National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: February 1, 2002
UI - 11751424
AU - Lin MT; Juan CY; Chang KJ; Chen WJ; Kuo ML
TI - IL-6 inhibits apoptosis and retains oxidative DNA lesions in human gastric cancer AGS cells through up-regulation of anti-apoptotic gene mcl-1.
SO - Carcinogenesis 2001 Dec;22(12):1947-53
AD - Department of Surgery, National Taiwan Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
Apoptosis plays a critical role in maintaining genomic integrity by selectively removing the most heavily damaged cells from the population. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and certain inflammatory cytokines are always elevated during the human carcinogenic process. However, the biological significance of the interplay between ROS and inflammatory cytokine remains elusive. This study demonstrates that interleukin-6 (IL-6) effectively protects gastric cancer cells from the apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The cell death signaling JNK pathway elicited by H(2)O(2) is also inhibited by IL-6. We further found that Mcl-1, but not other Bcl-2 family members, was up-regulated by IL-6, by a substantial level over 24 h. We further transfected a mcl-1 expression vector, pCMV-mcl-1, into the AGS cells, and successfully obtained several mcl-1-overexpressing clones. Flow cytometric analysis shows that these mcl-1-overexpressing AGS cells are more resistant to the apoptosis induced by H(2)O(2) when compared with the neo control AGS cells. Consistently, the activation of the JNK pathway induced by H(2)O(2) is also blocked in mcl-1-overexpressed cells. These results indicate that the anti-apoptotic effect of IL-6 is, at least in part, due to the up-regulation of mcl-1. To our surprise, either IL-6 exposure or mcl-1 overexpression fails to reduce the level of intracellular peroxides in the AGS cells triggered by H(2)O(2). This study also determined the level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dGua), an indicator for oxidative DNA lesions in IL-6-treated or mcl-1-overexpressed AGS cells after treatment with H(2)O(2). Notably, our results indicate that a majority of the 8-OH-dGua is efficiently removed in the AGS cells without IL-6 treatment, whereas only approximately 50% of the 8-OH-dGua was repaired in the IL-6-treated AGS cells after 24 h. Similarly, approximately 60-70% of the 8-OH-dGua also failed to repair and was retained in the genomic DNA of the mcl-1 transfectants. Results in this study provide a novel mechanism by which up-regulation of the Mcl-1 protein by IL-6 may enhance the susceptibility to H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative DNA lesions by overriding apoptosis.
UI - 11778557
AU - Wu H; Yang G; Dong Y
TI - [APC gene expression in precancerous lesions of stomach examined by light and electron microscopic in situ hybridization]
SO - Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2000 Jul;22(4):308-10
AD - Department of Pathology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China.
OBJECTIVE: To study the significance of abnormal expression of APC gene in gastric cancer and its precancerous lesions. METHODS: The expression of APC gene was examined in 119 cases of precancerous lesions and 40 cases of gastric cancers by light and electron microscopic in situ hybridization technique. RESULTS: 1. The positive rate of APC gene expression in normal gastric mucosa, mild dysplasia, moderately severe dysplasia, severe dysplasia and gastric cancer was 83.3%, 77.8%, 62.5%, 25.9%, and 6.7%-8.0%, respectively. 2. In 4 types of intestinal metaplasia (IM), APC gene expressed much more frequently in colonic type than in small intestinal type (P < 0.05), more frequently in incomplete type of IM than in complete type (P > 0.05). The positive rate of incomplete colonic type was the highest. 3. Under electron microscope, the APC positive signals were located in the cytoplasm matrix of gastric mucosa cells. They decreased gradually from normal parietal cells, dysplasia cells to cancer cells till negative. CONCLUSION: Abnormal expression of APC gene occurs mainly in precancerous lesion-severe dysplasia. It is considered as an early event during gastric carcinogenesis. Detecting APC gene in gastric mucosa helps predict the trend of dyplasia to become malignant, and diagnose gastric cancer in early stage.
UI - 11778558
AU - Chen Z; Zheng T; Chen J
TI - [Evaluation of ten-year results of cancer prevention and treatment in Changle City with high incidence of gastric cancer]
SO - Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2000 Jul;22(4):311-3
AD - Fujian Provincial Tumour Hospital, Fuzhou 350014, China.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of cancer prevention and treatment over a 10-year period (1988-1997) in Changle City with high incidence of gastric cancer. METHODS: The results were analysed with sick rate random test, trend test, GM and Kaplan-Meier method with SAS statistical software. RESULTS: During the ten years, the sick rate of malignant tumors in male residents initially increased but then decreased. Gastric cancer had a tendency to decline. There was no obvious change for females. By short-term prediction, the sick rate of malignant tumors and gastric cancer would decrease, and that of liver cancer remain steady. The life expectancy of male residents increased 4.2 years and that of female residents increased 1.8 years from 1988 to 1997 if cancer death was ignored, but the increase was not significant if only deaths from gastric and liver cancers were excluded. The 5-year survival rate of gastric cancer and liver cancer increased 8.8% and 29.3% from 1988 to 1990, respectively. The cumulative risk rate of gastric cancer in males was 3 times as high as that of females, and that of liver cancer in males was 2.5 times as high as that of females. CONCLUSION: Sustained measures of cancer prevention and treatment woult anticipate further improvement of health status of Changle's residents in the years to come.
