National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: August 1, 2002
UI - 10668068
AU - Jimenez F; Demaria JL; Ahumada CA
TI - [Cancer of the esophagus and stomach: 3-year evaluation]
SO - Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam 1999;29(5):319-23
AD - Seccion gastroenterologia, Hospital Dr. Jose Maria Cullen, Santa Fe, Argentina. email@example.com
Esophagus cancer has a very bad pathological prognosis. Risk factors considered are: smoking consumption and deficiency of vitamins A and C. The mortality rates of cancer of the stomach vary notably according to geographic region. Factors such as genetics, races, smoking, socioeconomic conditions are some of stomach cancer development. 646 symptomatic patients were studied in the gastroenterology unit at. J.M. Cullen hospital. Histopathologically, 22 (3.3%) cancer of the esophagus and 13 (2%) cancers of stomach were detected. All esophagus cancers were squamous cells; 82% were males and 18% females. 50% were located on the middle third zone. 92.3% of stomach cancers were adenocarcinoma; 83% were males and 17% females. A 50.8% were located in corporo-fundic zone. All the cancers both of the esophagus as well as of the stomach, were in the advanced phase. The cancer of esophagus has appeared most frequently among cancers of the tract in our hospital, with significant difference among province and national registers.
UI - 12046062
AU - Zhou Y; Gao SS; Li YX; Fan ZM; Zhao X; Qi YJ; Wei JP; Zou JX; Liu G;
TI - Jiao LH; Bai YM; Wang LD Tumor suppressor gene p16 and Rb expression in gastric cardia precancerous lesions from subjects at a high incidence area in northern China.
SO - World J Gastroenterol 2002 Jun;8(3):423-5
AD - Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan Province China.
AIM:To further understand the molecular basis for gastric cardia carcinogenesis and to provide etiological clues. METHODS: Endoscopic mucosa biopsy and histopathological examinations were made on 37 subjects from a high incidence area for both esophageal and gastric cardia carcinomas in northern China. All the biopsy samples were fixed in 850 ml. (-1)L alcohol and embedded in paraffin. Each block contained one piece of tissue and was serially section at 5 microm. Immunohistochemistry (ABC) was carried out on these gastric cardia samples to determine the alterations of p16 and Rb. RESULTS: Based on the histopathlogical examination there were 11 cases of chronic superficial gastritis, 12 cases of chronic atrophic gastritis and 14 cases of dysplasia. The immunostaining demonstrated different levels of unclear immunostaining of p16 and Rb in normal gastric cardia tissue and the tissues with different severity of lesions. With the lesions progressing, the positive immunostaining rates for p16 protein had a decreasing tendency. In contrast, the positive immunostaining rate for Rb protein had an increasing tendency. There was a significant negative relationship between the two parameters. Changes of p16 was CSG 11(100%), CAG 7(58%), DYS 4(29%) and changes of Rb was CSG 2(18%), CAG 8(67%) and DYS 12(86%), (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The alterations of p16 and Rb protein may play a role in the early stages of gastric cardia carcinogenesis.
UI - 12097267
AU - Mori Y; Sato F; Selaru FM; Olaru A; Perry K; Kimos MC; Tamura G;
TI - Matsubara N; Wang S; Xu Y; Yin J; Zou TT; Leggett B; Young J; Nukiwa T; Stine OC; Abraham JM; Shibata D; Meltzer SJ Instabilotyping reveals unique mutational spectra in microsatellite-unstable gastric cancers.
SO - Cancer Res 2002 Jul 1;62(13):3641-5
AD - Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.
Microsatellite instability (MSI) within coding regions causes frameshift mutations (FSMs). This type of mutation may inactivate tumor suppressor genes in cancers with frequent MSI (MSI-H cancers). To identify novel FSMs in gastric carcinogenesis in an unbiased and comprehensive manner, we screened for this type of mutation at 154 coding region repeat loci in 18 MSI-H gastric cancers. We also compared FSM rates and spectra in MSI-H gastric versus colorectal cancers. Thirteen novel loci showed FSMs in >20% of gastric tumors. Novel loci with the highest mutation frequencies included the activin type 2 receptor gene (44.4%), DKFZp564K112 (a homologue of the Drosophila tumor suppressor gene multi-sex-combs; 41.2%), and an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein gene SEC63 (37.5%). The mutational spectra for genes with high mutation frequencies were also significantly different between MSI-H gastric and colorectal cancers.
