National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: May 1, 2002
UI - 11935304
AU - Henley JD; Koukoulis GK; Loehrer PJ Sr
TI - Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in invasive thymoma.
SO - J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2002 Mar;128(3):167-70
AD - Department of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Clarian Health Partners, 550 North University Blvd., Rm 3465, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Activation results in a variety of cellular responses including cell proliferation and differentiation. In clinical trials, anti-EGFR is showing promise in the treatment of solid tumors expressing EGFR. Thus, we assessed EGFR expression in a series of thymic epithelial tumors. METHODS: Tumors from 37 patients seen at Indiana University School of Medicine (IUMC) for treatment of thymoma (31 patients) or thymic carcinoma (six patients) were assessed for EGFR expression. Five-micron sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor (28 invasive and/or metastatic thymomas, six thymic carcinomas, and three non-invasive thymomas) were stained with anti-EGFR. Any degree of cytoplasmic membrane staining of tumor cells was considered positive; furthermore, staining was scored 0 to 3+ using criteria as standardized for HER-2/neu assessment of breast carcinoma. Appropriate controls were performed. RESULTS: Positive staining of tumor was observed in 28 tumors (23 invasive and/or metastatic thymomas, two thymic carcinomas, and three non-invasive thymomas). CONCLUSIONS: EGFR is expressed in a high percentage of thymic epithelial tumors. EGFR is often strongly expressed and is a potential therapeutic target in patients with malignant thymic tumors. We are pursuing additional studies to assess anti-EGRF in the treatment of patients with advanced thymoma.
UI - 11888800
AU - Tomita M; Matsuzaki Y; Onitsuka T
TI - Relationship between expression of cancer-related proteins and tumor invasiveness in thymoma.
SO - Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2002 Mar;21(3):596
UI - 11859721
AU - Li J; Wang L; Zhang D
TI - [Cox multivariate analysis of prognosis and proposal on a modified staging system of thymoma]
SO - Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2001 Nov;23(6):500-2
AD - Department of Thoracic Surgical Oncology, Cancer Institute (Hospital), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathologic features, prognostic factors and propose a new modified staging criteria for thymoma. METHODS: The data of 159 patients operated for thymoma collected were retrospectively analyzed as to their prognostic factors and criteria of clinical staging through comparison of survival rates by the actuarial method, Log-rank and Cox multivariable model. RESULTS: Thorough resection (OR = 2.10), and extent of tumor invasion (OR = 1.73) were the most important prognostic factors. Tumor with peritumoral adhesion and absence of a complete capsule but without external invasion belonged to the criteria of stage II (II a). According to the prognosis and state of resection, lesions with obvious peritumoral invasion into the nearby organs but were thoroughly resected belonged to stage II (II b) and those incompletely resected belonged to III a. The unresectable lesions belonged to III b. CONCLUSION: According to the Cox prognostic multivariable model, the criteria of clinical staging of thymoma are defined as: Stage I-completely encapsulated non-invasive tumor without tight fibrous adhesions to the surroundings. Stage II a-only capsular invasion or capsule incomplete or with tight fibrous adhesions to the surroundings. II b-invasion into the surrounding fatty tissue, pleura, partial pericardium or lung, Stage III a-invasion into the great vessels, heart, trachea or hilus, which are resected with difficulty, or only palliatively. III b-extensive invasion into the nearby organs, and resection is impossible. Stage IV a-pleural or pericardial dissemination, IV b-lymphatic or hematogenous metastasis.
UI - 11859722
AU - Ge D; Zheng R; Fan H
TI - [Thymoma-report of 166 patients]
SO - Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2001 Nov;23(6):503-4
AD - Department of Thoracic Surgery, Zhong Shan Hospital, Fu Dan University, Shanghai 200032, China.
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the characteristics of operation and the prognosis of 166 patients with thymoma. METHODS: 166 thymoma patients were treated were 102 (61.4%) stage I, 28 (16.9%) stage II, 24 (14.5%) stage III, 12 (7.2%) stage IV a and 0 stage IV b lesions. The relation between stage and survival rate was analyzed. RESULTS: One (0.6%) patient died of the operation. 137 (82.5%) patients underwent radical operation. Thirty patients were lost to follow-up. With the life table method, the 10-year survival rate was 56.8%, with 79.8% for stage I, 51.6% for stage II, 33.5% for stage III and 0% for stage IV patients. CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of thymoma still depends on both clinical and pathological findings, which are correlated with stage. The principal treatment is to resect the tumor as completely as possible so as to relieve the symptoms and prolong the life of the patient.
UI - 11753243
AU - Palmieri G; Montella L; Lastoria S
TI - [Thymoma and somatostatin analogs. Biology, diagnostic and clinical practice]
SO - Minerva Endocrinol 2001 Sep;26(3):193-5
AD - Dipartimento di Endocrinologia e Oncologia Molecolare e Clinica, Universita degli Studi Federico II, Naples, Italy.