UI - 11521798
AU - Raderer M; Osterreicher C; Machold K; Formanek M; Fiebiger W; Penz M;
TI - Dragosics B; Chott A Impaired response of gastric MALT-lymphoma to Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with autoimmune disease.
SO - Ann Oncol 2001 Jul;12(7):937-9
AD - Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Vienna, Austria. email@example.com
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gastric MALT-lymphoma is thought to be related to chronic antigenic stimulation provided by Helicobacter pylori (HP). As clonal expansion of gastric B cells not related to HP has been demonstrated in patients with autoimmune disease (AD), we have analysed whether AD adversely influences response of MALT-lymphoma following HP-eradication. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all patients with early stage gastric MALT-lymphoma treated with HP-eradication was performed. The presence of AD was evaluated by personal questioning for specific symptoms and serologically by analysis of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies and thyroid autoantibodies. RESULTS: A total of 22 patients were identified receiving only antibiotic treatment for initial management, and six presented with an autoimmune condition: three had Sjogren's syndrome, one polymyalgia rheumatica, one autoimmune thyroiditis along with psoriasis, and one patient had only autoimmune thyroiditis. Successful eradication of HP was achieved in all patients, and 15 of 22 patients (68%) achieved complete response of the lymphoma, while none out of the six patients with an autoimmune disorder responded to HP-eradication. CONCLUSION: Apart from questioning the role of HP in the development of lymphoma in such patients, these results suggest that patients with autoimmune disease might not be optimal candidates for HP-eradication even in case of early stage lymphoma.
UI - 11577792
AU - Sun W; Haller DG
TI - Recent advances in the treatment of gastric cancer.
SO - Drugs 2001;61(11):1545-51
AD - University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.
Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. The prognosis of the disease is poor, with only 40% of patients eligible to undergo potentially curative surgery. Even for those patients who undergo a complete resection, the rate of recurrence is very high. Extensive studies of multidisciplinary adjuvant treatment have been conducted seeking to improve the cure rates in the past two decades. The benefit of D2 dissection is still controversial and is undergoing prospective evaluation. Preliminary results from the United States Gastrointestinal Intergroup study, a well designed trial, have shown overall survival benefit of postoperative chemoradiation therapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation is under active study in order to increase the number of patients to undergo potential curative surgery. Although many chemotherapy regimens have been developed recently, only modest clinical efficacy has been demonstrated for advanced metastatic disease. So far, there is no single regimen considered to be standard.
UI - 11815962
AU - Hyung WJ; Noh SH; Lee JH; Huh JJ; Lah KH; Choi SH; Min JS
TI - Early gastric carcinoma with signet ring cell histology.
SO - Cancer 2002 Jan 1;94(1):78-83
AD - Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
BACKGROUND: There has been much controversy surrounding the biologic behavior and prognosis of early stage gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC). To clarify the biologic behavior of early stage gastric SRC (early SRC), we compared the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of early SRC with other histologic types. METHODS: A total of 933 patients with early gastric carcinoma who had undergone gastrectomy from 1987 to 1995 were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 263 patients with SRC were compared to 670 patients with other histologic types. RESULTS: Younger patients more often had SRC than non-SRC. Additionally, the proportion of females was greater in SRC than in non-SRC. Signet ring cell carcinoma had a larger proportion of mucosa-confined lesions and a lower rate of lymph node metastasis than non-SRC. Even after stratifying the clinicopathologic characteristics, SRC showed a lower rate of lymph node metastasis than non-SRC. When the lymph node metastasis rate was compared between SRC and undifferentiated histology other than SRC, SRC demonstrated a lower lymph node metastasis rate. Multivariate analysis showed that SRC histology was a negative independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis in early gastric carcinoma. The prognosis of SRC was significantly better than that of non-SRC (P = 0.0104). CONCLUSIONS: Early gastric carcinoma with SRC is a distinct type of gastric carcinoma in terms of clinicopathologic features and prognosis. The favorable prognosis and lower rate of lymph node metastasis in early SRC suggest that the patients with early gastric carcinoma with SRC could be candidates for less invasive surgeries for an improved quality of life. Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.
UI - 11552717
AU - Chan WY; Chan EK; Chow JH
TI - Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric lymphomas are distinct from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type lymphomas: genetic abnormalities of p53 gene.
