National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: January 1, 2002
UI - 11089191
AU - Tochigi H; Nakao Y; Horiuchi Y; Toyama Y
TI - Metastatic malignant melanoma in the hand muscle--a case report.
SO - Hand Surg 2000 Jul;5(1):69-72
AD - Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160, Japan.
UI - 11425214
AU - Markkanen-Leppanen M; Suominen E; Lehtonen H; Asko-Seljavaara S
TI - Free flap reconstructions in the management of oral and pharyngeal cancer.
SO - Acta Otolaryngol 2001 Apr;121(3):425-9
AD - Department of Otolaryngology, Helsinki University, Central Hospital, Finland. firstname.lastname@example.org
Fifty patients who had undergone microvascular free flap reconstruction of the oral cavity or pharynx for malignancy between 1989 and 1995 were retrospectively analysed to find factors predicting postoperative complications and outcomes. The mean follow-up time was 2.6 years. More than half (26/50) of the patients had a stage IV malignancy and 10 patients had a recurrent tumour. The overall flap success rate, with 2 flap losses, was 96%. Postoperative medical complications occurred in 29/50 (58%) cases. The recipient site of 10/50 (20%) flaps required re-exploration. Mortality was 2%, with 1 death occurring within 30 days. The mean survival rate after the microvascular operation was 1.6 years, and the 3- and 5-year survival rates were 42% and 23%, respectively. Patients with an oropharyngeal tumour seemed to have the best prognosis and those with a hypopharyngeal tumour the poorest. Men had a threefold greater risk of dying within < 1 year postoperatively compared with women. Tumour stage was the strongest attribute influencing survival. The risk of death after the microvascular procedure increased 2.8-fold when the stage advanced from II to III or from II to IV. None of the tested variables alone could predict complications.
UI - 11423019
AU - Ankem MK; Hartanto VH; Han KR; Ferlise VJ; Bancila E; Cummings KB;
TI - DiPaola RS Metastatic renal cell carcinoma presenting as an oral tumor.
SO - Can J Urol 2001 Jun;8(3):1295-6
AD - Division of Urology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903-0019, USA.
Metastatic cancer presenting as an oral lesion is exceedingly uncommon. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported instance of renal cell carcinoma presenting initially as an oral lesion.
UI - 11432667
AU - Higa M; Kinjo T; Miyagi J; Sakumoto N; Iwamasa T; Kishaba M; Sunakawa H
TI - Differences in EBNA2 and LMP-1 carboxy terminal region sequences of Epstein-Barr virus type A between the tumors in a multiple cancer patient.
SO - Pathol Res Pract 2001;197(6):401-9
AD - Department of Pathology, Ryukyu University School of Medicine, Nishihara, Okinawa, Japan.
Using PCR, type A Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection was demonstrated in a squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla (in a 52-year-old man) and the tongue of the same patient 18 years later (at the age of 70). Furthermore, at the age of 72, this patient developed an EBV-infected anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Analysis of the terminal regions of the EBV genome revealed a monoclonal proliferation of EBV-infected lymphoma cells. However, sequence analysis of the EBV revealed a slight difference in the EBNA2 regions between the virus-infected lymphoma and the squamous cell carcinomas. The mutations at 48991 (G-->T) and 48998 (C-->A) were demonstrated in the lymphoma. Although the squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue occurred after an interval of 18 years, the mutation site in the carcinomas was the same, 49137 (A-->G), as compared with B95-8 strain EBV EBNA2. The mutations at 48991 and at 49137 were associated with amino acid changes, Arg-->Met and Thr-->Ala, respectively, but the alteration at 48998 was a silent mutation. Thirty-bp deletion in the LMP-1 carboxy terminal region was demonstrated in the virus-infected lymphoma, but not in the squamous cell carcinomas. On the other hand, HTLV-1 proviral DNA (tax, gag and env) was not detected in the lymphoma, nor was HPV demonstrated in the squamous cell carcinomas, although Okinawa is known as an HTLV-1 and HPV prevalence region. The T-cell receptor beta gene rearrangement was demonstrated in the lymphoma, but the t(2;5) fusion transcript was not detected using PCR. Cytogenetic analysis of the lymphoma cells showed a complex hypertriploid karyotype with 76XY. The type A EBV infection might play a role in the carcinogenesis of the tumors of our patient. Interestingly, the infected virus genome sequences, the EBNA2 and LMP-1 regions, which were closely associated with carcinogenesis in the squamous cell carcinomas and the lymphoma, showed slight differences.
