National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: January 1, 2002
UI - 11370491
AU - Garden AS
TI - Organ preservation for carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx.
SO - Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2001 Apr;15(2):243-60, v
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Treatment of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers often necessitates total laryngectomy. This article reviews approaches of curing patients with these diseases while preserving their larynx. Strategies include radiation alone, neoadjuvant chemotherapy with radiation for responders, or concurrent chemotherapy and radiation. Both retrospective experiences and randomized trials evaluating differing therapies in an effort to achieve voice preservation are reported and analyzed.
UI - 11370492
AU - Teknos TN; Hogikyan ND; Wolf GT
TI - Conservation laryngeal surgery for malignant tumors of the larynx and pyriform sinus.
SO - Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2001 Apr;15(2):261-76
AD - Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Health Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. email@example.com
Conservation surgery for cancers of the larynx and pyriform sinus is an expansive and complicated subject. A great deal of technical expertise and clinical judgement are required for appropriate surgical and oncologic outcomes. In the appropriate setting, surgery continues to play an important role in voice preservation for patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Perhaps most importantly, options for organ preservation surgery have expanded, and the number of patients requiring total laryngectomy as primary surgical management has decreased. The medical surgical decision making is complex and requires precise delineation of tumor extent, careful patient evaluation, and thorough interdisciplinary discussion to select an optimal course of treatment for the individual patient.
UI - 11407451
AU - Yilmaz T; Turan E; Gursel B; Onerci M; Kaya S
TI - Positive surgical margins in cancer of the larynx.
SO - Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2001 May;258(4):188-91
AD - Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Ankara, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
In order to determine what should be done for laryngeal cancer patients when surgical margins are positive, and to evaluate their prognosis, a retrospective review of 21 laryngeal cancer patients with positive surgical margins out of 714 surgically treated cases (2.9%) was carried out. Nineteen patients were treated with postoperative radiation therapy. Two patients who had had endolaryngeal partial laryngectomy were treated with vertical partial laryngectomy. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Ten patients (10/19; 53%) were recurrence-free. Four patients had local, two had regional, and two had locoregional recurrences. Only one patient with a local recurrence could be salvaged with total laryngectomy and is disease-free. One patient developed liver metastasis. Nineteen patients had a mean and median disease-free survival of 48 and 36 months, respectively. Nine out of fourteen patients (64%) treated curatively were recurrence-free. The patients with positive margins developed significantly more locoregional recurrences than those with free margins (P < 0.05). We conclude that surgical margins must be checked peroperatively with frozen sections to make sure that they are free. The margins of every laryngectomy specimen must be diligently examined. If positive, re-excision, postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy are treatment alternatives. They should not just be managed with close follow-up. However, whatever treatment is applied, the prognosis for patients with positive margins is significantly worse than for those with free margins.
UI - 11444188
AU - Dreyer T; Knoblauch I; Doudkine A; MacAulay CE; Garner D; Palcic B;
TI - Popella C Nuclear texture features for classifying benign vs. dysplastic or malignant squamous epithelium of the larynx.
SO - Anal Quant Cytol Histol 2001 Jun;23(3):193-200
AD - Institute of Pathology and Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Langhansstrasse 10, D-35392 Giessen, Germany. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To search for nuclear features and feature combinations able to assess malignancy and premalignant changes on tissue sections of laryngeal squamous epithelium. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 139 lesions of benign changes (BC) (n = 44), epithelial dysplasias (ED) (n = 50) and invasive laryngeal cancer (LC) (n = 45) were retrieved from archival pathology specimens. The goal of this study was to identify the best features or feature combinations that discriminate BC from LC and also reflect the degree of ED. In order to verify the results on independent data, the groups were split into two separate subgroups, one for training and one for testing. RESULTS: On the test set of slides, the overall correct classification of BC vs. LC cases was 82% using only one feature, fractal2_area. This classification rate could be increased to 91% when a discriminant function based on 10 features was used. However, this gain was not significant. CONCLUSION: Fractal texture features can be used to assess malignancy on tissue sections as an alternative to DNA measurement. In this study feature combinations did not significantly improve classification rates.
UI - 11482578
AU - Sarioglu S; Ozer E; Kirimca F; Sis B; Pabuccuoglu U
TI - Matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression in laryngeal preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions.
SO - Pathol Res Pract 2001;197(7):483-6
AD - Dokuz Eylul University, School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Izmir, Turkey.
Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), a member of gelatinases, is particularly important in the digestion of nonfibrillary and denaturated collagens; thus, it may play a role in tissue remodeling and in the invasion of malignant cells. The expression of MMP-2 has not yet been described in preneoplastic lesions of the larynx thus far. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the expression of MMP-2 plays a role in early laryngeal carcinogenesis. Laryngectomy specimens of 20 invasive carcinoma cases were studied. The slides with atypical hyperplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma were selected from laryngectomy specimens. On these slides, 23 atypical hyperplasia and 17 carcinoma in situ areas were identified. MMP-2 expression was scored immunohistochemically on paraffin tissue sections using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. MMP-2 expression in all three groups was statistically different. A sequential increase in MMP-2 expression correlated significantly with the hypothesis of multistep carcinogenesis. In contrast, MMP-2 expression was not related to tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, or differentiation in squamous cell carcinomas. In conclusion, this sequential increase in MMP-2 expression points to an altered expression of MMP-2 in early neoplastic transformation in laryngeal mucosa, followed by an increasing expression during the progression of the disease.
UI - 11489367
AU - Tomik J; Skladzien J; Modrzejewski M
TI - Evaluation of cervical lymph node metastasis of 1400 patients with cancer of the larynx.
SO - Auris Nasus Larynx 2001 Aug;28(3):233-40
AD - Otolaryngological Clinic Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of the paper was to evaluate the results of surgical treatment of patients with laryngeal carcinoma, among whom cervical lymph node metastases were observed. The results of treatment were assessed after prior analysis of the following factors localization of laryngeal carcinoma, local and regional advancement, number of lymph nodes affected by metastases, the incidence of 'occult metastases', the presence of metastases in the pre-laryngeal node, the regions of the neck which were most frequently affected by metastases and supplementary irradiation treatment. METHODS: An analysis of a group of 1400 patients who underwent surgery for laryngeal carcinoma in the period 1948-1992, was carried out. In all of the cases, a partial or total laryngectomy accompanied by a unilateral or bilateral surgery of the cervical lymph node system was performed. The results of the above treatment were assessed over a 5-year survival period. RESULTS: In patients among whom metastases to the lymph nodes were observed, it is the following factors that exert an influence on survival chances: supraglottic and glottic localization of the tumor, an increase of regional and organ advancement of the tumor, number of lymph nodes affected by metastases, the presence of metastases in the 'pre-laryngeal' node and the level of the neck affected by metastases. CONCLUSION: The incidence of metastases in regional lymph nodes is a prognostic factor in the treatment of patients suffering from laryngeal carcinoma.
UI - 11167140
AU - Oreggia F; De Stefani E; Boffetta P; Brennan P; Deneo-Pellegrini H;
TI - Ronco AL Meat, fat and risk of laryngeal cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.
SO - Oral Oncol 2001 Feb;37(2):141-5
AD - Academia Nacional de Medicina, Montevideo, Uruguay.
The effect of meat and fat in laryngeal carcinogenesis was examined in a case-control study carried out in Uruguay in the time period 1998-1999. One-hundred and forty patients with squamous cell laryngeal carcinoma and 420 hospitalized patients, afflicted with conditions not related with tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking or recent dietary changes comprised the cases and controls in this study. All patients were interviewed face-to-face in the hospitals with a detailed questionnaire which included queries on 64 food items. Red and total meat intakes were associated with strong increases in risk of laryngeal cancer (odds ratio [OR] for high total meat intake 3.32, 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 1.23-8.95). This effect disappeared after controlling for total fat intake. On the other hand, total fat intake displayed a strong association with risk of laryngeal cancer when red meat was included in the same model (OR for high fat intake 7.05, 95% C.I. 2.51-19.8). Total fat intake combines its effect multiplicatively with tobacco smoking.
UI - 10646717
AU - Nikolaou AC; Markou CD; Petridis DG; Daniilidis IC
TI - Second primary neoplasms in patients with laryngeal carcinoma.
SO - Laryngoscope 2000 Jan;110(1):58-64
AD - University Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece. email@example.com
OBJECTIVES: To better define the characteristics of second primary malignancies appearing in patients suffering from head and neck cancers, and more specifically laryngeal carcinoma, and to elicit those parameters that may be of assistance in better diagnosing, treating, and predicting outcome in such patients. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of a group of 514 compliant subjects, examined and treated during an 8-year period until 1996. After initial diagnosis and subsequent treatment, rigorous follow-up ensured systematic screening of the subjects, who underwent standard examinations in outpatient clinics for periods of up to 56 months. RESULTS: Of 514 cases followed, presence of second primary neoplasms was established in 42 or 8.17%, 8 being synchronous and 34 metachronous of the original primary lesion. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory and upper gastrointestinal localizations were primarily affected, incidence was highest in septuagenarians, and staging of the primary was found to be irrelevant to the incidence rates of second primaries. No statistical significance was attached to the fact that supraglottic primary tumors showed slightly higher second primary rates; the same applying for well-differentiated primary tumors compared with poorly differentiated ones. Modality of treatment surgery, and radiotherapy being the options in question-did not in the long run statistically influence incidence rates. Throughout, reference to current literature and this study's relevance in light of similar efforts were taken into account.
