National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: August 1, 2002
UI - 12046062
AU - Zhou Y; Gao SS; Li YX; Fan ZM; Zhao X; Qi YJ; Wei JP; Zou JX; Liu G;
TI - Jiao LH; Bai YM; Wang LD Tumor suppressor gene p16 and Rb expression in gastric cardia precancerous lesions from subjects at a high incidence area in northern China.
SO - World J Gastroenterol 2002 Jun;8(3):423-5
AD - Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan Province China.
AIM:To further understand the molecular basis for gastric cardia carcinogenesis and to provide etiological clues. METHODS: Endoscopic mucosa biopsy and histopathological examinations were made on 37 subjects from a high incidence area for both esophageal and gastric cardia carcinomas in northern China. All the biopsy samples were fixed in 850 ml. (-1)L alcohol and embedded in paraffin. Each block contained one piece of tissue and was serially section at 5 microm. Immunohistochemistry (ABC) was carried out on these gastric cardia samples to determine the alterations of p16 and Rb. RESULTS: Based on the histopathlogical examination there were 11 cases of chronic superficial gastritis, 12 cases of chronic atrophic gastritis and 14 cases of dysplasia. The immunostaining demonstrated different levels of unclear immunostaining of p16 and Rb in normal gastric cardia tissue and the tissues with different severity of lesions. With the lesions progressing, the positive immunostaining rates for p16 protein had a decreasing tendency. In contrast, the positive immunostaining rate for Rb protein had an increasing tendency. There was a significant negative relationship between the two parameters. Changes of p16 was CSG 11(100%), CAG 7(58%), DYS 4(29%) and changes of Rb was CSG 2(18%), CAG 8(67%) and DYS 12(86%), (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The alterations of p16 and Rb protein may play a role in the early stages of gastric cardia carcinogenesis.
UI - 12107345
AU - Korabiowska M; Ruschenburg I; Betke H; Stachura J; Schlott T; Cardo CC;
TI - Brinck U Downregulation of the retinoblastoma gene expression in the progression of malignant melanoma.
SO - Pathobiology 2001;69(5):274-80
AD - Department of Cytopathology, Georg August University, Gottingen, Germany.
The retinoblastoma gene is a cell cycle regulator preventing cells from entering into S-phase. An altered expression of the retinoblastoma gene has been reported in the majority of human malignancies. The main aim of this study was to investigate retinoblastoma gene expression in the full spectrum of melanoma progression from naevus to melanoma metastases by applying immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. All naevi with and without dysplasia showed high expression of the retinoblastoma gene. In primary melanomas, Rb-positive cells were found in 82 out of 106. Loss of expression correlated with an increase in Clark level and shorter survival rates. An independent prognostic role of the retinoblastoma gene was confirmed by Cox multivariate analyses (p < 0.01). In melanoma metastases, retinoblastoma gene expression (at the RNA level) was found in 18 out of 26 melanoma lymphatic metastases, and in 2 out of 5 liver metastases. Our results indicate a downregulation of the retinoblastoma gene in the progression of melanocytic tumours. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
UI - 12093735
AU - Ferguson KL; Vanderluit JL; Hebert JM; McIntosh WC; Tibbo E; MacLaurin
TI - JG; Park DS; Wallace VA; Vooijs M; McConnell SK; Slack RS Telencephalon-specific Rb knockouts reveal enhanced neurogenesis, survival and abnormal cortical development.
SO - EMBO J 2002 Jul 1;21(13):3337-46
AD - Ottawa Health Research Institute, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1H 8M5.
Correct cell cycle regulation and terminal mitosis are critical for nervous system development. The retinoblastoma (Rb) protein is a key regulator of these processes, as Rb-/- embryos die by E15.5, exhibiting gross hematopoietic and neurological defects. The extensive apoptosis in Rb-/- embryos has been attributed to aberrant S phase entry resulting in conflicting growth control signals in differentiating cells. To assess the role of Rb in cortical development in the absence of other embryonic defects, we examined mice with telencephalon-specific Rb deletions. Animals carrying a floxed Rb allele were interbred with mice in which cre was knocked into the Foxg1 locus. Unlike germline knockouts, mice specifically deleted for Rb in the developing telencephalon survived until birth. In these mutants, Rb-/- progenitor cells divided ectopically, but were able to survive and differentiate. Mutant brains exhibited enhanced cellularity due to increased proliferation of neuroblasts. These studies demonstrate that: (i) cell cycle deregulation during differentiation does not necessitate apoptosis; (ii) Rb-deficient mutants exhibit enhanced neuroblast proliferation; and (iii) terminal mitosis may not be required to initiate differentiation.