UI - 11484979
AU - Grammatica L; Piepoli S; D'Auria C; Achille G; Marzullo F; Zito FA;
TI - Labriola A; Salvatore C; Paradiso A Primary tumours neoangiogenesis and P53 expression in oral carcinoma patients.
SO - J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2001 Jun;20(2):225-30
AD - Otorhinolaryngology Unit, National Cancer Institute, Bari, Italy.
Paraffin embebbed tumour tissues from 47 T1-2 N0-1 M0 primary oral squamous carcinoma have been utilized for immunohistochemical analysis of p53 expression (moab DO-7) and microvessel density (MVD) analysis (moab CD34). Fifty percent of cases showed p53 immunostaining with an average of 21% of p53 positive cells. A strong trend for a longer survival in patients with tumor p53- versus p53+ was evidenced (median survival: 12 months versus not reached, respectively; p=0.08 by log-rank test). A mean value of 27 MVD was found. The probability of overall survival did not result significantly different in the subgroups of tumours with high and low MVD (median survival: 6 months versus 6 months, respectively; p=0.24). Cox multivariate analysis confirmed that the only prognostic factor significantly related to the overall survival was clinical nodal status (O.R.=2.7; 95% C.I. 1.09-6.9), while p53 status only approached the statistical significance (O.R.=2.5; 95% C.I. 0.96-6.5; p=0.06).
UI - 11488133
AU - Sanchez Jimenez J; Dean Ferrer A; Alamillos Granados F; Ruiz Masera JJ;
TI - Villar Pastor C; Garcia Lopez A; Penalba Manegold M Adult rhabdomyoma in the masticatory area. New case presentation and review of the literature.
SO - Med Oral 2001 Jan-Feb;6(1):64-8
AD - Servicio de Cirugia Oral y Maxilofacial, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Cordoba, Espana. email@example.com
Adult rhabdomyoma is a rare neoplasm of mesenchymal origin which represents approximately 2% of tumors with skeletal muscle differentiation. There are only about 100 cases reported in the literature. It is a benign tumor occurring most frequently in the head and neck region, which affects predominantly male population of a mean age ranging from 54 to 60. The purpose of this article is to present a new case of adult rhabdomyoma located in the masticatory area, arising as a slow-growing mass bulging in the left-side jugal mucosa and temporal region. The most common location for adult rhabdomyoma is the pharyngeal cavity. This type of tumor appears as a solitary mass, though occasionally may be multifocal. This tumor being of low occurrence, correct diagnosis can prevent aggressive surgery.
UI - 11167138
AU - Kerdpon D; Sriplung H
TI - Factors related to delay in diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma in southern Thailand.
SO - Oral Oncol 2001 Feb;37(2):127-31
AD - Stomatology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Prince of Songkla University, Haad Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand. firstname.lastname@example.org
The factors related to patient, professional and total delay in 161 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients attending for treatment at a university hospital in southern Thailand were investigated. About 42 and 20% of these patients had a patient delay of more than 1 month and 3 months, respectively. About half of the patients received proper management from health care professionals (HCPs) on their first consultation. Traditional herbal medication use was significantly associated with prolonged patient delay (hazard ratio [HR] 0.46, 95% C.I. 0.28-0.76). None of the variables investigated had a significant association with professional delay. Traditional herbal medication use also significantly prolonged total delay (HR 0.45, 95% C.I. 0.27-0.74). Buddhists had shorter total delay than Muslims (HR 0.68, 95% C.I. 0.49-0.95). The present study indicates that both patients and HCPs are responsible for the diagnostic delay. A health education campaign about OSCC and the use of traditional herbal medication is recommended to shorten patient delay. Continuing education on oral cancer and precancer for HCPs and clarification of the referral system are needed to effect a major reduction in professional delay.
