National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: February 1, 2002
UI - 11751430
AU - Chen C; Ricks S; Doody DR; Fitzgibbons ED; Porter PL; Schwartz SM
TI - N-Acetyltransferase 2 polymorphisms, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, and oral squamous cell cancer risk.
SO - Carcinogenesis 2001 Dec;22(12):1993-9
AD - Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health Sciences and Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, DE-320, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, Seattle, WA 98109-1024, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The risk of squamous cell cancers of the oral cavity (OSCC) is strongly related to the use of tobacco and alcohol. N-Acetyl transferases 1 and 2 (NAT2) metabolize aryl- and heterocyclic amines that are present in tobacco smoke. NAT2 slow acetylator phenotype or genotype is related to reduced ability to detoxify these xenobiotics that are carcinogenic in tissues in which smoking-related cancers develop (e.g. bladder). We studied the association between the deduced NAT2 acetylator phenotypes and OSCC risk in a population-based study of 341 cases and 552 controls. In-person interviews provided information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption. Nucleotide substitutions at position 191, 341, 590, 803 and 857 were determined by a combination of oligonucleotide ligation assays and PCR/RFLP assays. There was no overall association between acetylator status with OSCC risk; the odds ratios for slow and intermediate acetylators, as compared with the rapid acetylators, were 1.2 (95% CI 0.7-2.2) and 1.1 (95% CI 0.6-2.0), respectively. The percent increase in risk of OSCC per pack-year cigarette smoking was similar among slow acetylators (3.0%, 95% CI 2.1-4.0) and the combined intermediate and rapid acetylators (3.5%, 95% CI 2.4-5.0). In contrast, the risk of OSCC per weekly alcoholic drink was stronger among the combined rapid and intermediate acetylators (3.3%, 95% CI 1.8-4.9) compared with slow acetylators (1.6%, 95% CI 0.6-2.7) (interaction P = 0.055). These data raise the possibility that NAT2 may be involved in the activation of one or more pro-carcinogens associated with alcohol consumption.
UI - 9727957
AU - Anonymous
TI - Preventing and controlling oral and pharyngeal cancer. Recommendations from a National Strategic Planning Conference.
SO - MMWR Recomm Rep 1998 Aug 28;47(RR-14):1-12 for preventing and controlling oral and pharyngeal cancer in the United States. The conference, which was cosponsored by the National Institute of Dental Research of the National Institutes of Health and the American Dental Association, included 125 experts in oral and pharyngeal cancer prevention, treatment, and research; both the private and public sectors were represented. Participants at the conference developed recommendations concerning advocacy, collaboration, and coalition building; public health policy; public education; professional education and practice; and data collection, evaluation, and research. A follow-up meeting consisting of selected participants of the 1996 conference was in the political and scientific arenas since the 1996 conference were considered, and 10 recommended strategies from the conference were selected for priority implementation. These 10 strategies were to a) establish a mechanism to implement and monitor the recommended strategies developed during the conference; b) urge oral health professionals to become more actively involved in community health; c) require instruction in preventing and controlling tobacco and alcohol use at all levels of training in dental, medical, nursing, and other related health-care disciplines; d) encourage Medicaid, Medicare, traditional insurance plans, and managed-care entities to consider making oral cancer examinations an integral part of comprehensive physical and oral examinations; e) designate federal funding for a national program of oral cancer prevention, early detection, and control; f) after assessing local needs, develop, implement, and evaluate statewide models to educate all relevant groups; g) develop and conduct a national promotional campaign to raise public awareness of oral cancer and its link to tobacco use and heavy alcohol consumption; h) develop health-care curricula that require competency in prevention, diagnosis, and multidisciplinary management of oral and pharyngeal cancer; i) sponsor and promote continuing education for health-care professionals on the multidisciplinary management of all phases of oral cancer and its sequelae; and j) strengthen organizational approaches to reducing oral cancer by developing organized cooperative and collaborative arrangements, funding formal centers, and involving commercial firms. CDC will use these recommended strategies to develop programs to reduce the burden of oral and pharyngeal cancer in the United States. Through the Oral Cancer Roundtable, a group of conference and meeting participants, CDC will communicate to interested agencies, organizations, and state health departments ways in which they can implement elements of the national plan. The Roundtable will help CDC track the efforts and progress of these groups.
UI - 11770576
AU - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
TI - Promoting oral health: interventions for preventing dental caries, oral and pharyngeal cancers, and sports-related craniofacial injuries. A report on recommendations of the task force on community preventive services.