UI - 11530473
AU - Antoniv VF; Rishko NM; Popadiuk VI; Pronchenko SV
TI - [Clinical classification of benign ENT tumor]
SO - Vestn Otorinolaringol 2001;(4):24-7
The proposed clinical classification of benign ENT tumors is based on division of anatomic regions (the ear, nose, pharynx, larynx) into sections and fragments and allows to assess the spread of any ENT tumor. Moreover, it agrees with TNM classification. The symbols "T" and R are used which denote four variants (T1-4) or R1-4 for the tumor and recurrence, respectively.
UI - 11520092
AU - Georgiou A; Gomatos IP; Ferekidis E; Syrigos K; Bistola V; Giotakis J;
TI - Adamopoulos G; Androulakis G Prognostic significance of p53, bax and bcl-2 gene expression in patients with laryngeal carcinoma.
SO - Eur J Surg Oncol 2001 Sep;27(6):574-80
AD - Department of Otolaryngology, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, Greece.
AIM: This study was designed to examine the prognostic significance of the coexpression of three genes (bax, bcl-2 and p53) which play a critical role in the apoptotic mechanisms in patients with squamous cell laryngeal carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The immunohistochemical expression of bcl-2, bax and p53 genes was retrospectively examined in 38 patients with squamous cell laryngeal carcinoma and in five controls (necrotomic tissue). Tissue specimens were obtained both during the diagnostic biopsy and at the time of surgery. Clinicopathological and survival data were correlated with the staining results. RESULTS: Bcl-2 protein expression (P=0.0472), stage (P=0.0087) and lymph-node involvement (P=0.0488) were found to be independent prognostic factors. Increased bcl-2 protein expression correlated with a better 5-year survival (P=0.0472). Patients who were bcl-2(-)/p53(-) (n=25) or bax(+)/bcl-2(-) (n=13) had a significantly worse overall survival (P=0.0305 and P=0.0482, respectively). Similarly, patients who were bax(+)/bcl-2(-)/p53(-) (n=11) also had a worse 5-year survival compared with the rest of the group (P=0.0088). Changes that were noticed in bax and p53 protein expression from the time of biopsy until the time of surgery did not correlate with a significant increase in the overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of bcl-2 gene appears to be an independent prognostic factor for patients with laryngeal carcinoma. The coexpression of the genes studied can be used to determine aggressive clinical phenotypes. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Limited.
UI - 11557449
AU - Myssiorek D; Halaas Y; Silver C
TI - Laryngeal and sinonasal paragangliomas.
SO - Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2001 Oct;34(5):971-82, vii
AD - Department of Otolaryngology and Communicative Disorders, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New Hyde Park, New York 11040, USA.
Laryngeal paragangliomas are classified as supraglottic and infraglottic. This article defines each type of paraganglioma, discusses the clinical features and diagnoses, and covers the surgical management. This article also addresses sinonasal paragangliomas, including their clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment.
UI - 11562393
AU - Zheng Z; Park JY; Guillemette C; Schantz SP; Lazarus P
TI - Tobacco carcinogen-detoxifying enzyme UGT1A7 and its association with orolaryngeal cancer risk.
SO - J Natl Cancer Inst 2001 Sep 19;93(18):1411-8
AD - Division of Cancer Control, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Interdisciplinary Oncology Program and Department of Biochemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa 33612, USA.
