National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: May 1, 2002
UI - 11980083
AU - Guiney M; Buckley C; Radford N; Joyce G
TI - A case of seminoma-associated orbitopathy.
SO - Aust N Z J Ophthalmol 1995 Nov;23(4):335-7
AD - East Melbourne Radiation Oncology Centre, 132 Grey Street, East Melbourne 3002, Victoria.
UI - 10604362
AU - Di Stasi SM; Poggi A; Giannantoni A; Zampa G
TI - Dermatomyositis associated with testicular germ cell cancer.
SO - J Urol 2000 Jan;163(1):240
AD - Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Unita Funzionale di Oncologia Clinica, Policlinico Umberto I, Ospedale di Riabilitazione IRCCS S. Lucia, Rome, Italy.
UI - 11920956
AU - Bharaj BB; Luo LY; Jung K; Stephan C; Diamandis EP
TI - Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human kallikrein 10 (KLK10) gene and their association with prostate, breast, testicular, and ovarian cancers.
SO - Prostate 2002 Apr 1;51(1):35-41
AD - Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
BACKGROUND: The KLK10 gene (also known as the normal epithelial cell-specific 1 gene) is a member of the expanded human kallikrein gene family. Recently, it has been reported that KLK10 is a tumor suppressor gene and that its expression is downregulated in various forms of cancer and cancer cell lines. KLK10 is also upregulated in ovarian cancer. We thus hypothesized that the KLK10 gene may be a target for mutations in various cancers. METHODS: We sequenced the five coding exons of the KLK10 gene using genomic DNA from various tumors, normal tissues, and blood, by PCR amplification and automated sequencing. RESULTS: In none of the tumor-derived DNAs, we identified somatic mutations that could inactivate this gene. However, we identified a prevalent germline single nucleotide variation at codon 50 (exon 3) of this gene [GCC (alanine) to TCC (serine)]. The GCC genotype was less prevalent in prostatic cancer patients in comparison to control subjects (P = 0.027) but no differences were seen with testicular, ovarian, and breast cancer. We also identified four genetic variations in exon 4, at codons106 [GGC (glycine) to GGA (glycine)], codon 112 [ACG (threonine) to ACC (threonine)], codon 141 [CTA (leucine) to CTG (leucine)], and at codon 149 [CCG (proline) to CTG (leucine)]. None of these variations was significantly different between normal subjects and cancer groups. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence for somatic mutations of the KLK10 gene in cancers of the prostate, breast, ovary, and testis. The single nucleotide variation at codon 50 appears to be associated with prostate cancer risk. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 11900581
AU - Rakheja D; Hoang MP; Sharma S; Albores-Saavedra J
TI - Intratubular embryonal carcinoma.
SO - Arch Pathol Lab Med 2002 Apr;126(4):487-90
AD - Division of Anatomic Pathology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9073, USA.
Although intratubular embryonal carcinoma has been described adjacent to invasive embryonal carcinoma, to our knowledge it has not been reported as an isolated finding. We present in this report the histologic and immunohistochemical findings of 2 cases of intratubular embryonal carcinoma. One case was exclusively intratubular embryonal carcinoma without an invasive component in the same testis. A malignant mixed germ cell tumor in the contralateral testis had been previously excised. The second case is predominantly composed of intratubular embryonal carcinoma adjacent to a malignant mixed germ cell tumor. In one case, the intratubular embryonal carcinoma was immunoreactive for CD30, AE1/AE3, cytokeratin 7 focally, and p53. It was negative for cytokeratin 20, p21, and alpha-fetoprotein. These findings are strongly supportive of the opinion that intratubular embryonal carcinoma is the precursor of invasive embryonal carcinoma.
UI - 11872041
AU - Kamai T; Arai K; Sumi S; Tsujii T; Honda M; Yamanishi T; Yoshida KI
TI - The rho/rho-kinase pathway is involved in the progression of testicular germ cell tumour.
SO - BJU Int 2002 Mar;89(4):449-53
AD - Department of Urology, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Tochigi, Japan. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the role of one of the downstream effectors of Rho (Rho-kinase) in testicular germ cell tumour (GCT) by quantifying mRNA expression for Rho-kinase in patients with this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mRNA levels of the RhoA and Rho-kinase genes were analysed in surgical specimens of testicular GCT tissues from 57 consecutive Japanese patients, and in the corresponding non-tumour tissue originating from the same patient, using the polymerase chain reaction after reverse transcription. The expression levels of these genes were compared between the tissues and the relationship between their expression levels evaluated within tumours and with tumour stage. The difference in the expression levels of the mRNAs of RhoA and Rho-kinase genes were also assessed between tumours that were seminoma only and mixed tumours of seminoma and nonseminoma. RESULTS: RhoA and Rho-kinase mRNAs were more abundant in tumour tissue than in non-tumour tissue (P < 0.01 and < 0.05, respectively). High RhoA and Rho-kinase mRNA expressions were related to tumour stage (P < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively). The mRNA levels of RhoA and Rho-kinase in mixed tumours were higher than in tumours with seminoma only (P < 0.01 and < 0.05, respectively). There was a positive relationship between expression levels of mRNAs of RhoA and Rho-kinase in tumour tissues (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway is involved in the progression of testicular GCT. This pathway might be a molecular target for new treatment strategies for this disease.