SO - Diagn Mol Pathol 2001 Sep;10(3):153-60
AD - Department of Anatomical & Cellular Pathology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT. firstname.lastname@example.org
The authors studied 46 primary gastric lymphomas for expression of the p53 gene by immunohistochemistry and screened for mutations in p53 exon 5-8 by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism. Twenty-five specimens cases were also analyzed for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomal region 17p12-13.1. In 36 lymphomas negative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, of which 29 were of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type, p53 genetic changes were found in 47.2% but correlated poorly with overexpression. Only 20% of the mutations involved exon 7. There were recurrent mutations of intron 7, intron 6, and exon 6. In contrast, the 10 EBV-positive cases, none of MALT type, had a much higher rate of mutation, and all showed both p53 overexpression and p53 mutation and/or LOH, and 87.5% had mutations involving exon 7. Four of these involved codon 242, not seen in the EBV-negative group. Splicing mutations of intron 8 were seen in three specimens, two involving the same nucleotide position. In four of five specimens, LOH analysis identified microsatellite instability, allelic loss, or both. The Helicobacter pylori infection rate in the EBV-positive group (20%) was much lower than in the EBV-negative group (91.7%). These differences between the two groups suggest involvement of different carcinogens. Mutation of codon 242 has not been specifically associated with other tumors and may represent a mutational hot spot in the EBV-positive lymphomas.
UI - 11747229
AU - Gu M; Ghafari S; Nguyen PT; Lin F
TI - Cytologic diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy: cytomorphologic and immunohistochemical study of 12 cases.
SO - Diagn Cytopathol 2001 Dec;25(6):343-50
AD - Department of Pathology, University of California Irvine Medical Center, Orange, California 92868, USA. email@example.com
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is an uncommon tumor, which was usually diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy or surgical resection. This study evaluated the efficacy and accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) -guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy in the diagnosis of GIST and reported its cytomorphologic features. Twelve patients with gastric GIST were diagnosed through EUS-guided FNA. Immediate on-site evaluation and cytologic diagnoses were given in nine cases (75.0%) with an average of three passes. Cell blocks provided diagnostic material in three cases (25.0%). Spindle cells were present in the cytologic material in all cases. Two patients had subsequent surgical resections. Immunohistochemical (IHC) studies performed in cell blocks and two surgical specimens all supported the original diagnoses. In the two cases with surgical resections, IHC results in cell blocks were similar to that in the resected specimens. This study demonstrated that when combining smears and cell blocks, EUS-guided FNA is accurate and efficient in the diagnosis of GIST. IHC reactivity in cell blocks correlated with that of the main tumors. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 11769693
AU - Liu X; Wang Q; Ma J
TI - [A case-control study on the risk factors of stomach cancer in Tianjin city]
SO - Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2001 Oct;22(5):362-4
AD - Department of Epidemiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the risk factors of stomach cancer in Tianjin. METHODS: A matched case-controls study was carried out. A total number of 189 patients with stomach cancer who were individually matched and interviewed. RESULTS: Multivariate conditional logistic analysis showed that stomach cancer was closely relate to the four factors: smoked food (OR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.60-4.98), cigarettes smoking (OR = 6.07, 95% CI: 1.26-7.16), heavy salt intake (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.27-3.23) and excessive intake of meats (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.05-2.02) were risk factors for stomach cancer. CONCLUSION: Frequent eating smoked food, cigarettes smoking, heavy salt intake and over intake of meats were risk factors for stomach cancer.
UI - 11775866
AU - Wang R; Fang D; Liu W; Luo Y
TI - [Aberrant expression of MUC2 and MUC3 genes in gastric carcinoma and its significance]
SO - Chin Med J (Engl) 2000 Jun;113(6):502-7
AD - Department of Gastroenterology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.
OBJECTIVES: To explore the clinicopathological significance of the expression of MUC2 (mucin 2) and MUC3 (mucin 3) genes in tissues of the normal gastric mucosa, intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric carcinoma. METHODS: MUC2 and MUC3 apomucins were detected by immunohistochemistry; MUC2 and MUC3 mRNAs were detected by in situ hybridization. RESULTS: In the normal stomach, antibody detecting MUC2 apomucin and oligonucleotide probe detecting MUC2 mRNA were not reactive with mucus-producing cells in the superficial epithelium and neck, which were weakly reactive with antibody and probe detecting MUC3. In the duodenum, MUC2 apomucin and mRNA were found at the peri- and supranuclear area of goblet cells, but MUC3 apomucin and mRNA were at the cytoplasm of goblet cells and columnar cells. MUC2 and MUC3 apomucins and its mRNAs were found in 85.2%, 88.9% and 31.6%; 57.1% of specimens of IM, 67.4%, 66.7% and 57.9%, 43.6% of specimens of gastric carcinoma. There were no associations between expressions of MUC2 and MUC3 genes and different types of IM. Patients with moderate/well differentiation had higher proportion of MUC2 apomucin expression than those with poor differentiation (P < 0.05), and patients with positive staining of MUC3 apomucin in the cancerous tissues had higher proportions of metastasis of lymph nodes (P < 0.01), serosal invasion (P < 0.05) and clinical stages III-IV (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: MUC2 and MUC3 genes are mainly expressed in the mucosa of the duodenum, and marked expression is seen during the neoplastic transformation of stomach mucosa. MUC3 apomucin might have a poor prognostic significance.
