National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: June 1, 2002
UI - 11881732
AU - Hekimgil M; Altay B; Yakut BD; Soydan S; Ozyurt C; Killi R
TI - Leydig cell tumor of the testis: comparison of histopathological and immunohistochemical features of three azoospermic cases and one malignant case.
SO - Pathol Int 2001 Oct;51(10):792-6
AD - Department of Pathology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey. email@example.com
Leydig cell tumors of the testis are rare, mostly presenting as a testicular mass or as endocrinological symptoms. Here, three patients who were admitted for investigation of primary infertility and one patient presenting with a testicular mass are reported. The histological features were reviewed and an immunohistochemical study was done using a panel of antibodies against cytokeratin, vimentin, inhibin A, S-100, Ki-67, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, p53, bcl-2, and c-erbB2. The latter case (lost during follow up of metastatic disease) demonstrated massive tumor necrosis, extension through the tunica albuginea, and a high mitotic activity and MIB-1 score. Only this malignant case was bcl-2 positive. Of the two oncogenic markers studied, none of the cases were positive for c-erb2, while p53 was positive in more than 50% of cells in the malignant case and in one case of infertility with a large tumor, hemorrhage, focal necrosis and atypical cytological features. We recommend the evaluation of infertile men for Leydig cell tumors, and we believe that a panel of antibodies, including Ki-67, p53 and bcl-2, used for immunohistochemical analysis could be of diagnostic value in the identification of malignant and borderline cases of Leydig cell tumor.
UI - 11989561
AU - Ondrus D; Hornak M; Breza J; Mat'oska J; Schnorrer M; Belan V; Kausitz J
TI - Delayed orchiectomy after chemotherapy in patients with advanced testicular cancer.
SO - Int Urol Nephrol 2001;32(4):665-7
AD - Department of Urology, Derer's University Hospital, Bratislava, Slovakia.
INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic procedures in the management of testicular cancer are determined by histological findings in the removed testis and by the extent of the disease at the time of diagnosis. However, all advanced tumors could be treated by primary chemotherapy regardless of the histological findings. The current imaging techniques (ultrasound of the testis, abdominal and chest CT examination) and laboratory tests (determination of serum tumor markers AFP and hCG) provide sufficient evidence for the presence of cancer. When the diagnosis of advanced tumor is evident, it is possible to start the treatment without orchiectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy with delayed orchiectomy in the management of advanced testicular cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 36 patients with advanced germ cell testicular cancer underwent primary PVB or BEP chemotherapy without previous orchiectomy. Mean age of patients was 32 years. Detailed medical, surgical and urological examination showed pulmonary metastases and/or extensive abdominal tumorous masses imitating acute abdominal crisis and impaired drainage of the kidney due to ureteral obstruction. Searching for the origin, testicular tumor was detected. Eleven patients had a bulky disease in the retroperitoneum (Stage IIC), two had enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes (Stage IIB), two had enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes (Stage III) and other 16 patients had also pulmonary metastases, and 5 pts had pulmonary metastases only. The patients were treated with cisplatin-containing combination chemotherapy. Following completion of chemotherapy, orchiectomy was performed alone or simultaneously with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) and/or lung metastasectomy in cases with persistent residual mass. Following orchiectomy the patients were regularly checked and in cases with viable malignant tumor found in the testis sequential chemotherapy was administered. Similarly when the relapse of the disease was detected, the patients were treated with sequential chemotherapy. RESULTS: Complete disappearance of metastases was observed in 12 patients following chemotherapy alone. The residual mass persisted in 24 patients (in 22 out of them in the retroperitoneum and in two patients also in the lungs) and was removed surgically. The viable tumor in the removed tissue was found in one patient. Delayed orchiectomy was performed simultaneously with surgical removal of residual mass in the retroperitoneum in 24 patients and as a separate procedure in 12 patients who have been considered to be complete responders following chemotherapy alone. Residual viable tumor in testicular specimen was found in three patients, necrotic or fibrotic tissue in 18, and mature teratoma in 15 patients. Overall survival of the patients was 26/36 (72.7%) at mean of 56.9 months (range 7-145 months, median 50 months) since the start of the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced germ cell testicular cancer preference must be given to the early beginning of intensive chemotherapy without the need of tissue diagnosis of primary tumor that should be obtained by orchiectomy. Benefit of this therapeutic approach is the timely management of acute abdominal and/or pulmonary symptoms of life-threatening distant metastases.