BACKGROUND: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A7 (UGT1A7) detoxifies several tobacco carcinogens. We determined whether UGT1A7 expression is observed in normal orolaryngeal tissue and whether UGT1A7 allelic variations are associated with the risk for orolaryngeal cancer. METHODS: UGT1A7 expression in normal orolaryngeal tissue was determined by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Buccal cell DNA isolated from 194 case subjects with orolaryngeal cancer and from 388 control subjects who were matched by sex, age, and race was subjected to UGT1A7 genotyping with the use of combined PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and allelic discrimination analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: UGT1A7 messenger RNA was expressed at similar levels in the esophagus, tongue, tonsil, floor of the mouth, and larynx. Genotyping revealed the presence of three variant reduced-activity UGT1A7 alleles in both Caucasians and African-Americans. Individuals with any of the predicted low-activity UGT1A7 genotypes had an increased risk of orolaryngeal cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7 to 8.7) relative to subjects with the wild-type genotype. Both Caucasians and African-Americans with the low-activity genotypes had statistically significantly increased orolaryngeal cancer risk compared with Caucasians and African-Americans with the wild-type genotype (OR = 2.8 [95% CI = 1.1 to 7.6] and OR = 6.2 [95% CI = 1.2 to 31], respectively). For subjects with the predicted low-activity genotypes, the risks of oral cavity cancer (OR = 4.2; 95% CI = 1.7 to 10) and laryngeal cancer (OR = 3.7; 95% CI = 0.99 to 14) were similar. There was no association between UGT1A7 genotype and orolaryngeal cancer risk in never smokers, whereas subjects with predicted low-activity UGT1A7 genotypes who were light smokers (OR = 3.7; 95% CI = 1.1 to 12) or heavy smokers (OR = 6.1; 95% CI = 1.5 to 25) had an increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: The tissue expression of UGT1A7 is consistent with the possibility of a physiologic role in orolaryngeal cancer. Variations in the UGT1A7 gene that reduce UGT1A7 activity may affect the risk of smoking-related orolaryngeal cancer.
UI - 11580231
AU - Vambutas A; DeVoti J; Pinn W; Steinberg BM; Bonagura VR
TI - Interaction of human papillomavirus type 11 E7 protein with TAP-1 results in the reduction of ATP-dependent peptide transport.
SO - Clin Immunol 2001 Oct;101(1):94-9
AD - Department of Otolaryngology, The Long Island Campus for the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New Hyde Park, New York 11040, USA.
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause benign and malignant epithelial tumors of the respiratory and genital mucosa. We previously reported that recurrent respiratory papillomas caused by HPV 6/11 express low levels of antibody-detectable TAP-1, the protein that transports peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum for assembly and presentation by MHC Class I, and that the extent of TAP-1 immunostaining is inversely related to the frequency of disease recurrence. We have now determined a mechanism for the reduction in TAP-1 detection. Anti-TAP-1 antibody immunoprecipitated very low amounts of protein from papilloma cells. However, immunoprecipitation of calreticulin, another member of the MHC I assembly complex, coprecipitated TAP-1 at levels comparable to those of uninfected cells. Immunoprecipitation of an HPV-positive cell line with either anti-TAP-1 or anti-calreticulin coprecipitated HPV E7 protein. Finally, purified HPV 11 E7 protein inhibited ATP-dependent peptide transport in vitro. We propose that the interaction of E7 with TAP-1 prevents TAP-1 antibody detection and efficient peptide transport, resulting in poor presentation of viral antigen on HPV-infected cells and thus failure to mount an effective immune-mediated prevention of disease recurrence. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
UI - 11601059
AU - Qi F; Zhang B; Xu Y
TI - [Cisplatin-induced apoptosis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma strain and the influence on cell cycle]
SO - Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 1999 Apr;79(4):298-301
AD - Department of Otolaryngology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing 100730.
OBJECTIVE: To find more effective chemotherapeutic agents and treatment regimens, we studied the cytotoxicity of cisplatin to human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma strain Hep2. METHODS: Using flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis technique, we investigated in vitro Hep2 cells in different conditions. RESULTS: Hep2 was adherent cells in normal survival condition. Cisplatin affected Hep2 cell growth apparently. Under fluorescence microscope, necrotic cells were red, apoptotic cells were blue with condensed and fragmented nuclei, and normal cells were evenly blue. Adherent cells were 86%-96% viable. But nonadherent cells were 6%-13% viable. Death cells increased with the increase of drug concentration and time elapsing. Death cells were mainly apoptotic cells. The latter appeared to be time- and dose-dependent. DNA "ladder" was observed for nonadherent cells in agarose gel electrophoresis, but adherent cells were not. "Sub-G1" phase peak occurred in flow cytometry. After cisplatin treatment, the volume of adherent cells increased with dose- and time dependence. Cisplatin could cause Hep2 cell cycle to change. At first, G1 phase cell percentage reduced, while S phase increased. With time elapsing, G2/M phase increased. Cells experienced a slow-down in S-phase followed by a G2 block. CONCLUSION: Apoptosis is a major way of Hep2 cell death after cisplatin treatment and appeared to be time- and dose-dependent. In clinical chemotherapy, cisplatin should be used in high concentration. Inducing apoptosis is one of the characteristics of chemotherapeutic agents. Cisplatin should be taken a combination regimen with cell cycle-special agents.