UI - 11774216
AU - Wang Q; Chen H; Bai J; Wang B; Wang K; Gao H; Wang Z; Wang S; Zhang Q;
TI - Fu S [Analysis of loss of heterozygosity on 19p in primary gastric cancer]
SO - Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2001 Dec;18(6):459-61
AD - Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Harbin Medical University, Harbin Heilongjian, 150086 P.R.China.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) frequency of microsatellite loci in primary gastric cancer samples and locate the deleted regions on 19p in which might exist human gastric cancer related genes. METHODS: The LOH of microsatellite loci on chromosome 19p was analyzed using PCR-SSLP-silver stain method in 43 primary gastric cancers and their paired normal tissues. RESULTS: In 43 primary gastric tumors, LOH was detected on the site for D19S424(29.63%), D19S216(11.53%), D19S406 (33.33%), D19S413(8.57%), D19S221(13.15%), D19S226(8.00%), D19S411(6.45%), D19S883(6.89%), and D19S886(10.71%), microsatellite instability (MSI) was found at the same time at locus D19S886 (17.85%). CONCLUSION: The most common LOH occurrence at D19S406 and D19S424 might imply the existence of the potential genes related to the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer in these loci.
UI - 11802535
AU - Chen TK; Wu CH; Lee CL; Lai YC; Yang SS; Tu TC
TI - Endoscopic ultrasonography to study the causes of extragastric compression mimicking gastric submucosal tumor.
SO - J Formos Med Assoc 2001 Nov;100(11):758-61
AD - Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Many reports have confirmed that endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) can differentiate gastric submucosal tumor from extragastric compression, but only a few specifically concentrated on EUS in identifying the causes of external compression. MATERIALS AND diagnose gastric submucosal tumor or external compression. We excluded 183 patients who had submucosal tumors and analyzed the remaining 55 patients with extragastric compression. Malignant causes of external compression were proved by surgery or biopsy. Benign causes of external compression were proved by other imaging examinations (abdominal ultrasound, computerized tomography, angiography) or surgery. Patients with external compression caused by normal organs were followed up with repeated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy or EUS. RESULTS: The stomach was compressed by normal extragastric organs in 32 patients (spleen 10, splenic vessel 6, gall bladder 9, liver 3, pancreas 3, and intestine 1), by benign pathologic lesions in 12 patients (liver cyst 7, liver hemagioma 2, splenic cyst 1, pancreatic cyst 1, pancreatic cystadenoma 1) and by malignant tumors in 5 patients (hepatoma 1, liver metastasis from colon cancer 2, pancreatic cystadenocarcinoma 1 and lymphoma of spleen 1). In the remaining six patients, neither submucosal tumor nor external compression was found during EUS examination and the external compression was considered transient. CONCLUSION: When an extragastric compression mimicking submucosal tumor is detected by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, EUS is indicated to identify the cause of extragastric compression.
UI - 11578917
AU - Davis PA; Sano T
TI - The difference in gastric cancer between Japan, USA and Europe: what are the facts? what are the suggestions?
SO - Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2001 Oct;40(1):77-94
AD - Imperial College School of Medicine, St. Mary's Hospital, London, UK.
In Japan the survival rate for gastric cancer has steadily improved over the last 30 years whilst that in the West has remained static and inferior. In this review three hypotheses are examined to explain the difference. There is little evidence to suggest genetic differences, which might result in a less aggressive cancer in Japan. Recently there has been a rise in the proportion of cancers of the gastro-oesophageal junction in the West and this has not been seen in Japan. The comparison of survival data from these two regions is problematic with different staging systems and a stage migration effect. The established surgical treatment of gastric cancer in Japan is radical gastrectomy and regional lymphadenectomy and this has been proposed as a superior treatment to the standard gastrectomy common in the West. The results for survival benefit however, have not been reproduced in randomized clinical trials. The heterogeneity of adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment regimens in Japan and the West has led to difficulties in the interpretation of their effects. There is considerable scope for future collaboration between clinicians in the West and Japan.
UI - 11807778
AU - Hiyama T; Haruma K; Kitadai Y; Masuda H; Miyamoto M; Tanaka S; Yoshihara
TI - M; Shimamoto F; Chayama K K-ras mutation in helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis in patients with and without gastric cancer.
SO - Int J Cancer 2002 Feb 10;97(5):562-6
AD - First Department of Internal Medicine, Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima, Japan.