UI - 11989562
AU - Cuninkova M; Ondrus D; Plesko I; Mat'oska J
TI - Epidemiology of testicular tumors in Slovakia (1993-1997): preliminary report.
SO - Int Urol Nephrol 2001;32(4):669-75
AD - Department of Health and Social Sciences, Trnava University, Slovak Republic.
Worldwide increase of the incidence of testicular tumors was also reflected in the increasing number of these malignancies in the Slovak Republic. Lack of the accurate information about the occurrence of testicular tumors in Slovakia has helped to create a new multicentric retrospective study based on occurrence, histology, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment of this malignancy in Slovakia. The analysed study group consists of 1010 patients with testicular cancer, diagnosed from the beginning of 1993 to the end of 1997. Identification and histological data about the patients were obtained from the heads of departments of urology in Slovakia. In this study considerable differences were found between information obtained from departments of urology and information published by the National Cancer Register of the Slovak Republic. Ascertained information is higher than the one published by the National Cancer Register from the last five officially concluded years.
UI - 11989563
AU - Gokce G; Kilicarslan H; Ayan S; Yildiz E; Kaya K; Gultekin EY
TI - Adenomatoid tumors of testis and epididymis: a report of two cases.
SO - Int Urol Nephrol 2001;32(4):677-80
AD - Department of Urology and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
Adenomatoid tumors are rare benign tumors of female and male genital tracts. In this paper, we reported an epididymal and a testicular adenomatoid tumor in two patients presented with enlarged intrascrotal mass.
UI - 11989565
AU - Gurdal M; Erol A
TI - Malignant mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis associated with long-lasting hydrocele: could hydrocele be an etiological factor?
SO - Int Urol Nephrol 2001;32(4):687-9
AD - Department of Urology, Haydarpasa Numune Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.
A case of malign mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis in a 67 year old man with a 30 year history of hydrocele was reported. The diagnosis was made with an excisional biopsy performed in scrotal exploration and revealed epithelial type mesothelioma. High orchiectomy with hemiscrotectomy was performed. The patient had a local recurrence at the end of two years. As there were no distant metastasis only local excision was performed. In his sixth month after the second surgery he is still tumor free. Related literature reviewed.
UI - 12031382
AU - Spermon JR; Roeleveld TA; van der Poel HG; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa CA; Ten
TI - Bokkel Huinink WW; van de Vijver M; Witjes JA; Horenblas S Comparison of surveillance and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in Stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.
SO - Urology 2002 Jun;59(6):923-9
AD - Department of Urology, University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
OBJECTIVES: To compare retrospectively the treatment results of surveillance and primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) of patients with clinical Stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis (NSGCT) in two institutions in The Netherlands. METHODS: From 1982 to 1994, 90 consecutive patients with clinical Stage I NSGCT were prospectively entered in a surveillance protocol in Amsterdam (group 1). In the same period, 101 patients with clinical Stage I NSGCT underwent primary RPLND in Nijmegen (group 2). Both patient populations were comparable for patient age, presence of vascular invasion, and embryonal cell components in the primary tumor. All patients in group 1 with relapse, except for 2, were treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. All patients in group 2 with vital tumor in the RPLND specimen were treated with two adjuvant courses of combined chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin). RESULTS: In group 1, at a median follow-up of 7.7 years, 23 patients (26%) had relapse. The median time to relapse was 12 months. Relapses were located retroperitoneally (n = 18, 78%), in the lung (n = 3, 13%), scrotally (n = 1, 4%), and combined in the liver, lung, and pleura (n = 1, 4%). After treatment of relapses (chemotherapy in 21 and/or surgery in 11), only 1 patient died of disseminated disease. A disease-free survival rate of 98.5% was achieved at the median follow-up. The main toxicities consisted of short-lasting leukopenia, accompanied by infection (13%). Four patients reported cardiovascular and four neuropathy complaints. In group 2, the median follow-up was 6.9 years. In 31 patients (30.7%), vital tumor was found retroperitoneally; after two courses of combined chemotherapy, none of them had a relapse. Seven patients with pathologic Stage I disease (6.4%) had a pulmonary relapse within 1 year after surgery. No retroperitoneal relapses were found. After chemotherapy, 6 patients with relapse were salvaged, and 1 died of disseminated disease. The disease-specific survival rate in group 2 was 98% at the median follow-up. The most frequent surgical complications were lymphocele (n = 3), small bowel obstruction (n = 3), and abdominal pain (n = 3). The antegrade ejaculation rate was 94%. CONCLUSIONS: Excellent treatment results in terms of disease-free survival can be achieved in Stage I NSGCT with both surveillance and primary RPLND. Patients with pathologic Stage II disease adjuvantly treated with chemotherapy did not have any relapse and consequently all survived. Most complications after both treatment strategies are reversible. The choice of treatment should be based on balanced information and not on dogmatic principles.