UI - 11605235
AU - Orlova NV; Smirnova SG; Zamulaeva IA; Andreev VG; Riabchenko NI; Saenko
TI - AS [Apoptosis of peripheral lymphocytes of healthy donors and patients with laryngeal neoplasms after gamma-irradiation in vitro]
SO - Radiats Biol Radioecol 2001 Jul-Aug;41(4):366-72
AD - Medical Radiological Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Obninsk, 249020 Russia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors and cancer patients after gamma-irradiation with different doses was studied by the flow cytometry method. Wide intra- and interindividual variabilities of the lymphocyte radiosensitivity were observed. The radiosensitivity did not depend on the subpopulation composition of the lymphocyte pool. The persons with very low and high lymphocyte radiosensitivities were found significantly more often among the cancer patients than among the healthy donors. One can suggest that this method is useful as a biomarker of future cancer risk and prognosis of radiotherapy efficiency.
UI - 11600604
AU - Mendenhall WM; Amdur RJ; Morris CG; Hinerman RW
TI - T1-T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx treated with radiation therapy.
SO - J Clin Oncol 2001 Oct 15;19(20):4029-36
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, USA. email@example.com
PURPOSE: The end results after radiation therapy for T1-T2N0 glottic carcinoma vary considerably. We analyze patient-related and treatment-related parameters that may influence the likelihood of cure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five hundred nineteen patients were treated with radiation therapy and had follow-up for >or= 2 years. Three patients who were disease-free were lost to follow-up at 7 months, 21 months, and 10.5 years. No other patients were lost to follow-up. RESULTS: Local control rates at 5 years after radiation therapy were as follows: T1A, 94%; T1B, 93%; T2A, 80%; and T2B, 72%. Multivariate analysis of local control revealed that the following parameters significantly influenced this end point: overall treatment time (P < .0001), T stage (P = .0003), and histologic differentiation (P = .013). Patients with poorly differentiated cancers fared less well than those with better differentiated lesions. Rates of local control with laryngeal preservation at 5 years were as follows: T1A and T1B, 95%; T2A, 82%; and T2B, 76%. Cause-specific survival rates at 5 years were as follows: T1A and T1B, 98%; T2A, 95%; and T2B, 90%. One patient with a T1N0 cancer and three patients with T2N0 lesions experienced severe late radiation complications. CONCLUSION: Radiation therapy cures a high percentage of patients with T1-T2N0 glottic carcinomas and has a low rate of severe complications. The major treatment-related parameter that influences the likelihood of cure is overall treatment time.
UI - 11642434
AU - dos Santos CR; Goncalves Filho J; Magrin J; Johnson LF; Ferlito A;
TI - Kowalski LP Involvement of level I neck lymph nodes in advanced squamous carcinoma of the larynx.
SO - Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2001 Oct;110(10):982-4
AD - Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Center for Treatment and Research, A. C. Camargo Cancer Hospital, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
This study was performed to evaluate the incidence of metastasis at level I in patients with squamous laryngeal cancer. One hundred consecutive patients with squamous carcinoma of the larynx were submitted to surgical treatment including radical neck dissection. The tumor stage was T3 or T4, and the neck stage was N1-N2c. Lymph node metastases were pathologically confirmed in 80 patients. Metastases were concentrated within level II in 59% of cases, level III in 17% of cases, level IV in 11% of cases, and level V in 6% of cases. Only 2 patients (2%) had detectable tumors in the lymph nodes of the submandibular triangle (level IB). This study shows that patients with laryngeal cancer rarely present metastases at the submandibular triangle, even in advanced local disease with cervical metastasis staged as N1 to N2c. Therefore, dissection of the submandibular triangle is indicated only in the presence of clinical, radiographic, or cytologic evidence of metastatic disease at level I.
UI - 11668514
AU - Ranelletti FO; Almadori G; Rocca B; Ferrandina G; Ciabattoni G; Habib A;
TI - Galli J; Maggiano N; Gessi M; Lauriola L Prognostic significance of cyclooxygenase-2 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
SO - Int J Cancer 2001 Nov 20;95(6):343-9
AD - Institute of Histology, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Roma, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression is an unfavorable prognostic marker in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). EGFR stimulates cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in normal human keratinocytes and squamous carcinoma cells. Based on these observations a prognostic role of COX-2 expression in laryngeal SCC can be hypothesized. Consequently, COX-2 expression was studied in laryngeal SCC (median follow-up = 47 months; range: 2-87 months) by quantitative immunohistochemistry (n = 61) and EGFR by binding assay (n = 51). Well-differentiated regions of laryngeal SCC revealed strong COX-2 immunostaining, whereas histologically normal areas neighboring tumor as well as poorly-differentiated tumors were negative. Immunohistochemical results were confirmed by Western blot analyses. Cox's regression analysis showed that the combination of low levels of COX-2 integrated density and high levels of EGFR covariates provided strong prediction, at 5-year follow-up, of both poor overall survival (chi(2) = 12.905; p = 0.0016) and relapse-free survival (chi(2) = 9.209; p = 0.01). In vitro studies on CO-K3 cell line, obtained from an EGFR positive, COX-2 negative poorly-differentiated laryngeal SCC, revealed that EGF stimulation failed to induce COX-2 expression and PGE2 production suggesting a change in EGFR signaling pathway. These findings indicate that COX-2 is overexpressed in less aggressive, low grade laryngeal SCC, whereas its expression is lost when tumors progress to a more malignant phenotype. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 11685560
AU - Machens A; Hinze R; Dralle H
TI - Surgery on the cervicovisceral axis for invasive thyroid cancer.