UI - 11948575
AU - Bruno C; Minniti S; Procacci C
TI - Diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration.
SO - J Clin Ultrasound 2002 Mar-Apr;30(3):181-3
AD - Department of Radiology, University of Verona, Istituto di Radiologia dell'Universita, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, Piazzale L.A. Scuro 1, 37134 Verona, Italy.
Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis is a very rare tumor that is not usually diagnosed until surgery is undertaken. In only a few cases has the correct diagnosis been obtained preoperatively by cytologic examination of fluid from the hydrocele. We describe a case of mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis that was suspected on sonography because of the presence of a hydrocele and focal nodularities. The diagnosis was confirmed preoperatively by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology aimed at 1 of the focal nodularities. Our patient was an 85-year-old man with concomitant cancer of the sigmoid colon; because of his age and the spread of his colon cancer, we did not remove the scrotal lesion. We recommend consideration of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of the solid masses instead of the fluid from the hydrocele in cases of suspected malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 30:181-183, 2002; DOI 10.1002/jcu.10045
UI - 11979085
AU - Henley JD; Young RH; Ulbright TM
TI - Malignant Sertoli cell tumors of the testis: a study of 13 examples of a neoplasm frequently misinterpreted as seminoma.
SO - Am J Surg Pathol 2002 May;26(5):541-50
AD - Departments of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.
The distinction of Sertoli cell tumors from seminoma is critical to ensure proper treatment. Although usually straightforward, we highlight herein 13 malignant Sertoli cell tumors of the testis with light microscopic features that mimicked seminoma. All of the cases were received in consultation, 10 with submitting diagnoses of seminoma, usually of classic type, but three cases of spermatocytic type. Patients ranged from 15 to 80 years of age (median 37 years); all presented with testicular masses. The tumors were typically firm, white to yellow-tan, and often had foci of hemorrhage. The dominant microscopic pattern was nested or sheet-like, with some tumors having secondary patterns of trabeculae-solid tubules, hollow tubules, and pseudofollicles. Tumor cells were polygonal with conspicuous clear cytoplasm in 12 cases; the cytoplasm was focally eosinophilic in 10 cases, but this was never conspicuous. Nine tumors had cytoplasmic vacuoles, and three of four that were investigated stained for intracytoplasmic glycogen. Nuclei were small (5) to medium-sized (8), round-to-oval (13), and vesicular with irregular contours (11). Nucleoli were present in 11 tumors (six small; five large). Stromal fibrosis (12) and lymphoid infiltrates (10) were conspicuous, and tumor necrosis (11) and vascular invasion (8) also were seen. Mitotic figures ranged from <1 to 21/10 high power fields (HPF) (median 1/10 HPF). Staining for inhibin-alpha, epithelial membrane antigen, and cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) was positive in four of four, six of six, and three of six cases, respectively; placental alkaline phosphatase was negative in all five tumors investigated. The nested growth pattern, prominence of clear cells, lymphoid infiltrate, inconspicuous tubular differentiation, cytoplasmic glycogen, and prominent nucleoli caused these tumors to be mistaken for seminomas. The smaller, less pleomorphic nuclei of Sertoli cell tumors, their lower mitotic rate, and the absence of intratubular germ cell neoplasia are helpful differential features. Immunohistochemistry is a useful adjunct in confirming the diagnosis of Sertoli cell tumor, but only if the overlapping features are appreciated by conventional microscopy and the diagnosis of Sertoli cell tumor included in the differential.
UI - 11938002
AU - Deminiere C; Akele-Akpo MT; Rivel J; Vergnes P
TI - [Epididymal tumor in a six-months-old infant]
SO - Ann Pathol 2002 Feb;22(1):52-5
AD - Laboratoire d'Anatomie et de Cytologie Pathologiques, Hopital Pellegrin CHU, Bordeaux.