SO - MMWR Recomm Rep 2001 Nov 30;50(RR-21):1-13
The Task Force on Community Preventive Services (the Task Force) has conducted systematic reviews of the evidence of effectiveness of selected population-based interventions to prevent and control dental caries (tooth decay), oral (mouth) and pharyngeal (throat) cancers, and sports-related craniofacial injuries. The Task Force strongly recommends community water fluoridation and school-based or school-linked pit and fissure sealant delivery programs for prevention and control of dental caries. Using the rules of evidence it has established, the Task Force found insufficient evidence of effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the remaining interventions reviewed. Therefore, the Task Force makes no recommendation for or against use of statewide or communitywide sealant promotion programs, population-based interventions for early detection of precancers and cancers, or population-based interventions to encourage use of helmets, facemasks, and mouthguards to reduce oral-facial trauma in contact sports. The Task Force's finding of insufficient evidence indicates the need for more research on intervention effectiveness. Until the results of such research become available, readers are encouraged to judge the usefulness of these interventions by other criteria. This report presents additional information regarding the recommendations, briefly describes how the reviews were conducted, and provides information designed to help apply the strongly recommended interventions locally.
UI - 11774409
AU - Owens JM; Gomez JA; Byers RM
TI - Malignant melanoma in the palate of a 3-month-old child.
SO - Head Neck 2002 Jan;24(1):91-4
AD - Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.
BACKGROUND: Malignant mucosal melanoma of the head and neck is a rare cancer in adults that carries a grave prognosis. Three mucosal melanomas in pediatric patients have previously been reported. METHODS: We present here the youngest case of malignant mucosal melanoma of the head and neck in a 3-month-old boy. He presented with a 2 x 2-mm-pigmented lesion on the anterior maxillary alveolus. The patient was treated with local excision alone. RESULTS: The patient has remained disease free with regular follow-up for 117 months. CONCLUSION: Based upon this case and the few cases reported in the literature, mucosal melanoma is a much less common disease in children than in adults. Further, juvenile mucosal melanoma displays a benign clinical behavior. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
UI - 11806149
AU - Arai K; Shibahara T; Yamamoto N; Yakushiji T; Tanaka C; Noma H
TI - Frequent allelic loss/imbalance on the short arm of chromosome 3 in tongue cancer.
SO - Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 2001 Aug;42(3):151-7
AD - First Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokyo Dental College, 1-2-2 Masago, Mihama-ku, Chiba 261-8502, Japan.
Frequent allelic imbalances including loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI) on the short arm of chromosome 3 (3p) have been found in several types of human cancer. This study was designed to identify the tumor suppressor locus (or loci) on 3p associated with tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Among 16 patients with tongue SCC tested, 7 (44%) of 16 informative cases showed LOH at one or more loci. Deletion mapping of these 16 tumors revealed two discrete, commonly deleted regions on the chromosome arm. Our data support the notion that tumor suppressor gene(s) contributing to the progression of tongue squamous cell carcinoma reside on 3p24 and 3p25.
UI - 11806150
AU - Yakushiji T; Noma H; Shibahara T; Arai K; Yamamoto N; Tanaka C; Uzawa K;
TI - Tanzawa H Analysis of a role for p16/CDKN2 expression and methylation patterns in human oral squamous cell carcinoma.
SO - Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 2001 Aug;42(3):159-68
AD - First Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokyo Dental College, 1-2-2 Masago, Mihama-ku, Chiba 261-8502, Japan.
The p16/CDKN2 (cyclin dependent kinase number 2) gene is known to be one of the negative regulators of the cell cycle. Aberrant 5'CpG island methylation is one of the most important mechanisms of p16/CDKN2 gene promoter region alteration. We studied 8 oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and 25 primary tumor tissues for the p16/CDKN2 gene and its expression by PCR-SSCP, MSP, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemical methods to determine the mechanism and the potential biological significance of p16/CDKN2 gene inactivation. In primary tumors, no p16/CDKN2 gene mutations were found by PCR-SSCP. However, hypermethylation of the CpG sites of p16/CDKN2 gene was observed in 48% (12/25) cases of primary tumors and in 50% (4/8) of cell lines. To verify the p16 mRNA expression, we employed RT-PCR and observed decreased or lacked p16 mRNA in 44% (11/25) of primary tumor tissues. In addition, hypermethylation was observed in 6 of the above 11 cases (55%). An immunohistochemistry assay was also performed with the primary tumor tissues, and a semi-quantitative method was used to evaluate the staining intensity of p16 protein. We observed 52% (13/25) negative nuclear staining. When we compared these results with clinicopathological stages, there was no statistical significance. These findings suggest that hypermethylation of p16/CDKN2 promoter region may be associated with p16/CDKN2 gene alteration.
