulatory differences between normal and tumor cells. Cell and animal models used to study prostate cancer growth, invasion, and metastasis, and their usefulness in preclinical evaluation of therapeutic vectors in the treatment of prostate cancer skeletal metastasis are also discussed.
UI - 11870882
AU - Patra SK; Patra A; Zhao H; Dahiya R
TI - DNA methyltransferase and demethylase in human prostate cancer.
SO - Mol Carcinog 2002 Mar;33(3):163-71
AD - Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA.
Recent studies have shown that cytosine-5 methylation at CpG islands in the regulatory sequence of a gene is one of the key mechanisms of inactivation. The enzymes responsible for CpG methylation are DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b, and the enzyme responsible for demethylation is DNA demethylase (MBD2). Studies on methylation-demethylation enzymes are lacking in human prostate cancer. We hypothesize that MBD2 enzyme activity is repressed and that DNMT1 enzyme activity is elevated in human prostate cancer. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed enzyme activities, mRNA, and protein levels of MBD2 and DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b in human prostate cancer cell lines and tissues. The enzyme activities of DNMTs and MBD2 were analyzed by biochemical assay. The mRNA expression was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and by Northern blotting. The protein expression was measured by immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies. The results of these experiments demonstrated that (1) the activity of DNMTs was twofold to threefold higher in cancer cell lines and cancer tissues, as compared with a benign prostate epithelium cell line (BPH-1) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissues; (2) MBD2 activity was lacking in prostate cancer cell lines but present in BPH-1 cells; (3) immunohistochemical analyses exhibited higher expression of DNMT1 in all prostate cancer cell lines and cancer tissues, as compared with BPH-1 cell lines and BPH tissues; (4) MBD2 protein expression was significantly higher in BPH-1 cells and lacking in prostate cancer cell lines and, in BPH tissues, MBD2 protein expression was poorly observed, as compared with no expression in prostate cancer tissues; and (5) mRNA expression for DNMT1 was upregulated in prostate cancer, as compared with BPH-1, and mRNA expression for MBD2 was found to be significantly expressed in all cases. The results of these studies clearly demonstrate that DNMT1 activity is upregulated, whereas MBD2 is repressed at the level of translation in human prostate cancer. These results may demonstrate molecular mechanisms of CpG hypermethylation of various genes in prostate cancer. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 11901478
AU - Cooper CR; Chay CH; Pienta KJ
TI - New discoveries in prostate cancer biology and treatment. 5-9 December 2001, Naples, Florida, USA.
SO - Expert Opin Ther Targets 2002 Feb;6(1):123-7
AD - University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Haematology/Oncology and Department of Urology, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
Androgen independence and bone metastasis are lethal complications in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Presently, there is no cure for patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer. In order to develop more effective therapies for this disease, the molecular events involved in the development of androgen independence and bone metastasis must be elucidated and then targeted by therapeutic agents. Several studies presented at a recent conference on prostate cancer sponsored by the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) provided evidence that prostate cancer metastasis to bone is mediated by the prostate cancer cell expression of molecules that allow the cells to invade, grow in and stimulate cells in the bone microenvironment resulting in an osteoblastic reaction. Androgen independence was reportedly mediated by an increased expression of survival genes following androgen ablation therapies and several molecular mechanisms involved in genetic instability. Treatment strategies are being designed to target some of the molecular events involved in androgen independence and bone metastasis. Targeting these molecular events with combinational therapies will hopefully delay the progression to androgen independence in patients with early stage disease, suppress the growth of androgen-independent cells in patients with advanced disease and enhance the chemosensitivity of androgen-independent cells.
UI - 11880592
AU - Lamartiniere CA; Cotroneo MS; Fritz WA; Wang J; Mentor-Marcel R;
TI - Elgavish A Genistein chemoprevention: timing and mechanisms of action in murine mammary and prostate.