A rare tumor of the epididymis was discovered in a 6-month-old infant. Macroscopically, the tumor had a black focal color. Immunohistochemistry staining and electron microscopy led to the diagnosis of mealnotic neuroectodermal tumor, or progonoma. Prognosis of progonoma, a benign tumor, is generally good, but malignant transformation has been reported.
UI - 2321619
AU - Verreault R; Weiss NS; Hollenbach KA; Strader CH; Daling JR
TI - Use of electric blankets and risk of testicular cancer.
SO - Am J Epidemiol 1990 May;131(5):759-62
AD - Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle.
Electric blankets are an important domestic source of electromagnetic fields (EMF) because of the relatively high intensity of emission, prolonged exposure, and intimate contact with the source. In a case-control study of testicular cancer in western Washington during 1981 to 1984, the relation between EMF exposure from electric blankets and the occurrence of testicular cancer was examined. The respective proportions of cases and controls who reported the use of an electric blanket were almost identical (age-adjusted rate ratio (RR) = 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-1.4). Distributions of the duration of use were also very similar in cases and controls. Compared with controls, the frequency of use of an electric blanket was slightly lower in men with seminoma (RR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.2) and slightly higher among men with nonseminoma germ cell tumors (RR = 1.4, 95% CI 0.9-2.3). Overall, the results of this study suggest that increased exposure to EMF from electric blankets contributes little, if at all, to the risk of testicular cancer in adult white men.
UI - 8452131
AU - Wertheimer N; Leeper E
TI - Re: "Use of electric blankets and risk of testicular cancer" and "Use of electric blankets and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer".
SO - Am J Epidemiol 1993 Jan 15;137(2):252-7
UI - 11953900
AU - Hsieh CC; Lambe M; Trichopoulos D; Ekbom A; Akre O; Adami HO
TI - Early life exposure to oestrogen and testicular cancer risk: evidence against an aetiological hypothesis.
SO - Br J Cancer 2002 Apr 22;86(8):1363-4
UI - 11979368
AU - Tanaka Y; Carney JA; Ijiri R; Kato K; Miyake T; Nakatani Y; Misugi K
TI - Utility of immunostaining for S-100 protein subunits in gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors, with emphasis on the large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor of the testis.
SO - Hum Pathol 2002 Mar;33(3):285-9
AD - Division of Pathology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan.
This study concerns the immunohistochemical localization of S-100 alpha, S-100 beta, and whole brain S-100 (wbS-100) in testicular large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor (LCCSCT). We examined 8 LCCSCTs (7 benign and 1 malignant), 6 Sertoli cell tumors not otherwise specified (SCTs-NOS), 6 Leydig cell tumors (LCTs), 5 ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs), and 7 gonadoblastomas (GBLs). The 8 LCCSCTs showed immunoreactivity for S-100 alpha, S-100 beta, and wbS-100. Five of the 6 LCTs and the Leydig cell components in the ovarian SLCTs stained positively for S-100 alpha and wbS-100 but were negative for S-100 beta. SCTs-NOS and the Sertoli cell components in the SLCTs occasionally showed focal and weak/moderate positivity for S-100 alpha, S-100 beta, and wbS-100. Sex cord cells of the GBLs were positive for S-100 beta and wbS-100 and negative for S-100 alpha. Germ cell elements of the GBLs were negative for S-100 alpha, S-100 beta, and wbS-100. In nonneoplastic testicular parenchyma adjacent to the above-mentioned tumors, there was S-100 alpha reactivity in Leydig cells, rete testis, and a few Sertoli cells. S-100 beta reactivity was seen in a few Sertoli cells, Schwann cells, and some endothelial cells. WbS-100 reactivity was present in Leydig cells, a few Sertoli cells, rete testis, Schwann cells, and some endothelial cells. The results indicate that S-100 alpha and S-100 beta can potentially be used as immunohistochemical markers for LCCSCT, especially when differentiating it from LCT, which may mimic LCCSCT on routine histopathology. Although the biological significance of both S-100 subunits expression in LCCSCT remains unknown, these notable calcium-binding proteins may be associated with the characteristic calcification in LCCSCT through regulation of calcium levels in the tumor cells. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
UI - 11990523
AU - von Eyben FE; Madsen EL; Blaabjerg O; Petersen PH; Jacobsen GK; Specht
TI - L; Pedersen BN; von der MH Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 in patients with seminoma stage I followed with surveillance.