UI - 11730997
AU - Chao KS; Majhail N; Huang CJ; Simpson JR; Perez CA; Haughey B; Spector G
TI - Intensity-modulated radiation therapy reduces late salivary toxicity without compromising tumor control in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma: a comparison with conventional techniques.
SO - Radiother Oncol 2001 Dec;61(3):275-80
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis, MO, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) offers superior dosimetric conformity for normal tissue sparing in patients with oropharyngeal cancer. In this study, acute and late toxicity, and tumor control were compared between conventional beam treated at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology. There were 260 patients with tonsil primary tumors and 170 patients with tumors arising from the base of the tongue. Twenty-four (6%) patients had stage I disease, 88 (20%) had stage II, 128 (30%) had stage III, and 190 (44%) had stage IV disease. Patients were divided into five treatment groups. Group I consisted of 109 patients who received preoperative CRT. Group II consisted of 142 patients who received postoperative CRT. Group III consisted of 153 patients who received definitive CRT. Inverse planning IMRT (Peacock, NOMOS) was used to treat 14 patients postoperatively (Group IV) and 12 patients definitively without surgery (Group V). Acute and late normal tissue side-effects were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group radiation morbidity criteria. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. RESULTS: The 2-year local-regional control values for the five studied groups were 78, 76, 68, 100 and 88%, respectively. The 2-year disease-free survival values for the five studied groups were 68, 74, 58, 92 and 80%, respectively. IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of late xerostomia. CONCLUSIONS: When IMRT was compared with conventional techniques, the dosimetric advantage of IMRT did translate into a significant reduction of late salivary toxicity in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma. No adverse impact on tumor control and disease-free survival was observed in patients treated with IMRT.
UI - 11730999
AU - Cozzi L; Fogliata A; Lomax A; Bolsi A
TI - A treatment planning comparison of 3D conformal therapy, intensity modulated photon therapy and proton therapy for treatment of advanced head and neck tumours.
SO - Radiother Oncol 2001 Dec;61(3):287-97
AD - Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona, Switzerland.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In this work, the potential benefits and limitations of different treatment techniques, based on mixed photon-electron beams, 3D conformal therapy, intensity modulated photons (IM) and protons (passively scattered and spot scanned), have been assessed using comparative treatment planning methods in a cohort of patients presenting with advanced head and neck tumours. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Plans for five patients were computed for all modalities using CT scans to delineate target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR) and to predict dose distributions. The prescribed dose to the PTV was 54 Gy, whilst the spinal cord was constrained to a maximum dose of 40.5 Gy for all techniques. Dose volume histograms were used for physical and biological evaluation, which included equivalent uniform dose (EUD) calculations. RESULTS: Excluding the mixed photon-electron technique, PTV coverage was within the defined limits for all techniques, with protons providing significantly improved dose homogeneity, resulting in correspondingly higher EUD results. For the spinal cord, protons also provided the best sparing with maximum doses as low as 17 Gy. Whilst the IM plans were demonstrated to be significantly superior to non-modulated photon plans, they were found to be inferior to protons for both criteria. A similar result was found for the parotid glands. Although they are partially included in the treated volume there is a clear indication that protons, and to a lesser extent IM photons, could play an important role in preserving organ functionality with a consequent improvement of the patient's quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: For advanced head and neck tumours, we have demonstrated that the use of IM photons or protons both have the potential to reduce the possibility of spinal cord toxicity. In addition, a substantial reduction of dose to the parotid glands through the use of protons enhances the interest for such a treatment modality in cases of advanced head and neck tumours. However, in terms of target coverage, the use of 3D conformal therapy, although somewhat inferior in quality to protons or IM photons, has been shown to be a reasonable alternative to the more advanced techniques. In contrast, the conventional technique of mixed photon and electron fields has been shown to be inferior to all other techniques for both target coverage and OAR involvement.
UI - 11755830
AU - Iezzi G; Rubini C; Fioroni M; Piattelli A
TI - Sebaceous adenoma of the cheek.
SO - Oral Oncol 2002 Jan;38(1):111-3
AD - Dental School, University of Chieti, Italy.
Sebaceous adenoma is a tumour only rarely located in the oral cavity. Less than 10 cases have been reported. Sebaceous adenoma represents 0.5-0.7% of all monomorphic adenomas. Sebaceous adenoma is mainly constituted by two types of cells, undifferentiated peripheral basaloid cells and cells showing different degrees of sebaceous differentiation located in the center of the lesion. The differential diagnosis must be made with sebaceous hyperplasia. Sebaceous adenomas are benign, and they do not recur after a conservative excision.
UI - 11755831
AU - Schwender FT; Wollner I; Kunju LP; Nakhleh RE; Chan KM
TI - Squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with metastases to the pericardial cavity, lung and thyroid.