SO - J Nutr 2002 Mar;132(3):552S-558S
AD - Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
We investigated the potential of genistein, the primary isoflavone of soy, to protect against breast and prostate cancers in animal models. For mammary cancer studies, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed AIN-76A diet plus minus 250 mg genistein/kg diet. Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene was administered by gavage at d 50 postpartum to induce mammary tumors. Mammary cancer chemoprevention was demonstrated after prepubertal and combined prepubertal and adult genistein treatments but not after prenatal- or adult-only treatments, demonstrating that the timing of exposure to genistein is important for mammary cancer chemoprevention. The cellular mechanism of action was found to be mammary gland and cell differentiation, as shown by whole-mount analysis and beta-casein expression. An imprinting effect was shown for epidermal growth factor receptor expression in mammary terminal end buds. For prostate cancer studies, we used two models. The first was a chemically (N-methylnitrosourea) induced prostate cancer rat model. Genistein in the diet inhibited the development of invasive adenocarcinomas in a dose-dependent manner. The second model was a transgenic mouse model that resulted in spontaneously developing adenocarcinoma tumor of the prostate. Genistein in the diet reduced the incidence of poorly differentiated prostatic adenocarcinomas in a dose-dependent manner and down-regulated androgen receptor, estrogen receptor-alpha, progesterone receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, insulin-like growth factor-I, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 but not estrogen receptor-beta and transforming growth factor-alpha mRNA expressions. We conclude that dietary genistein protects against mammary and prostate cancers by regulating specific sex steroid receptors and growth factor signaling pathways.
UI - 11920501
AU - Meyer-Siegler KL; Bellino MA; Tannenbaum M
TI - Macrophage migration inhibitory factor evaluation compared with prostate specific antigen as a biomarker in patients with prostate carcinoma.
SO - Cancer 2002 Mar 1;94(5):1449-56
AD - Research and Development, Bay Pines Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bay Pines, Florida 33744, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Cytokines are polypeptides that constitute a class of chemical mediator molecules that modulate cell growth by inducing specific target gene expression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of serum evaluation of the cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in patients undergoing routine prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening. METHODS: In this preliminary, retrospective study, the authors report the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for MIF determination in serum samples. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay investigated associations between MIF expression and prostate carcinoma (CaP). The authors developed a relative quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR assay to determine MIF mRNA amounts within laser-capture microscopy (LCM)-dissected prostate epithelial cells. RESULTS: A comparison of serum MIF levels and total PSA levels identified a positive correlation (correlation coefficient [r2] = 0.61; P < 0.001; n = 509 patients), suggesting an association between elevated serum concentrations of these proteins and CaP. A correlation of serum MIF levels with a diagnosis of CaP demonstrated that patients with a previous CaP diagnosis had significantly elevated serum MIF concentrations (mean +/- standard deviation, 6.8 +/- 0.87 ng/mL; P < 0.001). To associate altered serum MIF levels with MIF mRNA expression within prostate epithelial cells, LCM-dissected prostate epithelial cells (formalin fixed biopsies from three different patients) were used to determine MIF mRNA amounts by PCR analysis. On average, MIF mRNA amounts were 6.5 times higher in CaP epithelial cells that were invasive to the margin compared with MIF mRNA amounts in normal prostate epithelial cells within the same biopsy specimen. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA data from the current study suggested an association between increased MIF expression and CaP and suggested that serum MIF concentration may serve as a prognostic marker for CaP. Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.
UI - 11801547
AU - Kang JS; Calvo BF; Maygarden SJ; Caskey LS; Mohler JL; Ornstein DK
TI - Dysregulation of annexin I protein expression in high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer.
SO - Clin Cancer Res 2002 Jan;8(1):117-23
AD - Department of Surgery, Divisions of Urology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.