UI - 11167139
AU - Fujimoto R; Kamata N; Yokoyama K; Ueda N; Satomura K; Hayashi E;
TI - Nagayama M Expression of telomerase components in oral keratinocytes and squamous cell carcinomas.
SO - Oral Oncol 2001 Feb;37(2):132-40
AD - First Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Tokushima University, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima City, Tokushima 770-8504, Japan.
Telomerase activity was measured using a telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP), and expressions of the telomerase components, telomerase associated protein 1 (hTEP1), human telomerase RNA component (hTR), and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) were measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in cultured normal oral keratinocytes and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. Telomerase localization was analyzed by in situ hybridization (ISH) in normal, precancerous and cancerous oral tissues. There was a strong correlation of telomerase activity with the expression levels of hTERT but not with hTEP1 or hTR mRNA in the cultured cells. Not only hTEP1 and hTR but also hTERT expression were detected in the basal cells of normal oral mucosa, and the cells expressing these mRNAs were also seen in the upper layer of leukoplakia of gingiva, and a heterogeneous pattern of expression was observed in the oral SCC tissues. These results indicate that there are at least two steps in the increase of telomerase activity during carcinogenesis in oral squamous cells; a change in distribution of cells expressing these telomerase components and the over-expression of hTERT gene in individual cells.
UI - 11167141
AU - Uobe K; Masuno K; Fang YR; Li LJ; Wen YM; Ueda Y; Tanaka A
TI - Detection of HPV in Japanese and Chinese oral carcinomas by in situ PCR.
SO - Oral Oncol 2001 Feb;37(2):146-52
AD - Department of Oral Pathology, Osaka Dental University, 8-1 Kuzuhahanazono-cho, Hirakata-shi, Osaka 573-1121, Japan.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is established as the cause of almost 100% of cervical carcinomas. However, the association of HPV with oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) is less well understood. We examined the prevalence of HPV in oral SCCs in samples of Japanese and Chinese populations. Using in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis (MY09 and MY11 consensus primers), HPV was detected in the nucleus of epithelia and tumor cells in oral lesions. Analysis revealed the specific presence of HPV DNA in all cases of SCC in our Japanese (10/10) and Chinese (10/10) population samples. These results suggest that HPV infection could be one of several risk factors contributing to oral SCC in Japanese and Chinese.
UI - 11167142
AU - Homann N; Tillonen J; Rintamaki H; Salaspuro M; Lindqvist C; Meurman JH
TI - Poor dental status increases acetaldehyde production from ethanol in saliva: a possible link to increased oral cancer risk among heavy drinkers.
SO - Oral Oncol 2001 Feb;37(2):153-8
AD - Research Unit of Alcohol Diseases, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
Epidemiological data support evidence that poor dental status increases oral cavity cancer risk especially among heavy alcohol consumers, but the causality of this finding is unclear. The enzymatic conversion of ethanol by the physiological oral microflora may lead to an accumulation of the highly carcinogenic intermediate acetaldehyde. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of dental status on the microbial production of acetaldehyde from ethanol in saliva. The microbial acetaldehyde production from ethanol was related to the dental score in 132 volunteers. After adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption, age and gender, poor dental status was shown to lead to an approximately twofold increase in salivary acetaldehyde production from ethanol (P=0.02). Our results could be an important factor underlying the role of poor dental hygiene and status in oral cancer risk associated with ethanol drinking.
UI - 11167144
AU - Ravi D; Ramadas K; Mathew BS; Panikkar KR; Nair MK; Pillai MR
TI - Apoptosis, angiogenesis and proliferation: trifunctional measure of tumour response to radiotherapy for oral cancer.
SO - Oral Oncol 2001 Feb;37(2):164-71
AD - Division of Laboratory Medicine, Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala State 695011, India.