UI - 9802346
AU - Choudhry U; Boyce HW Jr; Coppola D
TI - Proton pump inhibitor-associated gastric polyps: a retrospective analysis of their frequency, and endoscopic, histologic, and ultrastructural characteristics.
SO - Am J Clin Pathol 1998 Nov;110(5):615-21
AD - Center for Swallowing Disorders, Division of Digestive Diseases, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa 33612-9497, USA.
Since 1992 there have been reports of proton pump inhibitors being associated with fundic gland-type gastric polyps. Endoscopic and histologic characteristics and natural history of these polyps have not been clearly defined. We performed a retrospective study of patients on long-term treatment with proton pump inhibitors who developed gastric polyps. Gastric polyps developed in 17 (10 males and 7 females, 7.3%) of the 231 patients who underwent 2 or more upper endoscopies for complicated gastroesophageal reflux disease and who were receiving long-term treatment with proton pump inhibitors. The mean interval of proton pump inhibitor use after which an endoscopy revealed gastric polyps was 32.5 months. In 1 patient, discontinuation of treatment resulted in disappearance of the polyps within 3 months. The polyps recurred 4 months after the treatment was restarted. Endoscopy established that typical polyps were generally small (<1 cm), sessile, multiple, and whitish pink with a mottled partially translucent surface. The polyps were most often present in the proximal/midgastric body. Of the 15 polyps removed endoscopically, 9 were of the fundic gland type, 4 were of the hyperplastic type, and 2 were of the inflammatory type. Eight of 9 polyps with typical endoscopic appearance were of the fundic gland type. None of the polyps contained dysplasia or carcinoma. Long-term use of proton pump inhibitors may be associated with the presence of small gastric fundic gland polyps and hyperplastic polyps. A prospective study is required to establish their incidence, natural history, and clinical significance.
UI - 11843049
AU - Yamaji Y; Mitsushima T; Ikuma H; Okamoto M; Yoshida H; Kawabe T;
TI - Shiratori Y; Saito K; Yokouchi K; Omata M Weak response of helicobacter pylori antibody is high risk for gastric cancer: a cross-sectional study of 10,234 endoscoped Japanese.
SO - Scand J Gastroenterol 2002 Feb;37(2):148-53
AD - Dept. of Internal Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: A large number of endoscoped members of the general Japanese population were surveyed to investigate the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer. Special attention was given to antibody titer and age of the subjects. METHODS: We performed gastrointestinal endoscopy and measured serum anti-H. pylori antibody in 10,234 consecutive Japanese who participated in a health examination program. Gastric cancer, when suspected, was confirmed by histology. We graded the H. pylori antibody titer into three groups in accordance with optical density values by ELISA: 'strongly positive', 'weakly positive', and 'negative'. RESULTS: Among the 10,234 subjects (men/women, 7.021/3,213; mean age, 49.1 years), 4,909 (48%) were strongly positive, 1,750 (17%) were weakly positive, and 3,575 (35%) were negative for H. pylori antibody. Thirty-seven cases of gastric cancer were found among the 10,234 subjects (0.36%); 23/4,909 (0.47%) in the strongly positive group, 9/1,750 (0.51%) in the weakly positive group, and 5/3,575 (0.14%) in the negative group. Both the strongly and weakly positive groups showed a higher risk of gastric cancer than the negative group. In the subjects over age 60, the weakly positive group seemed to show the highest risk for gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In this investigation of 10,234 Japanese, based on endoscopy results, those with serum H. pylori antibody had an increased risk for gastric cancer, while those 'weakly positive' showed a high risk, particularly in the elderly.
UI - 12066235
AU - Motohara T; Semelka RC
TI - MRI in staging of gastric cancer.
SO - Abdom Imaging 2002 Jul-Aug;27(4):376-83
AD - Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7510, USA.
UI - 12146007
AU - Saikawa Y; Kanai T; Kawano Y; Otani Y; Kubota T; Kitajima M
TI - [A novel combined chemotherapy using TS-1 and low-dose cisplatin against liver metastasis of gastric cancer]
SO - Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2002 Jul;29(7):1241-5
AD - Dept. of Surgery, Hiratsuka City Hospital.