PURPOSE: To determine expression levels of annexin I (lipocortin I) in patient-matched benign prostatic epithelium (BPE), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), and prostate cancer (CaP). EXPERIMETNAL DESIGN: Annexin I protein expression was examined with a standard immunohistochemical protocol in 69 radical prostatectomy specimens, 45 of which also contained HGPIN. Immunostained sections were scored visually by a genitourinary pathologist and mean optical density was measured with digital image analysis. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to measure expression levels of annexin I mRNA in patient-matched CaP and BPE from 14 snap-frozen, radical prostatectomy specimens. RESULTS: Annexin I protein expression was reduced in 91% (41/45) of HGPIN lesions and 94% (65/69) of invasive CaP compared with BPE in the same histological section when assessed visually. Mean absorbance was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in 97.7% (44/45) of HGPIN lesions and 98.5% (68/69) of CaP glands compared with BPE. In 79% of cases (11/14; P < 0.05), mRNA expression was reduced in CaP as compared with patient-matched BPE. Annexin I mRNA and protein expression levels did not correlate with Gleason grade, pathological stage, or race. CONCLUSIONS: Down-regulation of annexin I protein expression is a common finding in HGPIN and CaP, suggesting that annexin I dysregulation may be an important early event in CaP initiation. Because mRNA levels are reduced in a high proportion of cases, one likely mechanism for annexin I dysregulation occurs at the level of gene transcription. Results of these studies support a valuable role for a molecular profiling approach to CaP research.
UI - 11898181
AU - Diefenbach MA; Schnoll RA; Miller SM; Brower L
TI - Genetic testing for prostate cancer. Willingness and predictors of interest.
SO - Cancer Pract 2000 Mar-Apr;8(2):82-6
AD - Division of Population Science, Fox Chase Cancer Center, 510 Township Line Road, Third Floor, Cheltenham, Pennsylvania 19012, USA.
PURPOSE: As researchers come closer to identifying the genes responsible for prostate cancer, the possibility of genetic testing for men at risk for prostate cancer becomes more likely. This study examined the following: 1) the degree to which men with (n = 43) or without (n = 83) a family history of prostate cancer would be interested in genetic testing; and 2) the degree to which interest in testing was associated with demographic, family history, and psychosocial factors. DESCRIPTION OF STUDY: Participants (N = 126) were accrued through patients who had been treated for prostate cancer at Fox Chase Cancer Center (n = 39) and through newspaper advertisements (n = 87). All participants completed a questionnaire sent by mail. RESULTS: Seventy-four percent of men were probably (50%) or definitely (24%) interested in testing. Participants with a family history of prostate cancer reported that they would be willing to pay substantially more for a genetic test compared with those without a family history. Elevated worry about prostate cancer and concerns about treatment-related side effects were associated with greater interest in genetic testing. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Findings demonstrate a need for the development of genetic counseling protocols for at-risk men who are interested in genetic testing, once this test becomes available.
UI - 11901761
AU - Ewis AA; Lee J; Naroda T; Sasahara K; Sano T; Kagawa S; Iwamoto T;
TI - Nakahori Y Linkage between prostate cancer incidence and different alleles of the human Y-linked tetranucleotide polymorphism DYS19.
SO - J Med Invest 2002 Feb;49(1-2):56-60
AD - Department of Public Health, University of Tokushima, School of Medicine, Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan.
We studied the allele frequency distribution of the Y-chromosome linked tetranucleotide polymorphic microsatellite locus DYS19 in 90 prostate cancer Japanese patients from both Tokushima University hospital (Tokushima) and Saint Marianna University hospital (Kawasaki), Japan, comparing them to 99 matched male controls. Y-chromosomes from Japan as well as others from different geographical regions worldwide showed the five different alleles (A-E) with sizes varying from 186-202 bp, respectively. Comparison between DYS19 allelic frequency distribution among Japanese patients with prostate cancer and that of normal controls revealed significant differences regarding susceptibility or resistance to prostate cancer. We found that males with allele C of DYS19 are more susceptible to develop prostate cancer than males with other alleles (p = 0.02). The Odds Ratio was 2.04 with a 95% confidence interval (0.75-2.42), compared with males having other alleles. In contrast, males with the D allele of DYS19 were less exposed to prostate cancer than other males (p = 0.002); the Odds Ratio was 0.26 with a 95% confidence interval of (0.65-3.71). These findings support our hypothesis that male descendants from different Y-chromosomal origins are different regarding their susceptibility or resistance to develop prostate cancer (as a male-specific cancer).
UI - 11752398
AU - Watabe T; Lin M; Ide H; Donjacour AA; Cunha GR; Witte ON; Reiter RE
TI - Growth, regeneration, and tumorigenesis of the prostate activates the PSCA promoter.