Local recurrence is a significant problem following radiotherapy in oral carcinoma and hence there is a paramount need for predictive markers. This study therefore analysed the predictive value of pre-treatment status of angiogenesis, apoptosis, expression of apoptosis regulatory p53, bax and bcl-2 proteins as well as tissue proliferation in relation to tumour response to radiotherapy. Sixty-nine histologically defined invasive carcinoma lesions were included in the study. Extent of apoptosis was defined morphologically and by the TUNEL (Tdt-mediated dUTP biotin nick end labelling) assay. Expression of apoptosis regulatory p53, bax and bcl-2 proteins were evaluated by immunocytochemistry. Mutant p53 protein was detected using a mutant p53-specific ELISA. The extent of tissue proliferation was evaluated by cyclin D1 expression. Angiogenesis was evaluated by CD34 antigen expression. All patients were treated with radical radiotherapy and followed up for 36 months. High levels of p53 protein detected by immunocytochemistry were found to be associated with poor response to treatment or disease relapse. Detection of mutant p53 protein also showed significant association with poor prognosis. Low levels of angiogenesis had a correlation with recurrence status. Tumours showing less vascularisation as well as increased apoptosis had a poor prognosis. Expression of p53 and bcl-2 proteins showed direct correlation with angiogenesis. There was no correlation between clinical status and any of the experimental parameters with histopathological grades of invasive lesions. Presence of mutant p53 protein is suggestive of poor tumour response to radiotherapy. Expression of p53 and increased apoptosis in less vascularised tumours is associated with treatment resistance. A predictive assay based on these results designed to analyse individual tumour samples showed presence of apoptotic cells near the vasculature to be indicative of good prognosis, while absence of apoptotic cells or highly proliferative cells and/or expression of bcl-2 protein in cells around the vasculature to be an indicator of poor prognosis.
UI - 11167146
AU - Ikuta M; Podyma KA; Maruyama K; Enomoto S; Yanagishita M
TI - Expression of heparanase in oral cancer cell lines and oral cancer tissues.
SO - Oral Oncol 2001 Feb;37(2):177-84
AD - Oral Surgery, Department of Oral Restitution, Division of Oral Health Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan. email@example.com
In the process of metastasis, cancer cells secrete several enzymes which degrade extracellular matrices (ECMs) and basement membranes (BMs) of blood vessels. One of them, heparanase, has been reported to be an important enzyme when metastatic cancer cells invade blood vessels. The enzyme cleaves heparan sulfate (HS), a main component of ECM and BM. In the present study, HS-degrading ability of several human oral cancer cell lines (HSC2, HSC3, HSC4, Ca9-22, NA, ACC3 and Ab-J) and tissues derived from human oral squamous cell carcinomas (both metastatic and non-metastatic) were investigated by measuring heparanase activities and levels of heparanase mRNA by a quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The catalytic activities and the mRNA levels of heparanase showed a good agreement. Clinical demonstration of cancer metastasis generally correlated with high levels of heparanase activity and its mRNA. The results suggest that heparanase activity and its mRNA level are good diagnostic parameters for evaluating the metastatic properties of human oral cancer cells.
UI - 11167149
AU - Poulopoulos AK; Antoniades K; Kiziridou A
TI - Bilateral metastatic breast angiosarcoma to the mandibular gingiva: case report.
SO - Oral Oncol 2001 Feb;37(2):199-201
AD - Department of Oral Medicine and Pathology, Dental School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
Metastases to the jaws and oral soft tissues are rare. A case of breast angiosarcoma metastatic to the mandible and the gingiva, bilaterally in the premolar area is presented. The clinical, histological features and the management of the metastatic oral lesions are reported. Our case emphasises the possibility that in patients with history of breast angiosarcoma, oral inflammatory-like lesions may be an indication of a metastatic deposit.
UI - 11036243
AU - Al-Rajhi N; Khafaga Y; El-Husseiny J; Saleem M; Mourad W; Al-Otieschan
TI - A; Al-Amro A Early stage carcinoma of oral tongue: prognostic factors for local control and survival.