UI - 11859969
AU - Simon M; Park TW; Koster G; Mahlberg R; Hackenbroch M; Bostrom J; Loning
TI - T; Schramm J Alterations of INK4a(p16-p14ARF)/INK4b(p15) expression and telomerase activation in meningioma progression.
SO - J Neurooncol 2001 Dec;55(3):149-58
AD - Neurochirurgische Universitatsklinik, Bonn, Germany. Matthias.Simon@ukb.uni-bonn.de
Dysregulation of cell cycle progression and telomerase activation have been implicated in malignant tumor progression as well as in the evasion of senescence and immortalization. We have investigated expression of the cell cycle control and tumor suppressor genes INK4a(p16-p14ARF), INK4b(p15-p10) and RB, and their relation to telomerase activation during malignant meningioma progression. 7/26 (27%) benign, 3/12 (25%) atypical but 4/7 (57%) anaplastic tumors lacked both, p16 and p15 protein expression. 14/39 (36%) benign and atypical but 5/7 (71%) anaplastic meningiomas contained no p14ARF mRNA. 2/46 (4%) tumors failed to express pRB. We observed frequent differential loss of expression of the alternatively spliced INK4a tumor suppressors p16 and p14ARF. Exclusive expression of the alternative INK4b transcript p10 possibly at the expense of p15 and therefore resulting in loss of p15 tumor suppressor activity was noted in two meningiomas. We have previously described telomerase activity or expression of the telomerase catalytic subunit hTERT in this meningioma series. Telomerase activation was detected in 10/27 (37%) benign, but 18/19 (95%) non-benign meningiomas. We observed no significant overall correlation between loss of INK4a/INK4b expression and telomerase activation. In conclusion, our results suggest a greater role for losses of INK4a/INK4b gene products in meningioma formation and malignant progression than previously thought. Inactivation of p16/p15- and pl4ARF-dependent pathways possibly in conjunction with telomerase activation might be critical steps for a meningioma cell towards escape from senescence, that is, immortalization.
UI - 12145697
AU - Galteland E; Smedshammer L; Suo Z; DeAngelis P; Stokke T
TI - Proliferation-dependent expression and phosphorylation of pRB in B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: dependence on RB1 copy number.
SO - Leukemia 2002 Aug;16(8):1549-55
AD - Department of Biophysics, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
Some studies have suggested that a significant fraction of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) do not express pRB protein, possibly due to deletions of RB1. We examined RB1/centromere 17 copy number by fluorescent in situ hybridisation, and pRB expression/phosphorylation by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunoblotting (IB) in 66 cases of B cell NHL. Thirteen cases had lost one RB1 copy relative to centromere 17 copy number and total DNA content. Case 458/88 had no RB1 copies. pRB levels were heterogeneous as assessed by IB (0.04-1.12 relative units), but all tumours, except for case 458/88, expressed pRB localised to the nucleus in >75% of the tumour cells by IHC. The fraction of phosphorylated pRB was correlated with pRB expression (r(2)= 0.56, P < 0.001). The 14 cases with loss of RB1 had lower pRB expression (median 0.25) than those without (median 0.48, P < 0.001), but a correlation with S phase fraction (r(2) = 0.43, P < 0.001; previously published data for tumour-specific S phase and apoptotic fractions) indicated that the variation in pRB expression was due to differences in proliferative activity. Furthermore, the regression lines for pRB expression vs S phase fraction were not different for the cases with or without loss of one RB1 copy (P = 0.5). Cases 154/88 (one RB1 copy) and 258/88 (two RB1 copies), in addition to case 458/88, had low expression of (hypophosphorylated) pRB (0.04, 0.08 and 0.04), despite their high S phase fractions (21%, 17% and 21%). There was no association between pRB expression/RB1 copy number and apoptotic fraction. Neither pRB expression nor loss of RB1 had prognostic value, but cases 154/88, 258/88, and 458/88 had short survival times (5, 3 and 46 months, respectively) compared to the others (median survival: 44 months, P = 0.03). It is suggested that pRB expression and function are normal in 63 of 66 NHL cases, including 12 of 13 lymphomas with loss of one RB1 allele.
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