SO - Acta Oncol 2002;41(1):77-83
AD - Department of Clinical Chemistry Odense University Hospital, Denmark. firstname.lastname@example.org
Serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme I catalytic concentration (S-LD-1) was measured in patients with testicular seminoma clinical stage I followed with surveillance after orchiectomy. The serum samples were obtained before orchiectomy in 110 patients (group A) and soon after orchiectomy in 55 patients (group B). In group A, 60 patients (55%) had elevated S-LD-1 and 10 patients (9%) had elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations (S-hCG). In group B, median S-LD-1 was lower than that of group A and decreased with increasing time after orchiectomv (p = 0.001, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, one-sided). After a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 23 patients (21%) in group A had relapses. The patients with elevated S-LD-1 and those with normal S-LD-1 had a similar relapse-free survival (p = 0.79, log-rank test). Thus patients with seminoma stage I had elevated S-LD-1 more often than elevated S-hCG but an elevation in S-LD-1 did not predict a relapse during follow-up with surveillance. Further studies are required to elucidate the value of S-LD-1 in monitoring the surveillance of patients with seminoma stage I.
UI - 11992923
AU - Ushida H; Shintaku M; Maegawa M; Maekawa S; Inoue K; Kaneko Y; Ohmori K;
TI - Babaya K; Nishimura K Mixed tumor of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma and an adenomatoid tumor in an elderly patient.
SO - Urology 2002 May;59(5):773
AD - Department ofUrology, Osaka Red Cross Hospital, Osaska, Japan.
We report a case of a mixed tumor of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma and an adenomatoid tumor in an elderly patient. Rhabdomyosarcoma is one of the most common childhood tumors; however, it rarely occurs in the elderly. In addition, to our knowledge, paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma and adenomatoid tumor rarely form mixed tumors. Finally, we consider the pathogenesis of diploblastic tumors.
UI - 11920738
AU - Kersemaekers AM; van Weeren PC; Oosterhuis JW; Looijenga LH
TI - Involvement of the Fas/FasL pathway in the pathogenesis of germ cell tumours of the adult testis.
SO - J Pathol 2002 Apr;196(4):423-9
AD - Pathology/Laboratory for Exp. Patho-Oncology, University Hospital Rotterdam/Daniel, Josephine Nefkens Institute, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Building Be, Room 430B, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Induction of apoptosis by Fas ligand (FasL) of Fas-containing cells is a known mechanism involved in the eradication of inappropriate cells during normal development. Alterations of the Fas/FasL pathway have been found in various types of cancer, leading to circumvention of attack of the tumour by the immune system. An alternative way to circumvent eradication by induction of apoptosis is through changes in the downstream inhibitors. For example, Fas-associating phosphatase-1 (Fap-1) binds directly to the Fas receptor and results in a block of the downstream signalling. To shed more light on the role of the Fas/FasL pathway in the development of human testicular germ cell tumours of the adult testis, this study investigated the presence of Fas, FasL, Fap-1, HLA class I and II molecules, CD45 (lymphocyte marker), and CD57 [natural killer (NK) cell marker] by immunohistochemistry on frozen sections of 41 cases of seminomas, non-seminomas, and spermatocytic seminomas. Every germ cell tumour was positive for Fap-1 and negative for HLA classes I and II, like their non-malignant cells of origin. The infiltrating lymphocytes, predominantly present in seminomas, showed consistently positive staining for Fas and CD45, but not for Fap-1. No Fas was found on NK cells. All seminomas and non-seminomas (except teratomas), including their precursor stages, carcinoma in situ, intratubular seminoma and intratubular non-seminoma, showed positive staining for FasL, but not for Fas. Teratoma showed no staining for FasL and was positive for Fas. In contrast, both Fas and FasL were detectable on spermatocytic seminoma. These data indicate a different regulation of the Fas/FasL system in seminoma and spermatocytic seminoma, supporting a separate pathogenesis for these germ cell-derived tumours. The presence of Fap-1 in all histological variants of germ cell tumours might be related to the consistently positive staining in cells of the germ lineage. This study indicates that production of FasL by the germ cell tumour cells might be involved in the early development of these types of adult testicular cancer by inducting apoptosis of Fas-positive, Fap-1-negative tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
UI - 11920744
AU - Palumbo C; van Roozendaal K; Gillis AJ; van Gurp RH; de Munnik H;
TI - Oosterhuis JW; van Zoelen EJ; Looijenga LH Expression of the PDGF alpha-receptor 1.5 kb transcript, OCT-4, and c-KIT in human normal and malignant tissues. Implications for the early diagnosis of testicular germ cell tumours and for our understanding of regulatory mechanisms.