SO - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Jan 8;99(1):401-6
AD - Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1662, USA.
The prostate gland undergoes dramatic changes in growth status during normal physiologic development, following androgen administration to castrate animals, and during tumor development. The prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA, named for its strong sequence homology to the thymocyte marker stem cell antigen 2) is a cell surface molecule associated with human and murine prostate cancer. To help define the regulation of this molecule, we created a transgenic mouse strain, which uses the human PSCA promoter region to control the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP). Expression of GFP was detected in mid-gestation following the appearance of prostatic buds from the urogenital sinus. In adult mice, GFP expression was restricted to a subset of cells located in the distal tips of the glands. GFP expression increased during puberty and regeneration driven by androgen and associated with expansive growth of the prostate. GFP-positive cells coexpressed markers associated with both basal and secretory cells in the human prostate. Prostate carcinogenesis driven by T antigen in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model results in an increased percentage and intensity level for PSCA promoter-driven GFP-positive cells. This transgenic system helps define the range of cellular changes associated with altered expression of PSCA, shows that transcriptional control is a major component regulating PSCA levels, and provides a useful tool to study subpopulations of prostate epithelial cells and factors that regulate the PSCA promoter.
UI - 11920466
AU - Morris MJ; Reuter VE; Kelly WK; Slovin SF; Kenneson K; Verbel D; Osman
TI - I; Scher HI HER-2 profiling and targeting in prostate carcinoma.
SO - Cancer 2002 Feb 15;94(4):980-6
AD - Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.
BACKGROUND: The clinical effects of targeting HER-2 in prostate carcinoma are not known. This study explored the feasibility of molecular profiling to determine the correlation between HER-2 expression, hormonal sensitivity, and the antitumor effects of trastuzumab and paclitaxel in patients with prostate carcinoma. METHODS: Patients with progressive androgen dependent (AD) and androgen independent (AI) prostate carcinoma were eligible to participate in the study. HER-2 expression was assessed on pretreatment tissue specimens, and patients were then assigned to one of four treatment groups: AD HER-2 positive, AD HER-2 negative, AI HER-2 positive, and AI HER-2 negative. They were treated with weekly trastuzumab at a dose of 2 mg/kg (after a 4 mg/kg loading dose) until they experienced disease progression, when weekly paclitaxel at 100 mg/m(2) was added. RESULTS: The authors screened 130 patients for HER-2 expression. In total, 23 patients were treated. Six eligible patients had HER-2 positive disease; therefore, only the AI HER-2 negative arm accrued to completion. All patients (100%) experienced disease progression on trastuzumab alone at or before the first 12 weeks of treatment. Fifteen patients received combined therapy: Seven patients (47%) experienced disease progression, 5 patients (33%) had stable disease, and 3 patients (20%) had a decline > or = 50% in prostate specific antigen PSA level or in soft tissue disease. HER-2 overexpression was found in significant proportions only in AI metastatic tissue samples (42% HER-2 positive; 95% confidence interval, 14-60%). In three of nine matched pairs, the AD prostate biopsy was HER-2 negative, and the AI metastatic sample was HER-2 positive. CONCLUSIONS: Trastuzumab is not effective as a single agent for the treatment of patients with AI HER-2 negative tumors. HER-2 expression varies by clinical state in patients with prostate carcinoma: Accurate HER-2 profiling requires sampling metastatic tissue in patients with metastatic disease. Further development of trastuzumab for the treatment of patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma is not feasible until more reliable and practical methods of sampling metastatic disease are developed to identify patients with HER-2 positive tumors. Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.10339
UI - 11887983
AU - Trapman J
TI - Molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer.
SO - Eur J Cancer 2001 Oct;37 Suppl 7():S119-25
AD - Department of Pathology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
UI - 8759054
AU - McGarvey TW; Stearns ME
TI - Keratinocyte growth factor and receptor mRNA expression in benign and malignant human prostate.
SO - Exp Mol Pathol 1995 Aug;63(1):52-62
AD - Department of Pathology, Allegheny University of the Health Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19102-1192, USA.