We used a novel combination chemotherapy of TS-1 and low-dose cisplatin (CDDP) with 4 gastric cancer patients with liver metastases (one far advanced and 3 recurrent patients). TS-1 was administered at 80 mg-120 mg/body/day, twice daily for 3 weeks followed by a 2-week interval as one cycle, and CDDP was administered at 6 mg/m2/day div, for 5 days followed by a 2-day interval (1 cycle for an inpatient) or at 6 mg/m2/day div, at 5 times for 2-3 weeks (1 cycle for an outpatient). Efficacy and toxicity were evaluated after 3-6 cycles of the regimen, as long as the patients tolerated the regimen without severe side effects. This regimen resulted in 1 complete response, 2 partial responses and 1 progressive disease, showing a 75% efficacy rate. One patient experienced grade 2 nausea from this regimen, which was ameliorated by means of prolonging the interval of CDDP-administration. Thus, the regimen is useful to maintain patients' quality of life without severe adverse effects, and has a high efficacy in gastric cancer patients with liver metastases.
UI - 1415098
AU - Kadakia SC; Parker A; Canales L
TI - Metastatic tumors to the upper gastrointestinal tract: endoscopic experience.
SO - Am J Gastroenterol 1992 Oct;87(10):1418-23
AD - Department of Medicine, Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio 78234-6200.
Metastatic tumors to the upper gastrointestinal tract were identified by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in 14 patients. Malignant melanoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer were the most common primary cancers in four, three, and three patients, respectively. Osteogenic sarcoma, renal cell carcinoma, Meckel cell carcinoma of the skin, and germ-cell tumor were the primary cancer in the remaining four. The esophagus was involved in three patients, the stomach in 13, duodenum in four, and papilla of Vater in one. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding and anemia were the most common presenting features. There was correlation between symptoms and endoscopic findings in all patients. Involvement of gastrointestinal tract at endoscopy was the initial and only evidence of metastases in all patients without evidence of metastases elsewhere, as evidenced by other diagnostic tests in any of these patients. Endoscopic biopsies and/or brush cytology provided histologic diagnosis in all 14 patients. The endoscopic and nonendoscopic literature regarding metastases to the upper gastrointestinal tract is reviewed.
UI - 11496321
AU - Oue N; Kuraoka K; Kuniyasu H; Yokozaki H; Wakikawa A; Matsusaki K; Yasui
TI - W DNA methylation status of hMLH1, p16(INK4a), and CDH1 is not associated with mRNA expression levels of DNA methyltransferase and DNA demethylase in gastric carcinomas.
SO - Oncol Rep 2001 Sep-Oct;8(5):1085-9
AD - First Department of Pathology, Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan.
DNA methyltransferase and DNA demethylase are enzymes potentially affecting promoter methylation status. We examined levels of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b) and DNA demethylase (MBD2) mRNA expression by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, we examined promoter methylation status of hMLH1, p16(INK4a), and CDH1 by methylation-specific PCR since all three of these genes are reported to be hypermethylated in gastric carcinoma. MBD2 appeared to be down-regulated in neoplasms. The levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, and MBD2 mRNA expression were not associated with either tumor stage or histologic type. Promoter hypermethylation of hMLH1, p16(INK4a), and CDH1 was detected in 5/20 (25%), 8/20 (40%) and 8/20 (40%) of gastric carcinomas, respectively. There was no clear relation between DNA methylation status of hMLH1, p16(INK4a), and CDH1 and the mRNA expression levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b or MBD2. We divided the examined cases into two groups according to the number of hypermethylated genes. Cases with more than two hypermethylated genes comprised a hypermethylation group, and cases with no hypermethylation comprised a non-hypermethylation group. We found no group association for levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, and MBD2 mRNA expression. Our results suggest that the mRNA expression levels for pro-methylating (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b) and anti-methylating (MBD2) enzymes is not a critical determinate of tumor-specific promoter hypermethylation of hMLH1, p(16INK4a), or CDH1 in gastric carcinoma.
UI - 11846066
AU - Look M; Gao F; Low CH; Nambiar R
TI - Gastric cancer in Singapore.
SO - Gastric Cancer 2001;4(4):219-22
AD - Department of Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, Republic of Singapore.
UI - 12086891
AU - Hellman A; Zlotorynski E; Scherer SW; Cheung J; Vincent JB; Smith DI;
TI - Trakhtenbrot L; Kerem B A role for common fragile site induction in amplification of human oncogenes.
SO - Cancer Cell 2002 Feb;1(1):89-97
AD - Department of Genetics, The Life Sciences Institute, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel.