SO - J Pathol 2002 Apr;196(4):467-77
AD - Department of Cell Biology, University of Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Human testicular germ cell tumours of adolescents and adults (TGCTs), including their precursor lesion carcinoma in situ (CIS), show expression of a 1.5 kb alternative transcript of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) alpha-receptor gene. The so-called P2 promoter involved is located in intron 12 and its activity was found to be mutually exclusive with activity of the classical promoter (P1), which encodes the full-length receptor. The presence of the 1.5 kb transcript could be a putative marker for the early molecular diagnosis of TGCTs. In order to validate the RT-PCR approach, this study shows that not more than 100 transcripts are necessary to obtain positivity in the test used; moreover, samples from TGCTs or CIS-containing tissues can be diluted many-fold before resulting in false-negative findings. This study also shows that within TGCTs, as in TGCT-derived cell lines, expression of the 1.5 kb transcript is differentiation-dependent and positively correlated with expression of the embryonic transcription factor OCT-4/POU5F1. Furthermore, the results indicate that in some non-TGCT cancers and cell lines the 1.5 kb transcript is also expressed, but without concomitant OCT-4/POU5F1 expression. The 1.5 kb transcript is also present in early B cells and derived leukaemias (B-ALL). In spite of similarities in chromosomal location, down-regulation upon differentiation of TGCTs, and PDGF alpha-receptor and c-KIT (the stem cell factor receptor) both being a tyrosine kinase receptor, no correlation was found between activity of the P2 promoter of the PDGF alpha-receptor gene and expression of c-KIT. In conclusion, the 1.5 kb transcript of the PDGF alpha-receptor is expressed in various cells and tissues, including particular blood cells. Although this may hamper the use of this transcript as a marker for malignancies in general, it does not appear to interfere with assays for the early detection of TGCTs. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
UI - 11719586
AU - Devouassoux-Shisheboran M; Mauduit C; Bouvier R; Berger F; Bouras M;
TI - Droz JP; Benahmed M Expression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 and assessment of microsatellite instability in testicular and mediastinal germ cell tumours.
SO - Mol Hum Reprod 2001 Dec;7(12):1099-105
AD - Institut National de la Sante et de la recherche Medicale, INSERM U-407, Communication en Biologie de la Reproduction, Faculte de medecine Lyon-Sud, B.P. 12, F-69921 Oullins Cedex, France.
The aim of this study was to investigate DNA mismatch repair deficiency in male germ cell tumours. We analysed the expression of two mismatch repair proteins, human mutL homologue 1 (hMLH1) and human mutS homologue 2 (hMSH2), and evaluated the frequency of microsatellite instability with 10 mononucleotide and two dinucleotide repeat sequences, in 39 paired tumour/normal DNA samples obtained from 17 testicular and two mediastinal germ cell tumours. In all 19 cases, hMLH1 and hMSH2 both showed nuclear immunolocalization in invasive and testicular in-situ tumours. In non-neoplastic seminiferous tubules, hMLH1 was expressed only in premeiotic germ cells, while hMSH2 was seen in all stages of spermatogenesis. Genetic analysis of dinucleotide markers revealed loss of heterozygosity in one of two testicular yolk sac tumours at D18S58 and an allelic shift at D2S123 in two of three testicular embryonal carcinomas, while none of the 12 seminomas exhibited a genetic abnormality at these loci. No abnormalities were demonstrated with the 10 mononucleotide markers. The two mediastinal germ cell tumours showed no genetic instability or allelic loss with all 12 markers. We suggest that genetic alterations as assessed by microsatellite analysis in germ cell tumours may reflect tissue maturation and phenotypic differentiation rather than tumour progression. In addition, we suggest that hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes may not be implicated in the genesis of germ cell tumours.
UI - 11980304
AU - Zerbib P; Prieur E; Khoury-Helou A; Catala P; Pruvot FR; Chambon JP
TI - [Hemorrhagic digestive metastases from testicular choriocarcinoma]
SO - Ann Chir 2002 Apr;127(4):300-1
AD - Service de chirurgie adultes Ouest, hopital Claude-Huriez, CHRU, 59037 Lille, France. email@example.com
The metastasis of testicular choriocarcinoma are often hemorrhagic, primarily of cerebral or pulmonary seat. The secondary digestive localizations are rare and of bad forecast when they bleed. The surgical operation by laparotomy allows the topographic diagnosis and the treatment, but was made responsible for hemorrhagic decompensation of other metastatic localizations engaging the vital forecast.
UI - 10392922
AU - Pearse I; Glick RD; Abramson SJ; Gerald WR; Shamberger RC; La Quaglia MP
TI - Testicular-sparing surgery for benign testicular tumors.