SO - Oral Oncol 2000 Nov;36(6):508-14
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, MBC 34, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, PO Box 3354, 11211, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. firstname.lastname@example.org
The purpose of this study was to assess prognostic factors, treatment outcomes and patterns of relapse in patients with early stage (T1-2 N0) squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue treated primarily by surgery. The medical records of all patients with early stage (T1-2 N0) oral tongue cancer, radically treated at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Eighty-five patients were identified for analysis, 38 male and 47 female. With a median follow-up for surviving patients of 64 months, 5-year actuarial overall, disease-specific (DSS), and relapse-free survival (RFS) were 71, 75, and 63%, respectively. Univariate analysis for DSS showed survival advantage for patients with tumor thickness (TT) of < or =10 mm (P=0.0002) and distance from resection margin (DFRM) of > 5 mm (P=0.005). The effect of TT of < or =10 mm was maintained (P=0.001) on multivariate analysis. Higher RFS was observed with TT of < or =10 mm (P=0.0002), DFRM of > 5 mm (P=0.0002) and DFRM of >10 mm (P=0.007). On multivariate analysis higher RFS was also found for TT < or =10 mm (P=0.01) and DFRM >5 mm (P=0.01). Salvage of local tongue recurrence was higher than neck node failure, with 5-year DSS of 71 and 19%, respectively (P=0.007). Time interval for recurrence showed no significant impact on outcome. In T1-2 N0 oral tongue cancer, TT, and DFRM are significant prognostic factors for both local control and survival. Neck node recurrence is associated with poor prognosis and low salvage rate.
UI - 11036245
AU - Lo Muzio L; Favia G; Mignogna MD; Piattelli A; Maiorano E
TI - Primary intraoral leiomyosarcoma of the tongue: an immunohistochemical study and review of the literature.
SO - Oral Oncol 2000 Nov;36(6):519-24
AD - Department of Dentistry and Surgery, University of Bari, Bari, Italy. email@example.com
Leiomyosarcoma is a relatively uncommon mesenchymal tumor that exhibits smooth-muscle differentiation. We report a new case of leiomyosarcoma involving the tongue of a 67-year-old male. Histologically, the tumor was composed of variably oriented fascicles of spindle-shaped cells with 'cigar-shaped' nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm, containing occasional PAS-positive granules. Atypical mitotic figures and necrotic foci were frequently detected. Consistent desmin, alpha-smooth muscle-specific and sarcomeric actin, and vimentin immunoreactivity was demonstrated in the tumor cells, whereas cytokeratins, CD 30, CD 31, CD 34, CD 45, CD 68, EMA, GFAP, HMB 45 and S-100 protein were negative. The patient underwent wide surgical excision of the tumor and is alive and disease-free at a 5-year follow-up. This report emphasizes the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these uncommon tumors in an intra-oral location.
UI - 11036246
AU - Nunes DN; Kowalski LP; Simpson AJ
TI - Detection of oral and oropharyngeal cancer by microsatellite analysis in mouth washes and lesion brushings.
SO - Oral Oncol 2000 Nov;36(6):525-8
AD - Laboratory of Cancer Genetics, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Rna Prof. Antonio Prudente, 109 - 4th floor, 01509-010, SP, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Microsatellite allele losses are characteristic features of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and can be used as molecular markers for malignancy. We have investigated the detection of microsatellite allele loss in mouth washes and lesions brushings from 19 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx as a means of tumour detection. In 84% of the analysed cases, allele loss previously identified in the tumour of these patients, was detected in these easily obtained specimens. No alterations were found in material derived from 10 healthy individuals. Success of detection was independent of tumour stage, suggesting that this approach may be useful for early diagnosis as well as for follow-up.
UI - 11036247
AU - Rogers SN; Lowe D; Humphris G
TI - Distinct patient groups in oral cancer: a prospective study of perceived health status following primary surgery.
SO - Oral Oncol 2000 Nov;36(6):529-38
AD - Regional Maxillofacial Unit, University Hospital Aintree, Fazakerley, L9 1AL, Liverpool, UK.