UI - 12026504
AU - Chandra A; Baruah RK; Ramanujam; Rajalakshmi KR; Sagar G; Vishwanathan
TI - P; Raman Primary intratesticular sarcoma.
SO - Indian J Med Sci 2001 Aug;55(8):421-8
AD - Dept of Electron Microcopy, Cancer Institute (W.I.A), Chennai. email@example.com
Primary intratesticular sarcoma that is neither associated with germ cell elements nor paratesticular elements is a unique subset of intrascrotal sarcoma. It is a rare indolent tumor with potential for distant metastases. Although few data are available it is generally assumed to be quite uncommon. The definitive treatment recommendation are yet to be laid down. Four cases are reported.
UI - 12010592
AU - Choo R; Sandler H; Warde P; Hruby G; DeBoer G
TI - Survey of radiation oncologists: practice patterns of the management of stage I seminoma of testis in Canada and a selected group in the United States.
SO - Can J Urol 2002 Apr;9(2):1479-85
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate practice patterns of the management of stage I seminoma of testis in Canada and a selected group in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Survey among radiation oncologists treating genitourinary (GU) tumors in Canada and the RTOG GU committee members in was 78% (73/93) in Canada and 67% (24/36) in the United States. Eighty-four percent described their clinical practice as a university affiliated teaching center, and 16% as community-based or private practice. Sixty-two percent, 31% and 7% would manage 1-5, 6-10 and > oe = 11 cases per year respectively. Almost all would perform chest x-ray (99%) and CT scan of abdomen and pelvis (100%) as staging investigation following radical inguinal orchiectomy. Forty percent also arranged CT scan of chest, while only 18% routinely obtained lymphangiogram. Seventy-eight percent offered surveillance as a management option and estimated that 20% (median) of patients would choose surveillance in their practice. Among four management options: (1. surveillance, 2. radiotherapy (RT) to the para-aortic region, 3. RT to the para-aortic and ipsilateral pelvis ('dog-leg'), 4. single-agent chemotherapy), the order of first preference was option 1 (44%), 2 (42%), and 3 (14%) for patients who wish to preserve fertility. When fertility was not a major concern, it was option 2 (43%), 3 (39%), and 1 (17%). The commonest dose-fractionation schedule was 25 Gy/20 fractions (68%). Others included 25 Gy/15 f (15%), and 25.5 Gy/17 f (4%). Forty-five percent chose the para-aortic region, while 53% used the 'dog-leg' as RT volume. Twenty-nine percent reduced RT volume from the 'dog-leg' to the para-aortic region as the result of MRC Phase III study published in 1999. CONCLUSION: There are significant variations in the practice pattern of the management of stage I seminoma of testis among radiation oncologists in Canada and a selected group in the United States.
UI - 12010596
AU - Ozdal OL; Yakupoglu YK; Cicek A; Erdem O; Memis L; Memis A
TI - Epididymal metastasis from gastric signet ring cell adenocarcinoma.
SO - Can J Urol 2002 Apr;9(2):1498-9
AD - Department of Urology of Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
We report a 55 year old man complaining of painless left testicular swelling that developed over 2 months. The imaging studies revealed an epididymal mass separate from the testicle. The patient underwent left radical orchiectomy. The histopathological examination of the orchiectomy specimen revealed poorly differentiated signet cell metastatic adenocarcinoma.