SO - J Pediatr Surg 1999 Jun;34(6):1000-3
AD - Department of Surgery (Pediatric Surgery), Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Although there has been a precedent of testicular-sparing surgery in some centers, the authors find it is still not general practice among pediatric surgeons. To address this and emphasize the role of testicular-sparing surgery in children, four patients with testicular masses are presented who underwent this procedure. METHODS: Four patients who underwent testicular-sparing surgery between the years 1993 and 1998 were reviewed. Demographic data, histopathology, and follow-up data were obtained from office charts. The period of follow-up ranged from 1 to 5 years. RESULTS: Four patients whose ages at diagnosis were 1, 2, 4, and 17 years presented with unilateral testicular masses. The alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels were within normal limits. Testicular ultrasonography was carried out on all patients, and groin exploration with spermatic cord isolation was performed in each case. After enucleation, frozen sections to confirm benignity was carried out before repair of the testis. Follow-up of 6 months to 5 years has shown no recurrence, and on examination, testicular volume is normal in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: Testicular-sparing surgery preserves testicular volume, which is important for both cosmetic and functional purposes. It is a viable and useful method in the management of benign testicular tumors in children.
UI - 11872354
AU - Cressey TR; Tilby MJ; Newell DR
TI - Decreased telomerase activity is not a reliable indicator of chemosensitivity in testicular cancer cell lines.
SO - Eur J Cancer 2002 Mar;38(4):586-93
AD - Cancer Research Unit, The Medical School, Framlington Place, University of Newcastle, NE2 4HH, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Telomere stabilisation is a critical step in tumorigenesis and telomerase, an enzyme which counteracts telomeric DNA loss, is active in most tumours. Conflicting evidence has been published concerning the potential use of telomerase activity as a measurement of drug-induced tumour cell killing. In this study, the time courses of telomerase loss and induction of apoptosis were investigated in two testicular cell lines, Susa CP and 833 K, following 4-h exposure to cisplatin, melphalan or doxorubicin. Telomerase activity was only affected in both cell lines at 20 h following exposure to high concentrations of cisplatin (100x the drug concentrations causing 50% growth inhibition (IC(50) values)). The time course of melphalan-induced telomerase loss, which was again only apparent at 100x IC(50) concentrations, varied between the cell lines and doxorubicin (100x IC(50)) did not induce telomerase loss in either of the cell lines. Importantly, the levels and rates of appearance of apoptotic cells (nuclear morphology and annexin V staining) were similar for all three drugs in both cell lines; i.e. cisplatin, melphalan and doxorubicin (100x IC(50)) caused similar frequencies of apoptosis in Susa CP cells at 24 h whereas telomerase activities were 65, 123 and 96% of the control, respectively. The possibility that telomerase activity was lost following cisplatin treatment through a direct interaction of cisplatin with telomerase was discounted. Additionally, the relative levels of the RNA component of telomerase (hTR) and mRNA for the telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT) were not related to the observed decreases in telomerase activity. These data indicate that telomerase activity is not a reliable indicator of chemosensitivity in human testicular cancer cells. Furthermore, cisplatin-induced loss of telomerase activity is not due to a direct reaction with the enzyme or decreased hTR levels.
UI - 11912380
AU - Saint F; Leroy X; Graziana JP; Moukassa D; Gosselin B; Biserte J; Chopin
TI - D; Rigot JM Dendritic cell infiltration in a patient with seminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis: is there a relationship with infertility and tumor stage?
SO - J Urol 2002 Apr;167(4):1643-7
AD - Department of Urology, CHRU Lille, Lille, France.
PURPOSE: Inflammatory cells, such as dendritic cells, are considered to trigger the antitumoral immune response against tumors, such as testicular cancer. Male infertility associated with cancer may be due to endocrine or immunological factors. We investigated possible associations of antigen expression with dendritic cells, histiocytic cells and seminoma stage as well as with impaired spermatogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1992 to 1999, 30 patients with seminoma underwent orchiectomy at our center, including 14 who underwent spermiography before orchiectomy. Streptavidin-biotin immunostaining was performed on paraffin -embedded tumor specimens using antibodies against protein S-100 for dendritic cells and CD68-KP1 antigen. RESULTS: Light infiltration by less than 20 dendritic cells and less than 103 CD68+ cells was associated with tumor size greater than 1.5 cm. in 75% and 80% of patients, respectively. Strong infiltration by greater than 20 dendritic cells and greater than 103 CD68+ cells was associated with negative lymph nodes in 86% of patients. Slight infiltration by dendritic cells was observed in 71% of patients with a sperm count of greater than 8.6 million per ml. and in 100% with more than 45% motile sperm (p not significant and 0.02, respectively). Necrospermia increased with dendritic and CD68+ cell infiltration. No association was noted among preoperative serum tumor marker levels, the sperm count and immunostaining. CONCLUSIONS: Sperm autoimmunity is a plausible mechanism of infertility in men with germ cell tumors. Dendritic cells may induce antitumor cell cytotoxic reactions, but may also be cytotoxic to sperm cells or lead to inhibited spermatogenesis. Further studies focusing on tumor rejection antigen and the cloning of specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte against gametes are required to confirm these finding.