Mutations of an oncogene, K-ras, are associated with the development and progression of many types of human cancer. To elucidate the significance of K-ras mutations in gastric carcinogenesis, we examined K-ras mutations in gastric cancers and in Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis (H. pylori-CG), which is associated with an increased risk for the gastric cancer development. Specimens of gastric cancer and H. pylori-CG were obtained from 64 gastric cancer patients with H. pylori-CG, 99 cancer-free H. pylori-CG patients and 30 H. pylori-negative healthy subjects. K-ras mutations were examined by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), followed by DNA sequencing analysis. K-ras mutations were detected in 4 of 48 (8.3%) gastric cancers, in 10 of 163 (6.1%) H. pylori-CG and none of the 30 H. pylori-negative healthy subjects. In the gastric cancer patients, mutated K-ras was detected in differentiated type cancers but not in any of the undifferentiated type cancers. K-ras mutations in H. pylori-CG were significantly more frequent in gastric cancer patients than in cancer-free patients (10.9% vs. 3.0%, p = 0.044). In addition, K-ras mutations in H. pylori-CG were significantly more frequent in patients with K-ras mutated gastric cancer than in patients with K-ras unmutated gastric cancer (50.0% vs. 3.7%, p = 0.037). These data suggest that the genetic mechanism(s) of carcinogenesis differs between the differentiated type and the undifferentiated type of gastric cancer and that K-ras mutations may be involved in the early stages of gastric carcinogenesis of the differentiated type. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 11807799
AU - Yatsuya H; Toyoshima H; Mizoue T; Kondo T; Tamakoshi K; Hori Y; Tokui N;
TI - Hoshiyama Y; Kikuchi S; Sakata K; Hayakawa N; Tamakoshi A; Ohno Y; Yoshimura T Family history and the risk of stomach cancer death in Japan: differences by age and gender.
SO - Int J Cancer 2002 Feb 10;97(5):688-94
AD - Department of Public Health/ Health Information Dynamics, Field of Social Life Science, Program in Health and Community Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Familial aggregation of stomach cancer has long been observed. The effect on disease risk of family history and its magnitude according to the type of affected relatives, however, is not well known. We conducted a prospective analysis using the JACC study (Japan Collaborative Cohort Study For Evaluation of Cancer Risk, sponsored by Monbusho) data. During the follow-up period, 662 stomach cancer deaths were documented. A positive history of stomach cancer in one or more first-degree relatives was associated with a significantly increased risk of death from the disease in both men (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.11-2.31) and women (RR 2.47; 95% CI 1.50-4.06). In the subanalysis stratified by age, the association between positive family history and stomach cancer was stronger in the age group from 40-59 (RR 2.62; 95% CI 1.34-5.11 for men and RR 5.88; 95% CI 2.70-12.82 for women) than in the age group from 60-79 (RR 1.31; 95% CI 0.84-2.05 for men and RR 1.44; 95% CI 0.72-2.88 for women). In the age group from 40-59, men with father's history and women with mother's and sister's history of the disease had a significantly increased risk (RR 3.14; 95% CI 1.51-6.55, RR 10.46; 95% CI 4.54-24.12, RR 13.39; 95% CI 3.89-46.12, respectively). When 2 or more family members were affected, the increment in the risk was prominent especially in women (RR 9.45; 95% CI 4.46-20.05). These results suggest the existence of a certain subtype of stomach cancer that is inherited more often by women from one generation to the next in gender-influenced fashion. Any preventive strategy should take into account the degree of individual susceptibility. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 11722818
AU - Casado Martin F; Dominguez-Diez A; Rodriguez Sanjuan J; Lopez Useros A;
TI - Cabrera Garcia M; Moreno Muzas C; Palomar Fontanet R; Fernandez-Escalante C; Gomez Fleitas M [Surgery of early gastric cancer. Twenty-five year experience]
SO - Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001 Nov;24(9):427-32
AD - Instituto de Patologia Digestiva, Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Santander, Cantabria, Spain.
AIM: To study the influence of the depth of parietal invasion (mucosal-submucosal), the presence or absence of ganglionic invasion and type of gastrectomy performed (subtotal or total) on survival in patients with early gastric cancer. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal study.Patients: A clinical-pathologic study of 101 patients who underwent surgery for early gastric cancer was performed. Probability of survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier and logrank tests and multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox test. RESULTS: Mucosal involvement was found in 46 patients (45.5%) and submucosal involvement in 55 patients (54.5%). The presence of ganglionic metastases was greater in tumors reaching the submucosa (14 [25.5%]) than in those limited to the mucosa (4 [8.7%]). Partial gastrectomy was performed according to tumor location in 84 patients (83.2%), total gastrectomy was performed in 16 patients (15.8%) and 1 wedge resection was performed. The mean postoperative follow-up was 84.04 55.89 months (range: 2-264). Comparison of survival in patients with tumors limited to the mucosal or submucosal layers revealed a p-value of 0.06 (NS). Comparison of survival in patients with metastases and in those without metastases revealed a p-value of < 0.0001. Comparison of survival between patients who underwent total gastrectomy and those who underwent partial gastrectomy showed a p-value of 0.38 (NS). Postoperative mortality was nil. Overall survival at 5 years was 79.24% and at 10 years was 68.14%. Multivariate analysis revealed that ganglionic involvement and depth of parietal invasion influenced survival. CONCLUSIONS: Survival is influenced by ganglionic involvement but not by submucosal invasion. Partial gastrectomy may be an appropriate procedure since survival is similar to that associated with total gastrectomy.