SO - Langenbecks Arch Surg 2001 Aug;386(5):318-23
AD - Department of General Surgery, Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst Grube Strasse 40, 06097 Halle/Saale, Germany. email@example.com
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Invasion of the cervicovisceral axis (i.e., larynx trachea esophagus) by thyroid cancers still poses a surgical challenge. patients who underwent surgery at this institution for differentiated (DTC) or medullary (MTC) thyroid carcinoma invading the cervicovisceral axis were recruited into this study. RESULTS: The cervicovisceral axis was invaded in 34 consecutive patients (19 DTC, 15 MTC). Of these, 20 patients underwent cervicovisceral resections. These resections were performed less often in MTC than in DTC patients (20% versus 89%; P<0.0001). Full-thickness invasion was present in 3 patients (2 DTC, 1 MTC). In the 20 resectional patients, tracheal wedge resection was the most common procedure followed by extramucosal esophageal resection. Surgical mortality was nil. There were five major complications, most of which occurred in either lateral tracheal or high-risk combined laryngo-tracheo-esophageal resections. CONCLUSION: The surgical approach to invasive thyroid carcinoma must balance surgical morbidity against the potential benefits of cervicovisceral resection. Individual factors must be considered, such as patient age and co-morbidity, the extent and nature of the tumor, and quality-of-life issues. Lateral resection of the trachea may cause significant tracheal instability and morbidity and, thus, be inferior to segmental tracheal resection.
UI - 11692950
AU - Lorente J; Rubio A; Quesada JL; Subirana FX; Simo M; Diez MJ; Perez M;
TI - Garcia M; Quesada P; Castell J [Usefulness of 201T1 gammagraphy in the diagnosis of carcinoma of the larynx]
SO - Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 2001 Oct;52(7):594-600
AD - Servicio de Otorrinolaringologia, Hospital General Universitario Vall D'Hebron, Pg. Vall d'Hebron, no. 119-129, 08035 Barcelona.
For the evaluation of a patient with a laryngeal tumor we need the clinical exam and other exams as the CT scan or MRI. Those studies have a sensitivity of less than 80%. For that reason in the last years there has been a development of new techniques trying to increase the accuracy. The 201Tl SPECT is one of them although it was developed for cardiological purposes. We present our experience in 46 patients with laryngeal tumor in whom we did a 201Tl SPECT as part of the extension study. The sensitivity of the study was 81.6% in the diagnosis of the primary tumor and 46.1% for the neck adenopathies. The 201Tl SPECT can be a good method for the evaluation and detection of recurrences in patients with pharyngo-laryngeal tumor.
UI - 11700453
AU - Aygenc E; Selcuk A; Celikkanat S; Ozbek C; Ozdem C
TI - The role of Helicobacter pylori infection in the cause of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.
SO - Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001 Nov;125(5):520-1
AD - Ankara Numune Hospital, 2nd Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Department, Izmir, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori can cause chronic infection that has been linked to the development of both benign and malignant disease of the aerodigestive tract. The purpose of this study was to determine the link between H pylori infection and squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx (SCCL). METHODS: We estimated the presence of IgG antibodies against H pylori antigens by using ELISA technique in the sera of 26 patients with SCCL and 32 matched controls without carcinoma of the larynx. RESULTS: The incidence of seropositivity of patients with SCCL was 73.07% and of controls was 40.62%. These data support an etiologic role for H pylori infection on development of SCCL (chi(2) = 4.85, P< 0.05). CONCLUSION: H pylori infection of the upper aerodigestive tract might result in mucosal disruption, allowing for subsequent transformation by known carcinogens such as tobacco and alcohol.
UI - 11710640
AU - Hagedorn H; Elbertzhagen A; Ruoss I; Sauer U; Nerlich AG
TI - Immunohistochemical analysis of major TGF-beta isoforms and their receptors in laryngeal carcinomas.