SO - Oral Oncol 2002 Jan;38(1):114-6
AD - Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48202, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Pericardial metastasis from the oral cavity is a rare event. Squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa is not known to spread to the pericardium. We present a case of buccal mucosal carcinoma with distant metastases diagnosed by pericardial biopsy.
UI - 11755832
AU - Nunes FD; Loducca SV; de Oliveira EM; de Araujo VC
TI - Well-differentiated liposarcoma of the tongue.
SO - Oral Oncol 2002 Jan;38(1):117-9
AD - Disciplina de Patologia Bucal, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2227, Butanta, CEP 05508-900, Brazil.
Intraoral liposarcomas are rare, with most reported cases being of the myxoid histological type. We present a well-differentiated liposarcoma of the tongue, in a 65-year-old man. The tumour presented lipoblasts in various stages of differentiation, lipocytes in different sizes and shapes, mesenchymal and signet-ring cells. Lipoma, spindle-cell lipoma, myxoma, hibernoma, angiolipoma, fibrolipoma, pseudosarcomatous faciitis and malignant hysticytoma were considered in the diagnosis process. The patient was treated surgically and so far is free of disease.
UI - 11755833
AU - Ide F; Shimoyama T; Horie N; Kusama K
TI - Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa: a new case and review of 45 cases in the literature.
SO - Oral Oncol 2002 Jan;38(1):120-4
AD - Department of Oral Surgery, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama Medical School, 1981 Kamoda, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8550, Japan.
Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) of the oral mucosa other than the tongue is uncommon. We report a case of a 67-year-old man who diagnosed with Stage I BSCC in the floor of the mouth. This early stage presentation carries a considerably better prognosis. Clinical summary of 46 cases of oral BSCC indicated that the tongue base was the most preferred site (61%). The patients were 19 males and 15 females with the mean age of 61 years (n=34). Most presented with Stage III or IV disease (62%). Even at the initial presentation, 47% had cervical lymph node metastases. Its aggressive clinical behaviour was characterized by a high incidence of local recurrence (32%), regional lymph node metastases (52%), and mortality rate (38%). Because of the advanced stage at presentation, oral BSCC is prognostically worse.
UI - 11755816
AU - Goto K; Fukuda J; Haneji T
TI - Okadaic acid stimulates apoptosis through expression of Fas receptor and Fas ligand in human oral squamous carcinoma cells.
SO - Oral Oncol 2002 Jan;38(1):16-22
AD - Department of Histology and Oral Histology, School of Dentistry, The University of Tokushima, 3-18-15, Kuramoto, Tokushima 770-8504, Japan.
Fas receptor is a member of a superfamily of receptors characterized by cysteine-rich motifs in the extracellular domain of the molecule. Binding of Fas ligand to Fas receptor leads to activation of the latter and the induction of intracellular signals that result in apoptotic cell death. In the present study, we used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis to examine the expression of mRNAs and proteins of Fas receptor and Fas ligand in human oral squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells treated with okadaic acid. The PCR product of Fas receptor mRNA was detected in the cells and a protein with an estimated molecular weight of 35,000 was also expressed in them. Expression of Fas receptor mRNA stimulated by okadaic acid was elevated in dose- and time-dependent manners as judged by semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis, with the maximum expression level at 50 nM and 8 h treatment. Fas ligand mRNA expression was also stimulated by okadaic acid in SCC-25 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Okadaic acid also stimulated the expression of Fas ligand protein in the cells. Okadaic acid in serum-free medium induced apoptosis in SCC-25 cells in a time-dependent manner up to 24 h as determined by nuclear condensation and fragmentation of chromatin and DNA ladder formation. The present results indicate that the expression of Fas receptor and Fas ligand is negatively regulated by a protein phosphatase(s) sensitive to okadaic acid and is involved in okadaic acid-induced apoptosis in SCC-25 cells. Our results also suggest that Fas receptor and Fas ligand system might regulate apoptosis in SCC-25 cells in an autocrine fashion.
UI - 11755814
AU - Ferlito A; Shaha AR; Rinaldo A
TI - The incidence of lymph node micrometastases in patients pathologically staged N0 in cancer of oral cavity and oropharynx.
SO - Oral Oncol 2002 Jan;38(1):3-5
AD - Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Udine, Policlinico Universitario, Piazzale S. Maria della Misericordia, 33100 Udine, Italy. email@example.com
The presence of nodal metastasis in head and neck cancer is an important prognostic factor and crucial in making critical decisions regarding postoperative radiation treatment and follow up. The final documentation of nodal metastasis is still based on routine histopathological evaluation of the lymph nodes in the neck. The newer technologies including immunohistochemistry, molecular analysis and subserial sectioning may increase the detection of lymph node micrometastases in patients pathologically staged N0 in cancer of oral cavity and oropharynx.