UI - 11724680
AU - Jones RG; Trowbridge DB; Go MF
TI - Helicobacter pylori infection in peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy.
SO - Front Biosci 2001 Dec 1;6():E213-26
AD - Gastrointestinal Section, VA Salt Lake City Health Care System and the Division of Gastroenterology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84148, USA.
Helicobacter pylori infection is the world's most common chronic infection in humans and is the cause of most gastritis cases. This infection is accepted as the etiology of the majority of peptic ulcers. It has been implicated as a significant contributing factor in the development of gastric malignancy--both gastric MALT lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. Both endoscopic and non-endoscopic tests are available for accurate diagnosis of the infection. Several multi-drug regimens are useful for effective eradication of the infection. Strategies have been developed for managing patients with gastric MALT lymphoma. Criteria to identify populations with increased risk for gastric malignancy are being developed. H. pylori induces gastritis; it is also involved in both apoptosis and cellular proliferation. The role of H. pylori infection in the pathogenesis of premalignant lesions, altered gastric acid secretion, and significant clinical presentations is the subject of numerous studies worldwide.
UI - 11798530
AU - Qiao W; Hu J; Wu K
TI - [The relationship between vac A genotype of Helicobacter pylori clinical isolate and gastric cancer and precancer]
SO - Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2000 Nov;39(11):729-31
AD - Department of Gastroenterology, First Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710063, China.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between vac A genotype of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) and gastric cancer and precancer in Xi'an area. METHODS: To establish the stock of Hp clinical isolates and perform vac A gene typing of Hp isolates by PCR. RESULTS: 192 Hp clinical strains are isolated from the antrum of 259 patients. In them, type s1 is 174 strains (90.6%); s2 is 18 stains (9.4%). Type m1 and m2 is 99 (51.6%) and 93 (48.4%) respectively. All strains are s1 or s2 and m1 or m2. In gastric cancer group, the expression of type s1 is 94.5% and s1a is more than s1b (P < 0.05). There is no difference between type m1 and m2. In gastritis group, type s1 is 89.8%, s1a is almost equal to s1b and no difference between m1 and m2. CONCLUSION: Type s1 is the main expression in both gastric cancer group and gastritis group. Expression of type s1a is higher than s1b. We can't determine it is a malignant index of gastrointestinal diseases. We need to research it extensively.
UI - 11782383
AU - Hippo Y; Taniguchi H; Tsutsumi S; Machida N; Chong JM; Fukayama M;
TI - Kodama T; Aburatani H Global gene expression analysis of gastric cancer by oligonucleotide microarrays.
SO - Cancer Res 2002 Jan 1;62(1):233-40
AD - Genome Science Division, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8904, Japan.
To gain molecular understanding of carcinogenesis, progression, and diversity of gastric cancer, 22 primary human advanced gastric cancer tissues and 8 noncancerous gastric tissues were analyzed by high-density oligonucleotide microarray in this study. Based on expression analysis of approximately 6800 genes, a two-way clustering algorithm successfully distinguished cancer tissues from noncancerous tissues. Subsequently, genes that were differentially expressed in cancer and noncancerous tissues were identified; 162 and 129 genes were highly expressed (P < 0.05) >2.5-fold in cancer tissues and noncancerous tissues, respectively. In cancer tissues, genes related to cell cycle, growth factor, cell motility, cell adhesion, and matrix remodeling were highly expressed. In noncancerous tissues, genes related to gastrointestinal-specific function and immune response were highly expressed. Furthermore, we identified several genes associated with lymph node metastasis including Oct-2 or histological types including Liver-Intestine Cadherin. These results provide not only a new molecular basis for understanding biological properties of gastric cancer, but also useful resources for future development of therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers for gastric cancer.
UI - 11802218
AU - Kim HJ; Chang WK; Kim MK; Lee SS; Choi BY
TI - Dietary factors and gastric cancer in Korea: a case-control study.
SO - Int J Cancer 2002 Feb 1;97(4):531-5
AD - Department of Preventive Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
To assess gastric cancer (GC) risk in relation to dietary intake in Korea, a case-control study was performed. Trained dietitians interviewed 136 patients diagnosed with GC, and the same number of controls were selected by matching sex, age and hospital. A significant decrease in GC risk was observed with increased intake of Baiechu kimchi (prepared with salted Chinese cabbage and red pepper, etc.), Baiechu kimchi-stew, garlic, mushroom and soybean milk. On the contrary, a significant increase in the risk of GC was observed with increased intake of cooked rice with bean, charcoal grilled beef, pollack soup, Kkakduki (a kind of kimchi prepared with salted radish and red pepper, etc.), Dongchimi (a kind of kimchi prepared with radish and a large quantity of salt water) and cooked spinach. In food groups, increased intake of soybean products was associated with decreased risk of GC. Intake of citrus fruits rather than total fruits was shown to have a protective effect on the risk of GC, but was not significant. In this study, intake of total vegetables was shown to have a protective effect, whereas high nitrate-containing vegetables increased the risk of GC. In conclusion, our study suggests that the risk of GC decreased with high consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, whereas high consumption of foods rich in nitrate and carcinogenic substances produced during the cooking process increased the risk of GC. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 11714113
AU - Abnet CC; Qiao YL; Mark SD; Dong ZW; Taylor PR; Dawsey SM
TI - Prospective study of tooth loss and incident esophageal and gastric cancers in China.