UI - 11957756
AU - Parra Muntaner L; Sanchez Merino JM; Lopez Pacios JC; Gomez Cisneros SC;
TI - Pineiro Fernandez Mdel C; Madrid Garcia FJ; Garcia Alonso J; Sousa Escandon A [Acute scrotum secondary to testicular tumor]
SO - Arch Esp Urol 2002 Jan-Feb;55(1):71-3
AD - Servicio de Urologia, Hospital del Bierzo, Fuentes Nuevas-Ponferrada, Leon, Espana.
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of testicular tumor, classified as seminoma, with a very uncommon form of presentation since it presented as acute scrotum. METHODS: The clinical features, treatment and outcome of this uncommon condition are presented. RESULTS: A review of the literature showed that this form of presentation is rare although in the present case it is impossible to determine if testicular inflammation was due to tumor necrosis or infection from the associated hydrocele. CONCLUSIONS: Testicular tumor should be considered in all male patients aged 20 to 35 years with acute scrotum.
UI - 11988673
AU - Kucuk HF; Dalkilic G; Kuroglu E; Altuntas M; Barisik NO; Gulmen M
TI - Massive bleeding caused by rupture of intra-abdominal testicular seminoma: case report.
SO - J Trauma 2002 May;52(5):1000-1
AD - Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Cevizli Kartal, Istanbul, Turkey.
UI - 12022566
AU - Gersak B; Lakic N; Gorjup V; Gulic T; Berden P; Cernic NS
TI - Right ventricular metastatic choriocarcinoma obstructing inflow and outflow tract.
SO - Ann Thorac Surg 2002 May;73(5):1631-3
AD - Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Center for Intensive Internal Medicine, University Medical Center, Ljubljana, Slovenia. firstname.lastname@example.org
We operated on a 34-year-old man with a metastatic tumor that extended from the tricuspid valve to the pulmonary valve and obstructed the right ventricle inflow and outflow tracts. The tumor was removed with preservation of the tricuspid valve. Additional chemotherapy was carried out according to the BEPO (etoposid, eisplatin, bleomycin, vincritin) scheme. Histology revealed metastasis of a choriocarcinoma originating from the right testis. Computed tomography performed after 6 months detected no metastases in the lungs. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a thickened right ventricle free wall and apex. The patient is doing well 18 months postoperatively.
UI - 11771876
AU - von Ostau C; Krege S; Hartmann M; Rubben H
TI - Metachronous contralateral germ cell tumor 7 years after management of testicular intraepithelial neoplasia by chemotherapy and multiple control biopsies.
SO - Scand J Urol Nephrol 2001 Oct;35(5):430-1
AD - Department of Urology, University of Essen, Medical School, Germany.
We report about a metachronous germ cell tumor 7 years after chemotherapy of advanced testicular cancer and contralateral testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN). Chemotherapy can not safely eradicate TIN. The safest treatment for TIN remains low dose radiation.
UI - 11795661
AU - Ghazi AA; Rahimi F; Ahadi MM; Sadeghi-Nejad A
TI - Development of true precocious puberty following treatment of a Leydig cell tumor of the testis.
SO - J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2001 Nov-Dec;14(9):1679-81
AD - Department of Endocrinology, Taleghani Hospital, Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
We report a prepubertal boy who developed true precocious puberty following unilateral orchidectomy for the treatment of a Leydig cell tumor.
UI - 12034520
AU - Pienkowska-Grela B; Grygalewicz B; Bregula U
TI - Overrepresentation of the short arm of chromosome 12 in seminoma and nonseminoma groups of testicular germ cell tumors.
SO - Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2002 Apr 15;134(2):102-8
AD - Cytogenetic Laboratory, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, 5 K.W. Roentgen Str, 02-781, Warsaw, Poland. email@example.com
The amplification of the short arm of the chromosome 12, especially as the i(12p) marker chromosome, has been found to be a highly nonrandom chromosome abnormality associated with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). A series of adult TGCT consisting of seven seminomas (SE) and eight nonseminomas (NS) was analyzed by conventional cytogenetics and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Multiplied chromosome 12 material originating from typical i(12p) and from other markers carrying chromosome 12-derived material was found in almost all analyzed tumors (6 of 7 SE cases and 8 of 8 NS cases). Heterogeneity in the copy number of i(12p) and other 12p-derived markers, as well as chromosome 12 aneuploidy, were higher in NS tumors than in SE.