Oncogene amplification is an important process in human tumorigenesis, but its underlying mechanism is currently unknown. Cytogenetic analysis indicates that amplification of drug-selected genes in rodent cells is driven by recurrent breaks within chromosomal common fragile sites (CFSs), via the breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) mechanism. Here we show that BFB cycles drive the intrachromosomal amplification of the MET oncogene in a human gastric carcinoma. Our molecular evidence includes a "ladder-like" structure and inverted repeat organization of the MET amplicons. Furthermore, we show that the breakpoints, setting the centromeric amplicon boundaries, are within the CFS FRA7G region. Upon replication stress, this region showed perturbed chromatin organization, predisposing it to breakage. Thus, in vivo induction of CFSs can play an important role in human oncogenesis.
UI - 11798777
AU - Xu L; Qiao T; Chen B
TI - [Mimic epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody MG7 against gastric cancer through screening phage displayed random peptide library]
SO - Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2000 Apr;80(4):304-7
AD - Institute of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, The 4th Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.
OBJECTIVE: To get mimic peptide epitopes that could be recognized by a monoclonal antibody against gastric cancer named MG7 from random peptide library displayed by phage, and to provide useful information for further study of the interaction between antigen and antibody. METHODS: Through affinity enrichment and immunoscreening of two phage-displayed non-apeptide libraries constructed in pVIII with MG7 MAb separately, several positive phages were obtained. Fluorescence labeling and dot blot were carried out for further identification of their binding activities. Then, some of the positive phages were sequenced and their corresponding peptide sequence was deduced according to their DNA sequence. Finally, HLA binding prediction software was applied for HLA binding analysis. RESULTS: Based on several rounds of screening and binding activity detection, we got twelve and thirty positive phage clones respectively from two libraries. Through DNA sequencing, peptide deducing and sequence aligning analysis of the positive phages, some preserved epitope information such as PLX(0 - 2)S, SAVR, XRMX and YARN were obtained. The prediction using HLA binding analysis software showed that most of the sequenced peptide had the potentiality to bind with HLA molecules. CONCLUSION: PLX(0 - 2)S, SAVR, XRMX and YARN may be some of the motifs which could be recognized by monoclonal antibody MG7.
UI - 9765618
AU - Shinmura K; Kohno T; Kasai H; Koda K; Sugimura H; Yokota J
TI - Infrequent mutations of the hOGG1 gene, that is involved in the excision of 8-hydroxyguanine in damaged DNA, in human gastric cancer.
SO - Jpn J Cancer Res 1998 Aug;89(8):825-8
AD - Biology Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo.
DNA glycosylase, encoded by the hOGG1 gene, repairs 8-hydroxyguanine (oh8Gua), which is an oxidatively damaged mutagenic base. To clarify whether the DNA repair activity of hOGG1 protein is involved in gastric carcinogenesis, we examined 9 gastric cancer cell lines and 35 primary gastric cancers for mutations and genetic polymorphisms of the hOGG1 gene by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. A G-to-A transition was detected in a gastric cancer cell line, MKN1. This nucleotide change caused the conversion of the amino acid from Arg to His at codon 154, which is located in a domain highly conserved among human, mouse, and yeast OGG1 proteins. No mutation was detected in primary gastric cancers. We compared the distribution of the polymorphic alleles associated with enzymatic activity (hOGG1-Ser326 vs. hOGG1-Cys326) between 35 gastric cancer patients and 42 healthy individuals. Although the frequency of the Cys326 allele, associated with low enzymatic activity, in gastric cancer patients was a little higher than that in healthy individuals, the difference did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that low hOGG1 activity due to mutations and genetic polymorphisms is involved in the development of only a small subset of gastric cancers.
UI - 11448535
AU - Hanaoka T; Sugimura H; Nagura K; Ihara M; Li XJ; Hamada GS; Nishimoto I;
TI - Kowalski LP; Yokota J; Tsugane S hOGG1 exon7 polymorphism and gastric cancer in case-control studies of Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians.
SO - Cancer Lett 2001 Sep 10;170(1):53-61
AD - Epidemiology and Biostatistics Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute East, 6-5-1 Kashinoha, Kashiwa-shi, 277-8577, Chiba, Japan.