SO - Cancer Causes Control 2001 Nov;12(9):847-54
AD - Cancer Prevention Studies Branch, Division of Clinical Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892-7058, USA. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between tooth loss and the risk of developing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, or gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma in a prospective study. METHODS: Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine these associations in a 28,868-person cohort followed prospectively for 5.25 years. The baseline questionnaire included questions regarding tooth loss, and individuals reporting lost teeth had their teeth counted by study personnel. The analytic cohort included 620 esophagus, 431 gastric cardia, and 102 gastric non-cardia cancer cases. RESULTS: Tooth loss was associated with a significantly elevated risk of developing all three cancers. When examined as median splits, tooth loss was associated with a relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval, CI) of 1.3 (1.1-1.6) in the esophagus, 1.3 (1.0-1.6) in the gastric cardia, and 1.8 (1.1-3.0) in the gastric non-cardia. Further analysis demonstrated that this increased risk was most strongly associated with the loss of the first few teeth and was primarily confined to the younger members of our cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort tooth loss increased the risk of developing upper gastrointestinal cancer. We hypothesize that this may be related to alterations in oral bacterial flora and subsequent increases in the in-vivo production of carcinogens such as nitrosamines.
UI - 11785203
AU - Gabrys K; Nowicka J; Medras E; Pabisek D; Mazur G; Jelen M
TI - [Haematologic changes in gastritic cancer]
SO - Pol Tyg Lek 1995;50(1-35):809-11
AD - Katedra i Klinika Hematologii i Chorob Rozrostowych, Wroclaw.
Haematologic disturbances in 13 cases of gastric cancer are described. All the patients had anemia of different origin. Increased leukocytosis was observed in half of the cases, leukaemia reaction in one third. Haemolysis was present in 50% of cases. Thrombocytopenia coexisted most frequently with disseminated intravascular coagulation in 4 patients. Bone metastases were visualised as osteolytic foci with radiological methods or increased capture of isotopic marker in the bones under scintigraphic examination. Under the microscope neoplastic metastases were found in bone marrow smears of 5 patients. All patients displayed symptoms of gastric ulcer disease acute or chronic phase. In some cases only repeated gastroscopic examination and mucosa biopsy was the only way to confirm cancer. In other cases the diagnosis was made after the histopathologic examination of the resected stomach, in still others by a section.
UI - 11756228
AU - Ebert MP; Fei G; Kahmann S; Muller O; Yu J; Sung JJ; Malfertheiner P
TI - Increased beta-catenin mRNA levels and mutational alterations of the APC and beta-catenin gene are present in intestinal-type gastric cancer.
SO - Carcinogenesis 2002 Jan;23(1):87-91
AD - Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, D-39120 Magdeburg, Germany .
Beta-catenin is critical for intercellular adhesion and also plays a role as a transcription activating protein in the Wnt signalling pathway. Increased protein levels and mutation of the beta-catenin gene have been demonstrated in various cancers; however, the role of beta-catenin in gastric cancer remains largely unknown. Using gastric cancer tissues and normal adjacent gastric mucosa obtained from 20 patients with gastric cancer (eight diffuse-type, 12 intestinal-type) undergoing gastric resection or endoscopy, we assessed the expression of beta-catenin by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR analysis. Furthermore, the tumour suppressor gene APC, which down-regulates the beta-catenin levels was analysed for mutations. Overall mRNA levels of beta-catenin were significantly increased in the tumour samples compared with the matched normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.05). Increased beta-catenin mRNA levels were significantly more frequent in intestinal-type gastric cancers as compared to diffuse-type gastric cancers (P < 0.01). Six out of 20 tumours exhibited >6-fold increased beta-catenin mRNA levels as compared with normal mucosa. APC gene mutations were found in four cases. A beta-catenin gene mutation was identified only in one intestinal-type gastric cancer exhibiting a massive overexpression of beta-catenin mRNA in the tumour. In intestinal-type gastric cancers beta-catenin mRNA levels are greatly enhanced. APC and beta-catenin gene mutations are also present primarily in intestinal-type gastric cancers. These findings support the hypothesis that in intestinal-type gastric cancers the accumulation of beta-catenin protein may result from impaired degradation of the beta-catenin protein due to alterations of the beta-catenin and APC genes, as well as from enhanced beta-catenin transcription which is present in the great majority of intestinal-type gastric cancers.