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important consideration in the management of patients with cancer. Pre-treatment data can give an indication of the anticipated response following cancer treatment. However, in order to use HRQOL data meaningfully it is essential to have an appreciation of how different patient groups respond. The aim of the study was to identify distinct patient groups at baseline using the University of Washington head and neck cancer questionnaire (UW-QOL). It was also the intention to see how these groups differed in their: (1) clinical and demographic attributes; (2) European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) C30 and SF 36 scores; and (3) longitudinal trends over 6 and 12 months. One-hundred and thirty consecutive patients with previously untreated oral and oro-pharyngeal cancer were recruited. All were treated by primary surgery. Attrition was evident in the study but care was taken to allow for this. There were two distinct groups of patients identified by the cumulative UW-QOL score at presentation. These groups discriminated throughout the EORTC C30 and SF 36, at baseline and longitudinally, with the exception of mental health. This study demonstrates that HRQOL items are interrelated. There are difficulties in using baseline scores for treatment selection, and scores need to be interpreted in the light of clinical and demographic factors.
UI - 11036248
AU - Yao L; Zhao YL; Itoh S; Wada S; Yue L; Furuta I
TI - Thrombospondin-1 expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas: correlations with tumor vascularity, clinicopathological features and survival.
SO - Oral Oncol 2000 Nov;36(6):539-44
AD - Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a 450 kd glycoprotein synthesized and incorporated into the extracellular matrix by numerous cell types and reported to suppress tumor growth and progression by its inhibition of angiogenesis. In order to clarify the biological role of TSP-1 and determine its clinicopathological significance in oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), we identified TSP-1 protein expression in 54 oral SCCs by immunohistochemistry and correlated it with microvessel density (MVD), clinicopathological features and patient's survival. Thirty-two out of 54 carcinomas (59%) were identified as having a low level of TSP-1 expression (TSP-1-L), and 22/54 (41%) carcinomas identified as having a high level of TSP-1 expression (TSP-1-H). The MVD counts (mean+/-S.D.=9.0+/-4.9) in TSP-1-H tumors was significantly lower than that (mean+/-S.D.=12.7+/-4.4) in TSP-1-H tumors (P=0.0065). The level of TSP-1 expression was not correlated with T category and histologic grade, but inversely correlated with the pattern of tumor invasion (P=0.0136) and with lymph nodal status (P=0.0119). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the 5-year survival rate of TSP-1-H group was significantly higher than that of TSP-l-L group. Our results suggested that TSP-1 expression exerts an inhibitory effect on tumor vascularity, and that it has value in assessment of aggressiveness and prognosis of oral SCCs.
UI - 11036249
AU - Sato S; Miyauchi M; Takekoshi T; Zhao M; Kudo Y; Ogawa I; Kitagawa S;
TI - Fujita M; Takata T Reduced expression of CD44 variant 9 is related to lymph node metastasis and poor survival in squamous cell carcinoma of tongue.
SO - Oral Oncol 2000 Nov;36(6):545-9
AD - Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, 734-8553, Hiroshima, Japan.
Expression of CD44v9 was immunohistochemically studied in 120 biopsy specimens from primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue and correlated with clinicopathological findings of the SCCs. The tumors were classified into three groups according to immunostaining pattern of CD44v9; 53 cases with distinct positivity in all cancer cells except for those in the central part of nests (Group 1, non-reduced group), 42 cases with reduced expression in peripheral cells of nests (Group 2, reduced group), and 25 cases with complete disappearance of the expression in one or more nests (Group 3, negative group). Nineteen of 25 (76%) tumors in Group 3 and 14 of 42 (33%) in Group 2 exhibited lymph node metastasis, compared with only 8 of 53 (15%) in Group 1. The average survival time in Groups 1, 2 and 3 was 4496+/-204, 3866+/-379 and 2719+/-359 days, respectively and became shorter with the reduction of CD44v9 expression. These results suggest that the down-regulation of CD44v9 in SCC of the tongue may relate to the detachment of tumor cells from primary lesions, establishment of lymph node metastasis and consequently the death of patients.