UI - 12056035
AU - Shintaku I; Numahata K; Suzuki K; Ohyama C; Sato M; Saito S; Hoshi S;
TI - Orikasa S [Treatment of metastatic germ cell tumors with etoposide and cisplatin as first line chemotherapy]
SO - Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi 2002 May;93(4):519-24
AD - Department of Urology, Japanese Red Cross Sendai Hospital.
PURPOSE: The efficacy and toxicity of two-drug therapy (etoposide and cisplatin, EP) in patients with metastatic germ cell tumors were 1999, 18 patients with metastatic germ cell tumors (6 seminomas and 12 non-seminomas, Stage II 8, Stage IIIA 2, Stage IIIB 6, Stage IIIC 2) were treated by 3-5 cycles of induction chemotherapy regimen (EP). Etoposide and cisplatin were administrated in doses of 100 mg/m2 and 20 mg/m2, respectively, on days 1 to 5 and then repeated from day 21. After tumor markers obtained normal levels, one or two additional cycles of EP were continued. Patients showing evidence of residual tumor mass underwent debulking surgery as early as possible. RESULTS: At the end of EP therapy, 4 (22%) of the 18 patients achieved complete remission and 14 patients (78%) showed partial remission. Seven patients of partial remission were treated by excision of residual abnormalities: 6 had pathologically necrotic debris in the resected specimen and 1 had teratoma, and these 7 patients all achieved complete remission. Four other patients achieving partial remission were followed without surgical excision and have had no evidence of disease progression. Remaining three patients achieving partial remission received salvage chemotherapy with or without adjunctive surgery, resulted in complete remission in 2 patients and partial remission in 1 patient. EP demonstrated to have less treatment-related toxicity compared with that of EBP. Follow up studies ranging from 12 to 47 months (median, 29.6) showed that one patient experienced a relapse from complete remission at 13 months and was salvaged by chemotherapy and surgery. Finally, thirteen patients (72%) who achieved complete remission are alive and disease-free and 5 patients (28%) showing partial remission are alive with negative tumor markers and no evidence of relapse. CONCLUSION: These results suggests that EP is an efficacious and less toxic first line regimen for good-prognosis patients with metastatic germ cell tumors.
UI - 11806629
AU - Mermershtain W; Dudnik J; Gusakova I; Ariad S
TI - Acute myocardial infarction in a young man receiving chemotherapy for testicular cancer: case report.
SO - J Chemother 2001 Dec;13(6):658-60
AD - Department of Oncology, Soroka University Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel. firstname.lastname@example.org
The authors report on a case of treatment-related myocardial infarction in a young man receiving chemotherapy (BEP) for testicular cancer and discuss the implications of the case.
UI - 11903686
AU - Kubota Y; Ohji H; Itoh K; Sasagawa I; Nakada T
TI - Changes in cellular immunity during chemotherapy for testicular cancer.
SO - Int J Urol 2001 Nov;8(11):604-8
AD - Department of Urology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: The changes in vivo in immunocyte functions during chemotherapy that is administered in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in humans have not been fully investigated. This study was designed to examine neutrophil functions and the activities of natural killer (NK) cells, during the administration of chemotherapy and G-CSF for the treatment of testicular cancer. METHODS: Seven patients with germ cell tumors at stage IIA, IIB or IIIB, who were treated with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP), were enrolled in the study. Numbers and activities of neutrophils and NK cells were measured at various times during and after the first course of chemotherapy. Neutrophil phagocytosis was quantitated by flow cytometry with fluorescent latex beads. Bactericidal activity was measured in terms of colony-forming units. The activity of NK cells was measured by monitoring the release of 51Cr. RESULTS: After BEP chemotherapy, CD16+ and CD56+ cell counts, and neutrophil granulocyte counts decreased while there were no significant changes in the number of lymphocytes. Phagocytosis by neutrophils was enhanced after administration of G-CSF. The activity of NK cells was severely impaired after chemotherapy and did not change after administration of G-CSF. CONCLUSIONS: After BEP chemotherapy for testicular cancer with G-CSF, neutrophil function was not at all inferior to those before treatment. Natural killer cell activity was suppressed by the BEP chemotherapy and did not change after administration of G-CSF.