Thymic tumours are rare neoplasms which generally follow a slow pattern of growth, showing their aggressiveness locally through the infiltration of adjacent organs and they rarely metastasise hematogenically. In the presence of locally advanced, metastatic or inoperable disease, combined strategies including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery are now being evaluated. Scintigraphy with 111In DTPA-D-Phe 1 octreotide was used for the first time in a relevant series of patients with thymic tumour (13 cases) by our research group. The presence of somatostatin receptors (ss-R) assayed in vivo provided the rationale for the use of a treatment based on the octreotide analog in a patient with thymoma and aplasia of the erythroid series (pure red cell aplasia, PRCA) in whom a complete response for the tumour and the remission of anemia was obtained. The efficacy of this treatment was confirmed by our series of patients with chemoresistant thymic tumour and by national and international confirmations. These data, ranging from in vivo diagnosis to treatment and the in vitro study of receptor expression, confirm that somatostatin plays a major role in thymic tumours.
UI - 11887069
AU - Lequaglie C; Giudice G; Brega Massone PP; Conti B; Cataldo I
TI - Clinical and pathologic predictors of survival in patients with thymic tumors.
SO - J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2002 Apr;43(2):269-74
AD - Department of Thoracic Surgery, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano, Italy. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of thymectomy in patients with thymic neoplasms and to identify clinical and histopathological factors associated with improved long-term outcome cases, all non-myasthenic, had benign thymomas (n=30) but 6 had thymic carcinomas. Nine tumors were no-resected (5 thymomas and 4 thymic carcinomas). Minimum follow-up by Department of Thoracic Surgery Istituto Nazionale Tumori was 60 months after thymectomy. We divided the specimens according to Marino and Muller-Hermelink's classification: 54 thymomas, 18 thymic carcinomas and 2 no-diagnosis specify thymomas. There were 53 stage I, 1 stage II, 13 stage III, 5 stage IVa and 2 stage IVb according to Masaoka. RESULTS: Forty-six patients with treated thymoma were alive without disease at the end of follow-up, the remaining 8 died from recurrence in 6, a new tumor in 1 and a heart attack in the last. Of 18 thymic carcinomas 9 were alive at the end of follow-up (1 with recurrence), only 4 dead from recurrence. The actuarial survival of patients with thymomas was 88.5% at 5 years, (73.6% in cortical type, 85.7% in medullary type, 93.9% in mixed type, 100% in predominantly cortical type). Myasthenia gravis didn't influence the survival: 87.3 (no MG) vs 90%. Advanced stage thymomas significantly increased the risk of death from early stage I: 32.4 vs 100% at 5 years. In thymic carcinoma patients with well-differentiated thymic carcinoma (WDTC) died less than others: the actuarial probability of survival at 5 years was 90 vs 68%. CONCLUSIONS: Thymectomy was the best treatment to long term outcome. In our experience, survival was related to histotype and to local extension of tumor.
UI - 11942018
AU - Colaut F; Toniolo L; Sperti C; Pozzobon M; Scapinello A; Sartori CA
TI - Autoimmune-like pancreatitis in thymoma with myasthenia gravis.
SO - Chir Ital 2002 Jan-Feb;54(1):91-4
AD - Dept. of Thoracic Surgery, City Hospital of Castelfranco Veneto, 31033 Castefranco Veneto, Treviso.
A patient with thymoma and myasthenia gravis admitted for surgery presented increased serum levels of pancreatic amylase and lipase. Suspecting a thymoma-related autoimmune disorder, autoantibody serum titers were determined: increased autoantibody titers to acetylcholine receptors, thyroglobulin, thyroperoxidase and pancreatic insulin were detected. After thymectomy the serum levels of pancreatic enzymes decreased rapidly. Myasthenia gravis symptoms also improved. To the best of our knowledge no similar cases have been reported in the literature.
UI - 11805481
AU - Kim SJ; Kim IJ; Kim YK
TI - Tc-99m MIBI, Tc-99m tetrofosmin, and Tc-99m (V) DMSA accumulation in recurrent malignant thymoma.
SO - Clin Nucl Med 2002 Jan;27(1):30-3
AD - Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Korea.
Thymoma is the most common primary tumor of the anterior mediastinum, accounting for 20% to 30% of all mediastinal tumors. The recurrence rate after total resection of the thymoma ranges from 8% to 18%. The authors describe a patient with recurrent malignant thymoma imaged with Tc-99m MIBI, Tc-99m tetrofosmin, and Tc-99m (V) DMSA. Early and delayed Tc-99m MIBI and Tc-99m tetrofosmin scintigraphy showed increased uptake in the mediastinal area, as did Tc-99m (V) DMSA scintigraphy. Coronal SPECT images obtained with Tc-99m MIBI, Tc-99m tetrofosmin, and Tc-99m (V) DMSA showed increased uptake in the mediastinal lesion seen on a computed tomograph of the chest. However, the normal blood-pool activity of the heart and great vessels imaged with Tc-99m (V) DMSA obscured the recurrent malignant thymoma. Although Tc-99m (V) DMSA is a useful tumor-seeking agent, Tc-99m MIBI and Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT are preferred to Tc-99m (V) DMSA to detect primary and recurrent malignant thymoma.
UI - 11805485
AU - Squires RS; Smith M; Rohatgi PK
TI - Uptake of Tc-99m pertechnetate in thymoma.
SO - Clin Nucl Med 2002 Jan;27(1):47-8
AD - Department of Medicine, Washington Hospital Center, DC, USA.
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