National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: February 1, 2002
UI - 11754202
AU - Hendrickx A; Bossuyt X
TI - Quantification of the leukocyte common antigen (CD45) in mature B-cell malignancies.
SO - Cytometry 2001 Dec 15;46(6):336-9
AD - Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
CD45 is a glycoprotein expressed on all lymphohematopoietic cells. Its expression increases during normal B-cell differentiation and remains stable on mature cells. Although it is widely known that CD45 antigen expression is decreased in B-acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), only scarce and contradictory information is available on CD45 expression on mature B-cell malignancies. In healthy adults (n = 15), CD45 expression on B lymphocytes was lower than that on T cells. In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; n = 22), CD45 expression on malignant cells was lower than that on the whole lymphocyte population of healthy adults (n = 28) and on normal B lymphocytes (n = 15). In 6 of the 22 CLL patients, the malignant cell population could be separated from the normal lymphocyte population on the CD45-side scatter (SSC) plot. In 16 CLL patients, there was some degree of overlap between the malignant and normal cells with respect to CD45 expression. For these patients, there was an inverse correlation between CD45 expression on the whole lymphocyte population and the percentage of malignant cells in this population. In two patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), CD45 expression on the malignant cells appeared lower than that on normal B cells and on the whole lymphocyte population. In six patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL), CD45 expression on hairy cells was comparable to that on the whole lymphocyte population of healthy adults, but slightly higher than that of normal B cells. Evaluation of CD45 expression may help to characterize mature B-cell malignancies. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 11697621
AU - Saif MW; Greenberg BR
TI - Multiple myeloma and hairy cell leukemia: a rare association or coincidence?
SO - Leuk Lymphoma 2001 Sep-Oct;42(5):1043-8
AD - NCI, National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. email@example.com
Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and multiple myeloma (MM) are well-defined entities with distinctive clinical and pathological features. Although most cases of HCL and MM fit their classic descriptions, more recent studies have revealed that their clinical and morphological boundaries may not only overlap but a transformation of HCL into MM could also occur. We report another case of HCL followed by the development of MM after 9 years. He also developed hemarthrosis of his right ankle at the time of diagnosis of MM. PCR analysis of DNA extracted from the bone marrow aspirate was negative for the presence of a monoclonally rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. Immunophenoytping revealed no evidence of HCL. There are several possible explanations for the development of MM in HCL patients, such as the coexistence of separate disease entities or different clinical and morphologic phases of a single disease entity. An accurate diagnosis of HCL or MM is critical because of differences in their treatment. Hemarthrosis in this patient may also have been the first manifestation of MM, a feature of MM which has rarely been reported.
UI - 11845978
AU - Babugikova; Tomova A; Kusenda J; Gyarfas J
TI - Flow cytometry of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells from patients with hairy cell leukemia: phenotype of hairy cells, lymphocyte subsets and detection of minimal residual disease after treatment.
SO - Neoplasma 2001;48(5):350-7
AD - Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. firstname.lastname@example.org
By flow cytometry (FC) and an extensive panel of markers we characterized leukemia cells from the peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) of 13 symptomatic patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL). Hairy cells (HCs) identified in the large cell gate always expressed B-cell markers - CD19, CD20, CD22, HLA-DR, and 'HCL-restricted' markers - CD22+CD11c, CD25 and CD103. Other markers, not followed regularly, were occasionally expressed, such as CD34, CD38, CD71, CD15, CD10 and kappa/lambda light chains. Furthermore, in one patient with suspect but not proved HCL in PB or BM, neither morphologically nor immunologically, we confirmed the diagnosis of HCL. Only the immunophenotyping of splenic cells after splenectomy confirmed HCL diagnosis. Flow cytometry was repeated at 3-5 month intervals, after treatment with 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (CdA) or less frequently alpha-interferon (IFN). We investigated serially lymphocyte subsets after treatment and we found profound and persistent CD4+ lymphopenia in majority of studied patients after CdA treatment. Simultaneously we investigated the value of FC to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) and to establish, whether MRD+ could predict relapse. Detection of MRD in our series predicted hematological relapse only in one case with persistent MRD+, in majority of cases with occasionally found MRD+ phenotype, did not. Using quantitative immunophenotyping we observed significantly higher values of molecule numbers of hairy cell B-cell markers, comparing to B-cells in nonleukemic gate of the same sample. Our study showed 1) the diagnostic value of FC in management of HCL patients, 2) long-lasting response in the majority of patients after CdA, 3) a profound and persistent CD4+ lymphopenia in CdA treated patients, 4) some correlation between persistent MRD staining and hematological relapse, and 5) further, till now not described activated feature of HCs, given by the increased values of molecular numbers (molecules of equivalent soluble fluoresceine - MESF) in B-cell antigens of HCL.
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