UI - 11755820
AU - Noutomi T; Chiba H; Itoh M; Toyota H; Mizuguchi J
TI - Bcl-x(L) confers multi-drug resistance in several squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.
SO - Oral Oncol 2002 Jan;38(1):41-8
AD - Department of Oral & Maxillofacial-Surgery, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, 6-7-1 Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan.
Carboplatin (CBDCA) alone or in combination with irradiation and other chemotherapeutic agents has been used for the treatment of oral squamous carcinoma. However, there are some limitations for such therapy because of inherent or acquired resistance to CBDCA. To gain some insights into the association of CBDCA resistance with Bcl-2 family level or p53 status, we established eight carcinoma cell lines, consisting of two resistant (MIT8, MIT16), two sensitive (MIT6, MIT7), and four intermediate lines. All of the five cell lines with p53 mutation belonged to the resistant approximately intermediate group, whereas two of three other lines with wild-type p53 were in the sensitive group. Interestingly, both of the two resistant cell lines showed elevated levels of Bcl-x(L), almost double that of sensitive line (MIL5), whereas either Bcl-2 or Bax-alpha level did not correlate with the CBDCA-resistance. To further verify the association between the Bcl-x(L) level and the drug resistance, two transformants (x(L)-3, x(L)-6) overexpressing Bcl-x(L) in the CBDCA-sensitive cell line MIT7 were established using the gene transfer method. Both clones showed resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic agents, including CBDCA, actinomycin D, etoposide, and mitomycin C. Moreover, MIT8 and MT16 also displayed cross-resistance to these agents. These findings suggest that Bcl-x(L) may function as one of the key components conferring multiple drug-resistance in squamous cell carcinomas.
UI - 11755821
AU - Niinaka Y; Haga A; Negishi A; Yoshimasu H; Raz A; Amagasa T
TI - Regulation of cell motility via high and low affinity autocrine motility factor (AMF) receptor in human oral squamous carcinoma cells.
SO - Oral Oncol 2002 Jan;38(1):49-55
AD - Tumour Progression and Metastasis Research Program, Karmanos Cancer Institute, 110 East Warren Avenue, Detroit, MI 48201, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
A tumour-secreted cytokine autocrine motility factor (AMF) induces in vivo invasion and metastasis, and in vitro tumour cell motility by a signal transduction through interaction with its cell surface receptor gp78. In this report, we investigated the characterization of a high-metastatic human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line LMF4 and low-metastatic HSC-3 in comparison with non-metastatic HSC-2 and HSC-4. Morphological and motility analyses revealed LMF4 cells to have the highest motile activity among those cells. However, LMF4 cells shared the similar features with HSC-3: high level secretion of AMF, enhancement of gp78 expression, co-expression of vimentin and cytokeratin, although LMF4 cells showed twice as high motile reactivity as HSC-3. The only difference was that LMF4 had twice as high amount of low-affinity receptor(s) as HSC-3, shown by Scatchard analysis.
UI - 11755823
AU - Lo Muzio L; Pannone G; Staibano S; Mignogna MD; Serpico R; Fanali S; De
TI - Rosa G; Piattelli A; Mariggio MA p120(cat) Delocalization in cell lines of oral cancer.
SO - Oral Oncol 2002 Jan;38(1):64-72
AD - Institute of Dental Sciences, University of Ancona, Ancona, Italy. email@example.com
p120(cat) is a novel component of the catenin family, a cytoplasmic molecule closely associated with the cell-cell adhesion molecule E (epithelial)-cadherin, by forming complexes between the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin and the cytoskeleton. Recent studies suppose a role for this molecule in human cancers and to date none report its expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of this protein in the oral carcinogenetic process. A linked streptavidin-biotin-alkaline phosphatase technique was used to examine the immunoreactivity and cellular localisation of p120(cat) in five oral epithelial cell lines (NCTC 2544, normal and immortalized keratinocytes; KB, a poorly differentiated SCC cell line; OSC 20, a well differentiated oral SCC cell line; CAL 33 and CAL 27, moderately differentiated oral SCC cell lines) and 10 normal oral epithelium biopsies. RESULTS: As already reported for E-cadherin, beta- and gamma-catenin, p120 expression showed a homogeneous membranous localization in normal oral specimens. The intensity of staining for p120 progressively increased from basal and parabasal layers toward the intermediate spinous layer. No staining for p120 was observed in the upper layer. NCTC showed a membranous positivity. OSC 20, CAL 33 and CAL 27 showed a membranous positivity, even if polarized to cell-cell adhesion sites, in 40-50% of cells. OSC 20, CAL 33 and CAL 27 cells showed also a cytoplasmic delocalization. All positive KB cells showed a prevalent cytoplasmic staining and 10% of these cells showed a nuclear delocalization. In cancer cells, p120 showed an inverse relationship with the degree of differentiation for a progressive displacement of the signal toward the cytoplasm or nucleus in dedifferentiated cells. In conclusions, this nuclear delocalization for p120 could suppose its potential involvement in signalling and cancer transformation.