UI - 11745702
AU - Nabais S; Carneiro F; Nogueira AM; Machado JC; Seruca R; Sobrinho-Simoes
TI - M Re. 'Cellular phenotypes of differentiated-type adenocarcinomas and precancerous lesions of the stomach are dependent on the genetic pathways'.
SO - J Pathol 2001 Dec;195(5):636-7
UI - 11801910
AU - Park MS; Kim KW; Yu JS; Kim MJ; Yoon SW; Chung KW; Lee JT; Yoo HS
TI - Radiologic findings of gastrointestinal tract involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma.
SO - J Comput Assist Tomogr 2002 Jan-Feb;26(1):95-101
AD - Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the radiologic findings of gastrointestinal (GI) tract involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to discuss mechanisms of spread. METHOD: Eighteen patients with histologically proven GI tract metastasis in HCC for 4.5 years underwent CT and five also underwent upper GI (UGI) series. The cases were classified according to the mode of spread, based on the radiologic findings. RESULTS: The involved portion of the GI tract was the stomach (n = 11), duodenum (n = 4), and colon (n = 4). The mode of spread was direct invasion from a contiguous primary tumor (n = 12), hematogenous metastasis (n = 3), peritoneal seeding (n = 1), and undetermined (n = 2). In cases of direct invasion from contiguous primary tumors, CT revealed GI tract invasion directly from bulky hepatic masses (n = 9) or daughter masses at the portion of the bowel wall contiguous to the hepatic masses (n = 3). In cases of hematogenous spread, CT revealed an intramural mass in the stomach and duodenum (n = 2) or a diffuse thickening of the wall of the stomach (n = 1). In the case of peritoneal seeding, CT revealed multiple small nodules in the right paracolic gutter, omentum, and mesentery with invasion to the colon. CONCLUSION: GI tract involvement in HCC shows various radiologic findings according to the mode of spread, but the most common finding is direct invasion of the stomach, duodenum, or colon from contiguous primary tumor.
UI - 9424909
AU - Polkowski W; Ciechanski A; Wallner G; Dabrowski A; Pawlowski A;
TI - Chibowski D; Misiuna P [Stomach and esophageal neoplasm. Changes over 16 years in clinical materials]
SO - Wiad Lek 1997;50 Suppl 1 Pt 2():388-93
AD - Kliniki Chirurgii Ogolnej II Katedry Chirurgii, Akademii Medycznej w Lublinie.
Increasing prevalence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophago-gastric junction has been reported. The aim of the study was to determine whether this phenomenon is reflected in the cohort of patients referred for surgery to our institution. Clinical and pathological records of patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach (n = 433) or gastro-esophageal junction (n = 302), and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (n = 266) were reviewed from 1981 to 1996. Yearly prevalence of carcinoma of the gastric cardia in comparison to carcinoma of (a more distal) stomach has not changed, ranging 19-46%. From 1981 to 1984 out of 58 gastric resections, 14 (24%) total gastrectomies were done, whereas from 1993 to 1996 total gastrectomies were performed in 104 out of 138 (75%) patients with gastric cancer (p < 0.001). In the first 4 years of the study period adenocarcinoma of the cardia and/or esophagus was found in 19% of all patients with esophageal and junctional tumors, while in the last 4 years,-in 30%. Resection rates for gastric and cardiac cancers have not changed significantly, 75-100% and 21-65% respectively. Resection rate for carcinoma of the esophagus increased from 50% (17/34) to 79% (53/67) (p = 0.006, test chi2). Increasing rate of total gastrectomies can be explained by a trend towards more proximal localisation of the primary gastric tumors and/or clinical application of Lauren classification for the choice of operative procedure. Higher resection rate for carcinoma of the esophagus is a result of increasing experience of the surgical team, improvement in preoperative staging, new palliative modalities, and application of preoperative chemo-/radiotherapy.
UI - 11595470
AU - Farthing MJ; Fitzgerald R; Zhang ZW
TI - Acid, helicobacter and immunity: a new paradigm for oesophagogastric cancer.
SO - J Physiol Paris 2001 Jan-Dec;95(1-6):423-7
AD - Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, 12, Southpark Terrace, Glasgow GL12 8LG, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Epidemiological evidence has clearly shown a highly significant relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and the development of duodenal ulcer and distal gastric adenocarcinoma. Despite H. pylori being a common aetiological factor for both disorders, the two disease phenotypes are virtually mutually exclusive. This indicates that the host response to infection has a pivotal role in determining outcome; these disease phenotypes relate to the effect of infection on gastric acid secretion, duodenal ulcer being closely related to sustained acid secretion whereas gastric cancer follows gastric atrophy and impaired gastric acid secretion. Cancer at the oesophageal junction and that associated with Barrett's oesophagus is now the most rapidly increasing tumour in the gastrointestinal tract. The challenge for the next millennium, therefore, is to try and develop methods for identifying patients at risk of developing oesophagogastric cancer. A common feature in the pathogenesis of both gastric and oesophageal adenoc