We have examined whether keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and its receptor are expressed in normal, fetal, and prostate cancer cells since KGF may play a role in the growth of adenocarcinomas. In situ hybridization studies with digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotides (anti-sense and sense controls) were employed to examine KGF and KGF receptor mRNA expression in prostate cancer. We found that the KGF and KGF receptor genes were faintly expressed in the stromal and epithelial cells, respectively, in both fetal (n = 6) and normal adult prostate (n = 6) tissues examined. In 10 benign prostatic hyperplasias (BPH), and in low- and high-grade prostatic carcinoma (32 total), both the KGF gene and the receptor mRNA were expressed in the glandular epithelial cells. KGF was also expressed by the stromal cells in BPH and low-grade carcinoma. Computer assisted system analysis indicated that the intensity of epithelial labeling by both probes was increased in high Gleason score carcinomas ( > 8) and in metastatic nodules. We interpret the data to mean that the paracrine loop in normal prostate may be replaced by an autocrine loop in BPH and adenocarcinomas.
UI - 9178898
AU - Ide H; Katoh M; Sasaki H; Yoshida T; Aoki K; Nawa Y; Osada Y; Sugimura
TI - T; Terada M Cloning of human bone morphogenetic protein type IB receptor (BMPR-IB) and its expression in prostate cancer in comparison with other BMPRs.
SO - Oncogene 1997 Mar 20;14(11):1377-82
AD - Genetics Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
Bone metastasis is a common event in prostate cancer, and it is known that some of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are expressed in prostate cancer cells, while no study on the expression of their receptors, BMPRs, has been reported. Here we report cloning and sequence analysis of the human BMPR-IB cDNA. We also analysed the expression of transcripts of three types of the BMPR genes in human tissues and prostate cancer cell lines. The BMPR-IB mRNA was present in various organs, but the highest level was found in the prostate. Moreover, the amount of BMPR-IB mRNA was significantly low in prostate cancer tissues after androgen withdrawal and was also low in prostate cancer cell lines. RT-PCR analysis showed that the BMPR-IB message was upregulated by androgen stimulation in the LNCaP cell line which expresses the androgen receptor. By contrast, the mRNA levels of BMPR-IA and BMPR-II were not significantly different among non-cancerous and cancerous prostate tissues. It was also suggested that human BMPR-IA and BMPR-IB might have different biological functions in the prostate, although their sequences were 85.3% identical in the serine-threonine kinase domain.
UI - 10373563
AU - Abreu-Martin MT; Chari A; Palladino AA; Craft NA; Sawyers CL
TI - Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 activates androgen receptor-dependent transcription and apoptosis in prostate cancer.
SO - Mol Cell Biol 1999 Jul;19(7):5143-54
AD - Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases phosphorylate the estrogen receptor and activate transcription from estrogen receptor-regulated genes. Here we examine potential interactions between the MAP kinase cascade and androgen receptor-mediated gene regulation. Specifically, we have studied the biological effects of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) expression in prostate cancer cells. Our findings demonstrate that expression of constitutively active MEKK1 induces apoptosis in androgen receptor-positive but not in androgen receptor-negative prostate cancer cells. Reconstitution of the androgen receptor signaling pathway in androgen receptor-negative prostate cancer cells restores MEKK1-induced apoptosis. MEKK1 also stimulates the transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor in the presence or absence of ligand, whereas a dominant negative mutant of MEKK1 impairs activation of the androgen receptor by androgen. These studies demonstrate an unanticipated link between MEKK1 and hormone receptor signaling and have implications for the molecular basis of hormone-independent prostate cancer growth.
UI - 10419456
AU - Nakatani K; Thompson DA; Barthel A; Sakaue H; Liu W; Weigel RJ; Roth RA
TI - Up-regulation of Akt3 in estrogen receptor-deficient breast cancers and androgen-independent prostate cancer lines.