UI - 11755826
AU - Kovacs AF; Turowski B
TI - Chemoembolization of oral and oropharyngeal cancer using a high-dose cisplatin crystal suspension and degradable starch microspheres.
SO - Oral Oncol 2002 Jan;38(1):87-95
AD - Clinic for Maxillofacial Plastic Surgery, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitat Haus 21, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
The aim of the study was to achieve intensification of intraarterial chemotherapy of head and neck cancer with high-dose cisplatin by establishing a new method of chemoembolization which can be routinely used without the earlier drawbacks of the method (low drug dosage due to early occlusion of the small head and neck vessels, danger of local damage). Thirty two patients with previously untreated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas of all stages were treated by at least one superselective chemoembolization via femoral approach using a new preparation format of 150 mg/m(2) cisplatin which is an aqueous crystal suspension. In defined cases, combination with the delivery of degradable starch microspheres (DSM). Systemic neutralization with sodium thiosulfate. Primary end points were tolerance and response. Subsequent treatment was surgery or radiation. Chemoembolization succeeded in all 37 interventions to date. Overall response after one cycle was 64.7% using the cisplatin crystal suspension only (n=17) and 86.6% using additional DSM chemoembolization (n=15), as assessed 3 weeks after treatment. Systemic toxicity was extremely low, local side-effects (pain, swelling, small necrosis) were pronounced after additional delivery of DSM. There have been three complications (tracheotomy due to swelling, temporary facial paralysis twice due to embolization of the geniculate ganglion). Using the high-dose cisplatin crystal suspension, chemoembolization can routinely be used in the head and neck area as neoadjuvant therapy. Response was better than with former comparable regimens. The additional delivery of DSM was complicated, restricted to certain areas and unreliable in the dosage needed and might be omitted, therefore.
UI - 11755827
AU - Flaitz CM; Nichols CM; Walling DM; Hicks MJ
TI - Plasmablastic lymphoma: an HIV-associated entity with primary oral manifestations.
SO - Oral Oncol 2002 Jan;38(1):96-102
AD - Department of Stomatology, University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center, Dental Branch, 6516 John Freeman Avenue, Houston, TX 77030, USA. email@example.com
Plasmablastic lymphoma is a relatively new entity that is considered to be a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with an unique immunophenotype and a predilection for the oral cavity. We present a 50 year-old HIV-positive, bisexual, white male with a CD4 count 300/mm(3) and a viral HIV-RNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) load of 237 copies/ml, who developed a painful, purple-red mass in the edentulous area of the maxillary right first molar. Erythematous gingival enlargements of the interdental papillae were seen in three of the dental quadrants. In addition, the patient was being managed with antiretroviral therapy and liposomal doxorubicin for recurrent cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Although oral KS was suspected, the gingival lesions were biopsied because they were refractory to chemotherapy and a lymphoma could not be excluded. Histopathologic examination revealed a lymphoid malignant neoplasm, consistent with a plasmablastic lymphoma. Immunoreactivity with vs38c, CD79a, kappa light chain, and IgG was readily identified in tumor cells; while only focal cells expressed CD20 and LCA (CD45RB). CD56, CD3, lambda light chain, and EMA were non-reactive. EBV was detected in the tumor by Southern hybridization, PCR amplification, in situ hybridization for EBER-1 DNA, and immunohistochemistry for latent membrane protein-1. The same tumor was negative for HHV-8 by PCR. Recognition of plasmablastic lymphoma is important, because it represents an HIV-associated malignancy that predominantly involves the oral cavity, may mimic KS and has a poor prognosis.