UI - 11912415
AU - LaMontagne AE Jr
TI - Spontaneous rupture of a testicular tumor.
SO - J Urol 2002 Apr;167(4):1787-8
AD - Department of Urology, Eastern Connecticut Health Network, Manchester, Connecticut,USA.
UI - 11912417
AU - Bucci S; Liguori G; Buttazzi L; Bussani R; Trombetta C
TI - Bilateral testicular carcinoma in patient with the persistent mullerian duct syndrome.
SO - J Urol 2002 Apr;167(4):1790
AD - Department of Urology, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
UI - 11942962
AU - Spermon JR; De Geus-Oei LF; Kiemeney LA; Witjes JA; Oyen WJ
TI - The role of (18)fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography in initial staging and re-staging after chemotherapy for testicular germ cell tumours.
SO - BJU Int 2002 Apr;89(6):549-56
AD - Department of Urology, University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of 18fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the initial staging of clinical stage I and II nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCTs) and in re-staging (non)seminomatous GCTs after chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: FDG-PET studies were undertaken in 50 patients. FDG uptake was interpreted visually and when possible the standardized uptake value was determined. A FDG-PET scan was taken in five patients with clinical stage I and in seven with stage II NSGCT. The scans were validated by histology. Stage I patients underwent a retroperitoneal lymph node dissection because of vascular invasion in the primary tumour. Thirty-eight scans were taken after completing chemotherapy (28 NSGCTs and 10 seminomatous GCTs), and validated by histology or clinical follow-up. RESULTS: In stage I NSGCT, FDG-PET staging was equivalent to computed tomography (CT) staging. One small lesion, consisting of mature teratoma, was missed by both FDG-PET and CT. In stage II NSGCT, FDG-PET missed two lesions (mature teratoma and retroperitoneal mass with a small component of embryonal cell carcinoma) whereas CT correctly classified all. In 20 of 28 patients with NSGCT, histology was obtained after chemotherapy. In one of three patients with viable tumorous residual mass the FDG-PET scan was clearly positive; in four of 12 with mature teratoma and inflammation components retroperitoneally, the FDG-PET was also positive. In contrast, eight patients with solitary mature teratoma had a negative PET result. In four of five patients with necrosis after chemotherapy the PET result was correctly negative. All eight patients on surveillance had a negative PET scan and were free of disease at median (range) of 14 (8-18) months. Interestingly, of the 12 patients with a correct negative PET result, 11 had no mature teratoma in their primary tumour. Nine of 10 patients with SGCT were correctly staged. Two FDG-PET studies showed increased uptake; in one, a viable seminomatous mass was found and in the other there was inflammation in the residual mass. In all other patients the FDG-PET scan correctly predicted absence of viability in the residual mass. CONCLUSIONS: In primary staging, FDG-PET has no benefit over CT. In re-staging, a negative FDG-PET result predicts fibrotic residual mass in seminomatous GCT. Moreover, it could be useful to predict fibrotic residual mass in NSGCT in those patients with no teratoma component in their primary tumour.
UI - 11942982
AU - Vilandt J; Sonksen J; Mikines K; Torp-Pedersen S; Colstrup H
TI - Seminoma in the testes associated with haemospermia.
SO - BJU Int 2002 Apr;89(6):633
AD - Department of Urology, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark. firstname.lastname@example.org
UI - 12004856
AU - Nieto N; Torres-Valdivieso MJ; Aguado P; Mateos ME; Lopez-Perez J;
TI - Melero C; Vivanco JL; Gomez A Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis: case report and review of literature.
SO - Tumori 2002 Jan-Feb;88(1):72-4
AD - Section of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.
Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis is an infrequent tumor of the gonadal stroma characteristic of the pediatric age. It usually appears as a scrotal mass and less frequently as an abdominal or inguinal mass. It may be associated with ambiguous genitalia and/or abnormal sex chromosomes. The recommended treatment is orchiectomy alone because local recurrence or metastasis have never been observed. We describe a patient with a juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis and review the literature.
UI - 12004857
AU - Rao SR; Mistry RC; Parikh DM
TI - Leydig cell tumor: a case report and review of the literature.