SO - Virchows Arch 2001 Oct;439(4):531-9
AD - Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Munich, Grosshadern Medical Center, Germany.
We analyzed immunohistochemically the tissue distribution of the three major transforming growth factors-beta isoforms (TGF-beta1, -2, -3) and their receptors (TBR-I, -II and -III) in tissue samples from 38 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Besides a qualitative evaluation, the number of the respectively labeled cells was determined by morphometric analysis. In all tumor samples a significant staining of most tumor cells was seen both for the TGF-beta isoforms and the TBRs. Similarly, the majority of stromal cells were labeled. On semiserial sections, there were only minor differences in the distribution pattern and in the number of labeled cells between the three TGF-beta isoforms and the TBRs, suggesting that most tumor cells are actively involved in the neosynthesis of TGF-betas and TBRs; accordingly, at least most tumor cells seem to be capable of producing more than one TGF-beta form and in parallel several TBRs. With decreasing tumor cell differentiation the number of TGF-beta- and TBR-positive tumor cells decreased slightly (but not to a statistically significant degree). Interestingly, the stromal cells were labeled for TGF-betas and TBRs to a lower extent than the epithelial cells, and there was no significant difference between non-tumor-associated control stroma and the immediate peritumoral stroma. Our observations suggest an even, enhanced level of TGF-beta production in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas, which may explain some well-known side-effects of tumor growth, such as stromal desmoplasia. In addition, the presence of immunoreactive TBR-proteins in the vast majority of tumor cells excludes the mere absence of TBRs in those carcinomas as the cause for inappropriate TGF-beta function in the tumor cells. This in turn suggests that molecular alterations either of the TBR-proteins non-affecting the synthesis and turnover or downstream alterations of the TGF-beta signaling pathway may be main reasons for the loss of response of the tumor cells to the enhanced amounts of TGF-betas.
UI - 11717891
AU - Xu X; Zhao M; Shi Y
TI - [Expression of heat shock proteins in laryngeal carcinoma]
SO - Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi 1998 Aug;33(4):232-4
AD - Cancer Hospital/Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the expression of HSPs(HSP90 alpha, HSP90 beta, HSP70, HSP27) in laryngeal carcinoma and normal laryngeal mucosa. METHODS: Total RNA were extracted from 21 laryngeal cancer tissue samples and the normal mucosa of the corresponding larynx. The expression of HSPs mRNA was examined by Slot blot analysis. RESULTS: 1. HSP90 alpha and HSP70 were selectively overexpressed 5 times more in laryngeal carcinoma than in normal mucosa of larynx. 2. HSP90 beta and HSP27 were constitutively expressed at low level in these two groups. There was no significant difference between the levels of expression of HSP90 beta and HSP27 in laryngeal carcinoma and normal controls. CONCLUSION: The results that HSP90 alpha and HSP 70 mRNA were selectively overexpressed in laryngeal carcinoma suggested that HSP90 alpha and HSP70 might play a specific role in the pathogenesis of laryngeal cancer. To clarify the mechanism of HSPs action could help to provide theorical basis for the biological therapy of laryngeal cancer.
UI - 11717894
AU - Li G; Xu Y; Zheng Y
TI - [Evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging in staging of laryngeal cancer]
SO - Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi 1998 Aug;33(4):240-1
AD - Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou 510120.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of the preoperative T staging of laryngeal cancer by MRI. METHODS: The MRI data of 59 cases of laryngeal cancer were retrospectively staged, and compared with the findings of laryngoscopy and postsurgical pathologic staging. RESULTS: The accuracy of staging in each T stage of laryngeal cancer was: T1:95% (20/21), T2:88% (15/17), T3:85% (11/13) T4:100% (8/8) by MRI, vs T1:91% (19/21), T2:88% (15/17), T3:47% (8/13), T4:13% (1/8) by laryngoscopy. The total accuracy of MRI vs laryngoscopy was 92% (54/59) vs 73%(43/59). P < 0.01. CONCLUSION: MRI can correctly depict the invasion of the preepiglottic space (PES), paraglottic space (PGS) and cartilage by laryngeal cancer and can greatly improve the accuracy of preoperative staging. It was considered that MRI of great importance in determining appropriate therapy for laryngeal cancer.