UI - 11802047
AU - Stoeckli SJ; Pfaltz M; Steinert H; Schmid S
TI - Histopathological features of occult metastasis detected by sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
SO - Laryngoscope 2002 Jan;112(1):111-5
AD - Clinic of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Frauenklinikstrasse 24, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES: Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been introduced for head and neck cancer with promising results. Research in breast cancer has revealed different histopathological features of occult lymph node metastasis with possibly different clinical and prognostic implications. The aim of the study was to evaluate the histopathological features of occult metastasis detected by sentinel lymph node in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective. METHODS: According to Hermanek (5), occult metastasis was differentiated into isolated tumor cells and infiltration of lymph node parenchyma smaller than 2 mm in diameter (micrometastasis) and larger than 2 mm in diameter (metastasis). RESULTS: Occult metastases were found in 6 of 19 (32%) sentinel lymph nodes. Three patients showed micrometastasis with a mean size of 1.4 mm (range, 1.2-1.5 mm), the first with three separate micrometastases within the same sentinel lymph node, the second with an additional cluster of isolated tumor cells within the same sentinel lymph node, and the third with an additional micrometastasis in one lymph node of the elective neck dissection. Two patients had macrometastasis (3.4 and 8 mm), both with multiple metastases in the elective neck dissection. One patient had two clusters of isolated tumor cells in the sentinel lymph node and an additional cluster of isolated tumor cells in one lymph node of the elective neck dissection. CONCLUSIONS: Occult metastasis can be subdivided histopathologically in isolated tumor cells, micrometastasis, and macrometastasis. We present the first study describing a great variety of these subtypes in sentinel lymph nodes from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Because the independent prognostic factor and clinical relevance of these subtypes is still unclear, we emphasize the importance of reporting these findings uniformly and according to well-established criteria.
UI - 11573822
AU - Michimukai E; Kitamura N; Zhang Y; Wang H; Hiraishi Y; Sumi K; Hayashido
TI - Y; Toratani S; Okamoto T Mutations in the human homologue of the Drosophila segment polarity gene patched in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.
SO - In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2001 Jul-Aug;37(7):459-64
AD - Department of Molecular Oral Medicine & Maxillofacial Surgery 1, Hiroshima University Faculty of Dentistry, Japan.
In the present study, we have analyzed tumor deoxyribonucleic acid from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells for patched mutations using an exon-by-exon single strand conformation polymorphism assay and direct sequencing. We found two missense mutations which affected the conserved residue in the transmembrane domains of the gene product and in the intracellular loop at the C-terminal residue implicated in regulating the smoothened molecule. In addition, we demonstrated that the N-terminal fragment of sonic hedgehog (Shh-N) stimulates the growth of normal epithelial cells, the OSCC cell line, NA, and the salivary gland adenocarcinoma cell lines, HSG and HSY, which have no detectable mutation in patched. On the other hand, Shh has no effect on human SCC cells (UE, KA, KO, NI, A431 cells) that have mutations in patched. These results strongly suggest that an Shh-patched signaling is involved in the cell growth of oral epithelial cells and in the tumorigenesis of OSCCs.
UI - 11801958
AU - Cable BB; Mair EA
TI - Radiofrequency ablation of lymphangiomatous macroglossia.
SO - Laryngoscope 2001 Oct;111(10):1859-61
AD - Department of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20307, USA.
UI - 11711820
AU - Carinci F; Grasso DL; Grandi E; Pelucchi S; Pastore A
TI - Malignant myoepithelioma of the tongue base: case report and literature review.
SO - J Craniofac Surg 2001 Nov;12(6):544-6
AD - University of Ferrara, Italy. email@example.com
Malignant myoepithelioma is a rare tumor of salivary origin, preferentially located in the parotid and submandibular glands and in the palate. We report the first case involving the tongue base in a 30-year-old man. The histopathological and clinical features and therapeutic options are discussed.
UI - 11757442
AU - Sudbo J; Warloe T; Aamdal S; Reith A; Bryne M
TI - [Diagnosis and treatment of oral precancerous lesions]
SO - Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2001 Oct 30;121(26):3066-71
AD - Avdeling for onkologi, Det Norske Radiumhospital 0310 Oslo. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Risk factors for oral carcinomas have been identified, but there are no reliable markers for assessing the clinical outcome in individual patients with oral precancerous lesions. DNA aneuploidy is now recognized as an early and significant event in carcinogenesis. METHODS: We identified 242 patients with oral red or white patches histologically verified as epithelial dysplasias and measured the nuclear DNA content (DNA ploidy) of the lesions to determine whether DNA ploidy could be used to predict the clinical outcome. Disease-free survival was assessed in relation to DNA ploidy and histological grade. The mean duration of follow-up was approximately eight years. RESULTS: Among 242 patients with verified epithelial dysplasia, a carcinoma developed in 48 (20%). 167 (69%) had diploid lesions, 20 (8%) had tetraploid lesions and 55 (23%) had aneuploid lesions. Of the 167 with diploid lesions, only four (1%) later developed an oral carcinoma. By contrast, 48 of 55 patients with aneuploid lesions (87%) later developed a carcinoma. INTERPRETATION: The DNA content (DNA ploidy) can be used to predict the risk for oral cancer in a wide range of oral precancerous lesions. By contrast, histological grading of the same lesions does not give any prognostic information. The clinical value of an early identification of oral lesions with malignant cell clones is substantiated by the fact that there are methods for early intervention.