SO - J Biol Chem 1999 Jul 30;274(31):21528-32
AD - Departments of Molecular Pharmacology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
We measured the insulin-stimulated amount of Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3 enzymatic activities in four breast cancer cell lines and three prostate cancer cell lines. In the estrogen receptor-deficient breast cancer cells and the androgen-insensitive prostate cells, the amount of Akt3 enzymatic activity was approximately 20-60-fold higher than in the cells that were estrogen- or androgen-responsive. In contrast, the levels of Akt1 and -2 were not increased in these cells. The increase in Akt3 enzyme activity correlated with an increase in both Akt3 mRNA and protein. In a prostate cancer cell line lacking the tumor suppressor PTEN (a lipid and protein phosphatase), the basal enzymatic activity of Akt3 was constitutively elevated and represented the major active Akt in these cells. Finally, reverse transcription-PCR was used to examine the Akt3 expression in 27 primary breast carcinomas. The expression levels of Akt3 were significantly higher in the estrogen receptor-negative tumors in comparison to the estrogen receptor-positive tumors. To see if the increase in Akt3 could be due to chromosomal abnormalities, the Akt3 gene was assigned to human chromosome 1q44 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid cell panel analyses. These results indicate that Akt3 may contribute to the more aggressive clinical phenotype of the estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers and androgen-insensitive prostate carcinomas.
UI - 10602496
AU - Palayoor ST; Youmell MY; Calderwood SK; Coleman CN; Price BD
TI - Constitutive activation of IkappaB kinase alpha and NF-kappaB in prostate cancer cells is inhibited by ibuprofen.
SO - Oncogene 1999 Dec 2;18(51):7389-94
AD - Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland, MD 20892, USA.
Apoptotic pathways controlled by the Rel/NF-kappaB family of transcription factors may regulate the response of cells to DNA damage. Here, we have examined the NF-kappaB status of several prostate tumor cell lines. In the androgen-independent prostate tumor cells PC-3 and DU-145, the DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB was constitutively activated and IkappaB-alpha levels were decreased. In contrast, the androgen-sensitive prostate tumor cell line LNCaP had low levels of NF-kappaB which were upregulated following exposure to cytokines or DNA damage. The activity of the IkappaB-alpha kinase, IKKalpha, which mediates NF-kappaB activation, was also measured. In PC-3 cells, IKKalpha activity was constitutively active, whereas LNCaP cells had minimal IKKalpha activity that was activated by cytokines. The anti-inflammatory agent ibuprofen inhibited the constitutive activation of NF-kappaB and IKKalpha in PC-3 and DU-145 cells, and blocked stimulated activation of NF-kappaB in LNCaP cells. However, ibuprofen did not directly inhibit IkappaB-alpha kinase. The results demonstrate that NF-kappaB is constitutively activated in the hormone-insensitive prostate tumor cell lines PC-3 and DU-145, but not in the hormone responsive LNCaP cell line. The constitutive activation of NF-kappaB in prostate tumor cells may increase expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of anti-tumor therapy and contributing to the development of the malignant phenotype.
UI - 10716737
AU - Persad S; Attwell S; Gray V; Delcommenne M; Troussard A; Sanghera J;
TI - Dedhar S Inhibition of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) suppresses activation of protein kinase B/Akt and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of PTEN-mutant prostate cancer cells.
SO - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000 Mar 28;97(7):3207-12
AD - British Columbia Cancer Agency and Jack Bell Research Centre, 2660 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC V6H 3Z6, Canada.
PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 10q23 that encodes a protein and phospholipid phosphatase. Somatic mutations of PTEN are found in a number of human malignancies, and loss of expression, or mutational inactivation of PTEN, leads to the constitutive activation of protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt via enhanced phosphorylation of Thr-308 and Ser-473. We recently have demonstrated that the integrin-linked kinase (ILK) can phosphorylate PKB/Akt on Ser-473 in a phosphoinositide phospholipid-dependent manner. We now demonstrate that the activity of ILK is constitutively elevated in a serum- and anchorage-independent manner in PTEN-mutant cells, and transfection of wild-type (WT) PTEN into these cells inhibits ILK activity. Transfection of a kinase-deficient, dominant-negative form of ILK or exposure to a small molecule ILK inhibitor suppresses th