UI - 11717897
AU - Yany Z; Li Z; Jiang A
TI - [Application of CT virtual endoscopy in larynx]
SO - Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi 1998 Aug;33(4):247-8
AD - Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou 510080.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical application of CT virtual endoscopy in larynx. METHODS: The virtual endoscopy images were compared with that of actual laryngoscopy in 16 patients(4 normal larynx, 9 laryngeal carcinomas, 1 bilateral glottic polyps, one laryngeal fibrous hyperplasis and 1 airway striction caused by infiltration of the laryngeal carcinoma after laryngectomy). All the lesions were pathologically proved. RESULTS: CT virtual endoscopy showed the normal anatomical structure of larynx as actual laryngoscopy. The location and extension of the lesions of larynx showed in CT virtual endoscopy agreed with that of actual laryngoscopy. In addition, CT virtual laryngoscopy revealed the structure of subglottic region and distal portion of strictured airway from feet to head, which were not available in actual laryngoscopy. CONCLUSION: CT virtual laryngoscopy is a good complemental method of fiber optic laryngoscopy.
UI - 11717865
AU - Quan C; Guo X
TI - [Analysis of Myc gene family in laryngeal cancer]
SO - Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi 1998 Oct;33(5):273-5
AD - Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, First Teaching Hospital, Norman Bethune University of Medical Sciences, Changchun 130021.
OBJECTIVE: To study the abnormal amplification and role of Myc gene family in the development of laryngeal cancer. METHOD: A PCR-PAGE-Laser scanning technique was applied. RESULTS: There was no Myc gene amplification in the normal laryngeal tissues. The abnormal L-myc and C-myc gene were positive in 47% (15/32) of laryngeal cancers and 41% (13/32) of the cancers shown the N-myc gene amplification. Myc gene amplification was not related to age, sex and differentiation (P > 0.05), but the N-myc amplification was higher in patients with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The N-myc amplification may play a role of positive regulation in the lymph metastasis of laryngeal cancer. The abnormal amplification of Myc gene family is one of the causes in development of laryngeal cancer.
UI - 11717866
AU - Pan Z; Yan A; Guo X
TI - [Laryngeal reconstruction after near-total laryngectomy]
SO - Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi 1998 Oct;33(5):276-8
AD - First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001.
OBJECTIVE: To reduce the rate of near-total laryngectomy and reconstruct laryngeal function. METHOD: A retrospective review was made on 19 patients treated by near-total laryngectomy and laryngeal reconstruction from 1991 to 1996. Eight patients were male and 11 were female. The age range was from 40 to 74 years, with a mean age of 57.6. Two cases were in stage II, 9 cases stage III, 8 cases stage IV. The characteristic of this operation is to remove hyoid bone and reduce aspiration. RESULTS: Speech function in all patients was good. Deglutition in most patients was good. Five patients breathed through the larynx after decannulation. Fourteen patients respired through tracheostoma because of stenosis of laryngeal cavity. Among them, 10 cases did not need cannula for their wide tracheostomas, 4 cases needed cannula. Three-year survival rate was 78.6%(11/14), 5-year survival rate was 75%(3/4). CONCLUSION: Laryngeal reconstruction near-total laryngectomy is helpful to restore laryngeal function and decrease the rate of total laryngectomy.
UI - 11713427
AU - Mahlstedt K; Netz U; Schadel D; Eberle HG; Gross M
TI - An initial assessment of the optical properties of human laryngeal tissue.
SO - ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 2001 Nov-Dec;63(6):372-8
AD - Department of Audiology and Phoniatrics, University Hospital Benjamin Franklin, Freie Universitat Berlin, Fabeckstrasse 62, D-14195 Berlin, Germany. email@example.com
The optical properties of human laryngeal tissue have been examined over the whole wavelength range from 400 to 2,200 nm to facilitate the development of new laser applications. Tissue samples were taken from healthy vocal fold and from vocal fold of patients with papillomatosis and with chronic, nonspecific laryngitis. The transmission and scattering properties of the tissue samples were recorded with a computer-guided integrating-sphere system. From the measured data the optical properties were calculated by means of the inverse Monte Carlo simulation. In the 500- to 600-nm range papilloma tissues had a considerably higher absorption than healthy vocal fold. When applying the optical tissue properties as a possible influencing factor of the effectiveness of laser systems, laser applications at this wavelength range may be useful in the ablation of papilloma tissue. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
UI - 11733319
AU - Bely-Toueg N; Halimi P; Laccourreye O; Laskri F; Brasnu D; Frija G
TI - Normal laryngeal CT findings after supracricoid partial laryngectomy.
SO - AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001 Nov-Dec;22(10):1872-80
AD - Departments of Radiology, Hospital Laennec, University of Paris, France.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Supracricoid horizontal partial laryngectomy (SCPL) is increasingly used to treat endolaryngeal carcinoma. However, few radiologic reports of these procedures exist. Our purpose was to evaluate the normal CT appearance of the neolarynx after surgery. METHODS: SCPL includes cricohyoidopexy (CHP), cricohyoidoepiglottopexy