UI - 11803491
AU - Kiratli H; Bozkurt B; Mocan C
TI - Peripapillary staphyloma associated with orofacial capillary hemangioma.
SO - Ophthalmic Genet 2001 Dec;22(4):249-53
AD - Department of Ophthalmology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. email@example.com
Peripapillary staphyloma is usually unassociated with other ocular and systemic anomalies. A 5-year-old girl presented with peripapillary staphyloma in association with extensive ipsilateral orofacial capillary hemangioma involving the right forehead, right upper and lower eyelids, the right cheek, and the hard palate. She had received oral corticosteroids to induce regression of the hemangiomas at six months of age. On our examination, her visual acuity was counting fingers at two meters right eye and 20/20 left eye. She had mild right upper eyelid ptosis and right exotropia. Imaging studies did not show any central nervous system abnormality. There has been no progression or contraction in the staphylomatous lesion during 24 months of follow-up. Like the morning glory disk anomaly, peripapillary staphyloma may be associated with facial capillary hemangioma.
UI - 11807792
AU - Nagpal JK; Patnaik S; Das BR
TI - Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and its association with P53 codon 72 polymorphism in tobacco addicted oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients of Eastern India.
SO - Int J Cancer 2002 Feb 10;97(5):649-53
AD - Molecular Oncology and Medical Biotechnology Division, Institute of Life Sciences, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar, India.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infects the squamous epithelial cells of oral cavity and cervix leading to formation of warts that develops into the cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 and 18 encode E6 oncoprotein, which binds to and induces degradation of the tumour suppressor protein p53. A common polymorphism of p53, encoding either proline (Pro) or arginine (Arg) at position 72, affects the susceptibility of p53 to E6 mediated degradation in vivo. Oral cancer is a pressing problem in India due to the widespread habit of chewing betel quid, which plays an important role in etiology of this disease. In the present study an attempt has been made to analyze the genetic predisposition of the Indian population to HPV infection and oral carcinogenesis. In our study a total of 110 cases of Oral Cancer highly addicted to betel quid and tobacco chewing are analyzed for HPV 16/18 infection and its association with polymorphism at p53 codon 72. Of these a total number of 37 patients (33.6%) have shown the presence of HPV, among which the presence of HPV-16, 18 and 16/18 coinfection is 22.7%, 14.5% and 10%, respectively. Our results also indicate that the p53 codon 72 genotype frequencies in Indian Oral Cancer patients are 0.55 (Arg) and 0.45 (Pro) as per Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In our study, striking reduction in Pro/Pro allele frequency has been found in HPV positive cases, indicating Arg/Arg genotype to be more susceptible to HPV infection and oral carcinogenesis. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 11420564
AU - Orlando A; Salerno P; Tarsitani G
TI - [Opinions and attitudes on oral cancer in a sample of students attending a state secondary school in Rome. A pilot study]
SO - Minerva Stomatol 2001 May;50(5):139-43
AD - Istituto di Igiene G. Sanarelli, Universita degli Studi La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate knowledge and awareness in a group of secondary school students on the subject of risk factors and strategies used in the prevention of oral cancer. METHODS: The study took the form of a questionnaire which was filled in by a group of 106 secondary school students. The questionnaire was divided into 3 sections: the first analysed the general characteristics of the sample population; the second investigated their knowledge on the specific subject of this study; the last regarded exposure to risk factors and the role played by the dentist and family doctor in the prevention of oral cancer. RESULTS: Of the 106 students taking part in the study, 42% were male and 58% female. 30% of the group felt it was not possible to prevent cancer in general. 6% associated cigarette smoking with oral cancer, whereas 15% identified alcohol as a risk factor for the same pathology. 30% of the group thought that it was not possible to prevent oral cancer. In the event of a suspected oral lesion, 44% would consult the family doctor, 25% would go to the dentist and 3% to a dental technician. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the need improve knowledge of prevention methods in oral cancer. Although young people do not have a high risk of developing oral cancer, they represent a means of conveying information in a social and familial context, thus enabling an early diagnosis, and they also represent the preferred target for primary prevention activities.
UI - 11420566
AU - Colella G; Cozzolino A; Santagata M; Vicidomini A; Itro A
TI - [Circulating biomarkers association in the follow-up of patients with oral cancer]
SO - Minerva Stomatol 2001 May;50(5):151-6
AD - Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Istituto di Chirurgia Orale e Max