UI - 12032829
AU - Smiraglia DJ; Szymanska J; Kraggerud SM; Lothe RA; Peltomaki P; Plass C
TI - Distinct epigenetic phenotypes in seminomatous and nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors.
SO - Oncogene 2002 May 30;21(24):3909-16
AD - Division of Human Cancer Genetics, Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University, 420 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Smiraglia.firstname.lastname@example.org
The genetic nature of testicular germ cell tumors and the molecular mechanisms underlying the morphological and clinical differences between the two subtypes, seminomas and nonseminomas, remains unclear. Genetic studies show that both subtypes exhibit many of the same regional genomic disruptions, although the frequencies vary and few clear differences are found. We demonstrate significant epigenetic differences between seminomas and nonseminomas by restriction landmark genomic scanning. Seminomas show almost no CpG island methylation, in contrast to nonseminomas that show CpG island methylation at a level similar to other solid tumors. We find an average of 1.11% of CpG islands methylation in nonseminomas, but only 0.08% methylated in seminomas. Furthermore, we demonstrate that seminomas are more highly hypomethylated than nonseminomas throughout their genome. Since both subtypes are thought to arise from primordial germ cells, the epigenetic differences seen between these subtypes may reflect the normal developmental switch in primordial germ cells from an undermethylated genome to a normally methylated genome. We discuss these findings in relation to different developmental models for seminomatous and nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors.
UI - 12020521
AU - Steele JP; Oliver RT
TI - Testicular cancer: perils of very late presentation.
SO - Lancet 2002 May 11;359(9318):1632-3
AD - Department of Medical Oncology, St Bartholomew's Hospital, EC1A 7BE, London, UK. email@example.com
UI - 12020528
AU - de Boer HD; Haerkens MH; van der Stappen W; van Ingen G; Wobbes T
TI - Testicular carcinoma: postmortem diagnosis after a car accident.
SO - Lancet 2002 May 11;359(9318):1666
AD - Department of Anaesthesiology, University Medical Centre, St Radboud, Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org
UI - 12026453
AU - Allison L
TI - Clinical effectiveness: testicular self-examination.
SO - Prof Nurse 2000 Aug;15(11):710-3
AD - Army Training Regiment Medical Centre, Glencorse Barracks, Edinburgh.
Evidence must be used to support a change in practice. Incorporating evidence into practice is essential for clinical effectiveness. The findings should be disseminated to others involved. The effect on patients should be evaluated.
UI - 12037681
AU - Qiao D; Zeeman AM; Deng W; Looijenga LH; Lin H
TI - Molecular characterization of hiwi, a human member of the piwi gene family whose overexpression is correlated to seminomas.
SO - Oncogene 2002 Jun 6;21(25):3988-99
AD - Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, PO Box 3709, DUMC, Durham, North Carolina, NC 27710, USA.
The piwi family genes are highly conserved during evolution and play essential roles in stem cell self-renewal, gametogenesis, and RNA interference in diverse organisms ranging from Drosophila melanogaster and C. elegans to Arabidopsis. Here we report the molecular characterization of hiwi, a human member of the piwi gene family. hiwi maps to the long arm of chromosome 12, band 12q24.33, a genomic region that displays genetic linkage to the development of testicular germ cell tumors of adolescents and adults (TGCTs), i.e., seminomas and nonseminomas. In addition, gain of this chromosomal region has been found in some TGCTs. hiwi encodes a 3.6 kb mRNA that is expressed abundantly in the adult testis. It encodes a highly basic 861-amino-acid protein that shares significant homology throughout its entire length with other members of the PIWI family proteins in Drosophila, C. elegans and mammals. In normal human testes, hiwi is specifically expressed in germline cells, with its expression detectable in spermatocytes and round spermatids during spermatogenesis. No expresssion was observed in testicular tumors of somatic origin, such as Sertoli cell and Leydig cell tumors. Enhanced expression was found in 12 out of 19 sampled testicular seminomas-tumors originating from embryonic germ cells with retention of germ cell phenotype. In contrast, no enhanced expression was detected in 10 nonseminomas-testicular tumors that originate from the same precursor cells as seminomas yet have lost their germ cell characteristics. Finally, no enhanced expression was detected in four spermatocytic seminomas-testicular tumors that most likely originate from germ cells capable of partial meiosis. Thus, hiwi is specifically expressed in both normal and malignant spermatogenic cells in a maturation stage-dependent pattern, in which it might function in germ cell proliferation.