SO - Tumori 2002 Jan-Feb;88(1):75-6
AD - Department of Surgery, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, India. email@example.com
We report a case of Leydig cell tumor, which is a rare testicular neoplasm. Most of them are benign. Malignant Leydig cell tumor is associated with a poor prognosis. The clinical features and treatment of Leydig cell tumor are discussed in this case report.
UI - 11956097
AU - Skotheim RI; Monni O; Mousses S; Fossa SD; Kallioniemi OP; Lothe RA;
TI - Kallioniemi A New insights into testicular germ cell tumorigenesis from gene expression profiling.
SO - Cancer Res 2002 Apr 15;62(8):2359-64
AD - Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, N-0310 Oslo, Norway.
We have shown recently that about half of the human TGCTs(3) reveal DNA copy number increases affecting two distinct regions on chromosome arm 17q. To identify potential target genes with elevated expressions attributable to the extra copies, we constructed a cDNA microarray containing 636 genes and expressed sequence tags from chromosome 17. The expression patterns of 14 TGCTs, 1 carcinoma in situ, and 3 normal testis samples were examined, all with known chromosome 17 copy numbers. The growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 (GRB7) and junction plakoglobin (JUP) were the two most highly overexpressed genes in the TGCTs. GRB7 is tightly linked to ERBB2 and is coamplified and coexpressed with this gene in several cancer types. Interestingly, the expression levels of ERBB2 were not elevated in the TGCTs, suggesting that GRB7 might be the target for the increased DNA copy number in TGCTs. Because of the limited knowledge of altered gene expression in the development of TGCTs, we also examined the expression levels of 512 additional genes located throughout the genome. Several genes novel to testicular tumorigenesis were consistently up- or down-regulated, including POV1, MYCL1, MYBL2, MXI1, and DNMT2. Additionally, overexpression of the proto-oncogenes CCND2 and MYCN were confirmed from the literature. The overexpressions were for some of the target genes closely associated to either seminoma or nonseminoma TGCTs, and hierarchical cluster analysis of the gene expression data effectively distinguished among the known histological subtypes. In summary, this focused functional genomic characterization of TGCTs has lead to the identification of new gene targets associated with a common genomic rearrangement as well as other genes with potential importance to testicular tumorigenesis.
UI - 11919460
AU - Tsatalpas P; Beuthien-Baumann B; Kropp J; Manseck A; Tiepolt C;
TI - Hakenberg OW; Burchert W; Franke WG; Wirth MP Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG positron emission tomography for detection and treatment control of malignant germ cell tumors.
SO - Urol Int 2002;68(3):157-63
AD - Department of Urology, University of Dresden, Germany.
INTRODUCTION: The role of positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) is currently under evaluation in urologic oncology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the use of [18F]FDG positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG-PET) in the detection and treatment control of malignant germ cell tumors compared to computed tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two PET studies and CT scans were carried out in 23 patients with histologically proven germ cell tumors (10 seminomas, 12 non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT), 1 unclassified serologic recurrent disease) Lugano stage I-III. The scans were done either after initial diagnosis (n = 21) and/or within 3-45 days after chemotherapy was completed (n = 11). PET and CT were validated either by histology (n = 7) or clinical follow-up of 6-11 months after the last PET study has been performed (n = 16). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values were determined for PET and CT. Differences between PET and CT for parameters of diagnostic value were evaluated by chi(2) test. RESULTS: Although not statistically significant, the sensitivity, accuracy and negative predictive value were higher for PET than for CT with respect to the detection of metastatic infradiaphragmatic and supradiaphragmatic lesions after initial diagnosis. The specificity and positive predictive value of PET and CT were comparable. After chemotherapy, PET was found to be significantly superior in specificity and accuracy compared to CT with respect to infradiaphragmatic lesions (p < 0.05). False-positive PET findings in supradiaphragmatic lesions after chemotherapy occurred in the case of inflammatory processes and resulted in a loss of specificity and accuracy compared to CT (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results demonstrate [18F]FDG-PET to be a useful diagnostic tool for the initial staging and treatment control in patients with germ cell tumors. Possible advantages compared to CT, however, are as yet not clearly defined. The possibility of false-positive PET findings due to reactive supradiaphragmatic inflammatory processes early after chemotherapy have to be considered. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
UI - 11919471
AU - Beardo P; Manasia P; Corral JM; Truan D; Alcover JB; Micali F
TI - Rare secondary carcinoma from bladder to testis.
SO - Urol Int 2002;68(3):204-5
AD - Department of Urology, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Spain.
Metastatic carcinoma to the testis is very unusual in daily urologic practice. We report a case of metastatic cancer to the testis detected as incidental findings in a squamous bladder tumor. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
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