UI - 11036251
AU - Richards A; Costelloe MA; Eveson JW; Scully C; Irvine GH; Rooney N
TI - Oral mucosal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma--a dangerous mimic.
SO - Oral Oncol 2000 Nov;36(6):556-8
AD - University of Bristol Dental Hospital, Lower Maudlin Street, BS1 2LY, Bristol, UK.
Reports of T-cell lymphomas in the oral cavity are rare. Most have presented as a persisting ulcerated swelling. This paper reports two men, one of whom presented with a short history of increasing facial swelling and pain apparently related to a lower premolar tooth, and the other who had recurrent oral ulceration in several sites over a period of years. These types of cases are likely to present initially to general dental practitioners.
UI - 11120478
AU - Prime SS; Thakker NS; Pring M; Guest PG; Paterson IC
TI - A review of inherited cancer syndromes and their relevance to oral squamous cell carcinoma.
SO - Oral Oncol 2001 Jan;37(1):1-16
AD - Department of Oral and Dental Science, University of Bristol, Lower Maudlin Street, BS1 2LY, Bristol, UK. email@example.com
This paper examines the genetic defects associated with inherited cancer syndromes and their relevance to oral cancer. Tumour suppressor genes are now thought of as either gatekeepers or caretakers according to whether they control cell growth directly by inhibiting cell proliferation and/or promoting cell death (gatekeepers) or whether they maintain the integrity of the genome by DNA repair mechanisms (caretakers). In disorders such as xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia telangiectasia, Bloom syndrome and Fanconi's anaemia, where there are defective caretaker genes, there is an increased incidence of second primary malignancies, including oral cancer. By contrast, with the exception of Li Fraumeni syndrome, abnormalities of gatekeeper genes do not predispose to oral cancer. Not only do Li Fraumeni patients develop second primary malignancies, but defects of the p53 pathway (p53 mutation, MDM2 over-expression, CDKN2A deletion) appear to be a ubiquitous feature of sporadic oral cancer as it occurs in the West. The findings suggest that genetic instability is of fundamental importance in the pathogenesis of oral cancer.
UI - 11120491
AU - Pandey M; Thomas G; Somanathan T; Sankaranarayanan R; Abraham EK; Jacob
TI - BJ; Mathew B; The Trivandrum Oral Cancer Screening Study Group Evaluation of surgical excision of non-homogeneous oral leukoplakia in a screening intervention trial, Kerala, India.
SO - Oral Oncol 2001 Jan;37(1):103-9
AD - Regional Cancer Centre, Medical College Campus, Trivandrum, 695011, Kerala, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
It is well established that most invasive oral cancers arise from precancerous lesions such as leukoplakia, erythroplakia and oral submucous fibrosis. One of the approaches for control of oral cancer is to detect oral precancerous lesions early in their development and prevent their malignant transformation to invasive cancer either by chemoprevention or by surgical excision of the lesions, with concurrent control of tobacco and alcohol use and other specific aetiological factors. However, the value of specific approaches such surgery in long-term control of lesions and prevention of malignant transformation is not known. We describe our experience with cold knife surgical excision of 59 cases of non-homogeneous leukoplakia of the oral cavity diagnosed in the context of a community-based oral cancer cluster randomised oral cancer screening trial in Kerala, India. Two-thirds of these revealed dysplasia on histology. After a minimum follow-up of 12 months (range 12-37 months) after surgical excision, 44 (74.8%) were remaining disease free with no evidence of recurrent/new lesions; during follow-up, three (5%) developed new luekoplakic lesions, and six (10.1%) developed recurrent lesions, while six (10.1%) could not be traced after treatment. There was no event of malignant change during follow-up. The proportion of subjects remaining with no evidence of disease at 3 years by Kaplan-Meier method of analysis was 62.1% (95% CI: 0.36-0.87). Accrual and long-term follow-up of large number of surgically treated cases may provide valuable leads to management policies of oral leukoplakia, since, as of now, the added value of specific treatments over and above primary prevention by tobacco and alcohol control remains to be established.