UI - 11975163
AU - Clark A; Jones P; Newbold S; Spencer J; Wilson M; Brandwood K
TI - Practice development in cancer care: self-help for men with testicular cancer.
SO - Nurs Stand 2000 Aug 30-Sep 5;14(50):41-6
AD - Nottingham School of Nursing (Undergraduate Division).
This article describes a joint initiative between health professionals and men who had had testicular cancer to set up a self-help group. The aims of this group were, and still are, to provide information and support and to instigate professional education.
UI - 11943029
AU - Antunes L; Ounnoughene-Piet M; Hennequin V; Maury F; Lemelle JL;
TI - Labouyrie E; Plenat F Gynandroblastoma of the testis in an infant: a morphological, immunohistochemical and in-situ hybridization report.
SO - Histopathology 2002 Apr;40(4):395-7
UI - 11963778
AU - Bremer M; Bense A; Guner SA; Kuczyk MA; Karstens JH
TI - [Spermatocytic seminoma. Report of 2 personal cases and review of the literature]
SO - Urologe A 2002 Jan;41(1):60-3
AD - Abteilung Strahlentherapie und spezielle Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover. email@example.com
The spermatocytic seminoma is a distinct testicular neoplasm with a low tendency to metastasize. Two own cases with the diagnosis of a spermatocytic seminoma are presented. A third patient is described, where the initial diagnosis of a spermatocytic seminoma was retrospectively changed to classical seminoma after developing retroperitoneal relapse during surveillance. A literature review revealed distinct histopathological characteristics and a remarkably good prognosis for spermatocytic seminoma. With only one case of relapse confirmed in the literature, in these patients postoperative treatment can safely be omitted in favor of surveillance. In case of spermatocytic seminoma diagnosis should be confirmed by a second pathologist.
UI - 12035359
AU - Ramanujam AS; Chandra A; Raman SG; Sagar TG; Mallikarjuna VS
TI - Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS) with testicular seminoma.
SO - Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2001 Oct;44(4):441-3
AD - Department of Division of Medical Oncology, Pathology Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai.
Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS) is characteristically associated with unilateral or bilateral cryptoorchidism. Like other undescended testis, these gonads are at an increased risk of malignant transformation. We report a case of intra abdominal seminoma in cryptorchid testis of a patient with the Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome, hitherto uncommonly reported in India.
UI - 12035375
AU - Nabi G; Gania MA; Sharma MC
TI - Solitary delayed contralateral testicular metastasis from renal cell carcinoma.
SO - Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2001 Oct;44(4):487-8
We report a 60 year old male presenting with contralateral testicular metastasis 7 years following radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. Testicular metastases from renal cell carcinoma reported in literature are predominantly ipsilateral and invariably on the left side. Usually these are present simultaneously with the renal primary or precede the diagnosis of renal tumors. Delayed contralateral testicular metastatic has not been reported to the best of our knowledge. The case highlights the unique behaviour of renal cell carcinoma with an unusual site of recurrence. The clinical presentation, pathogenesis and management of this rare presentation along with review of recent literature are discussed.
UI - 12040290
AU - Nair SG; Rajan B
TI - Seminoma arising in cryptorchid testis 25 years after orchiopexy: case report.
SO - Am J Clin Oncol 2002 Jun;25(3):287-8
AD - Department of Medical Oncology, Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, India.
A 33-year-old man who underwent right orchiopexy at age 8 for undescended testis had a swelling develop at the same site 25 years later. He underwent right high orchiectomy. Histopathologic examination of the resected specimen suggested seminoma, and he was treated with chemotherapy (cisplatinum, etoposide, and bleomycin.) Even though the ideal age at orchiopexy is unknown, early intervention is advocated to preserve fertility and prevent malignant transformation. The management of cryptorchid testis is controversial. In view of the persistent malignant potential of this condition, early orchiopexy and lifelong follow-up are recommended.
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