Polymorphism of hOGG1 may be capable of serving as a genetic marker for individual susceptibility to various cancers because of its role in the repair of oxyradical DNA damage. We examined the distribution of the hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and its presumed correlation with gastric cancer risk in two case-control studies of different ethnic groups in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Potentially eligible Japanese (JB) and non-Japanese Brazilian (NJB) case subjects were defined as patients with newly diagnosed malignant neoplasms of the stomach in 13 hospitals in Sao Paulo. Ninety-six JBs and 236 NJBs were adopted as subjects. Two controls were matched for each JB case, and one control for each NJB case. The subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire and their blood samples were collected. A significant difference in the distribution of this polymorphism between the two ethnic groups was observed (chi(2)=58.3, P<0.01). The mutant type (Ser/Cys or Cys/Cys) was predominant (approximately 65%) in the JBs, but was only present in approximately 40% of the NJBs. Logistic regression analysis showed no significant increased risk for either the Ser/Cys or Cys/Cys type in either group. The odds ratios of the Cys allele for gastric cancer were 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52-1.93) in the JBs and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.57-1.26) in the NJBs. In the NJBs, a significant increased risk of smoking was shown only in the Ser/Ser type, and no increased risk was shown in the genotypes with the Cys allele. However, no statistically significant interactions were observed with smoking or other possible confounding factors. No statistically significant difference in the distribution of the polymorphism was observed between the intestinal type and diffuse type of gastric cancer in either the JBs or the NJBs. The ethnic difference in hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism was much greater than the case-control difference, and this polymorphism is unlikely to be associated with gastric cancer.
UI - 11855578
AU - Sandor J; Kiss I; Farkas O; Ember I
TI - Association between gastric cancer mortality and nitrate content of drinking water: ecological study on small area inequalities.
SO - Eur J Epidemiol 2001;17(5):443-7
AD - Department of Public Health, University of Pecs, Hungary. email@example.com
The carcinogenic feature of N-nitroso compounds has been well established. Similarly, the transformation of ingested nitrate to N-nitroso compounds in the stomach has been thoroughly documented, nevertheless nitrates' carcinogenic effect has not been proved convincingly in human. The present study was aimed to investigate a population of small villages provided by drinking water with high and widely variable nitrate content (72 mg/l median, 290.7 mg/l 95-percentile concentration). Empirical Bayes estimates for settlement-specific age-, sex-, and year-standardised mortality ratios of gastric cancer (GC) were related to the settlement level average nitrate concentrations in drinking water controlling for confounding effects of smoking, ethnicity and education. The log-transformed average nitrate concentration showed significant positive association with stomach cancer mortality in linear regression analysis (p = 0.014). The settlements were aggregated according to the nitrate concentration into 10-percentile groups and the standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. Those groups with higher than 88 mg/l average nitrate concentration showed substantial risk elevation and the log-transformed exposure variables proved to be significant predictors of mortality (p = 0.032) at this level of aggregation also. The association seemed to be fairly strong (r2 = 0.46). Although this investigation constituting an ecological study has certain limitations, it supports the hypothesis that the high level of nitrate in drinking water is involved in the development of GC.
UI - 11992556
AU - Takezaki T; Gao CM; Wu JZ; Li ZY; Wang JD; Ding JH; Liu YT; Hu X; Xu TL;
TI - Tajima K; Sugimura H hOGG1 Ser(326)Cys polymorphism and modification by environmental factors of stomach cancer risk in Chinese.
SO - Int J Cancer 2002 Jun 1;99(4):624-7
AD - Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1 Kanokoden, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8681, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Oxidative stress is involved in many types of DNA damage, e.g., resulting in 8-hydroxyguanine adducts. Since a human counterpart exists for the yeast gene OGG1 (hOGG1) encoding an enzyme that repairs 8-hydroxyguanine, its polymorphism, Ser(326)Cys, might have potential as a genetic marker for cancer susceptibility. To investigate its association with stomach cancer risk and possible interactions with environmental factors, we conducted a case-control study of 101 stomach cancer cases and 198 controls using PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism and a questionnaire approach. The proportional distribution of the Cys/Cys alleles did not differ between stomach cancer cases and controls, but subgroup analyses revealed that a frequent drinking habit elevated the odds ratio (OR) for stomach cancer in Cys/Cys compared to Ser/Ser and Ser/Cys carriers. The ORs with frequent consumption of pickled vegetables and meat tended to be higher in Cys/Cys than in Ser/Ser and Ser/Cys carriers, these interactions being on the borderline of statistical significance. Our findings suggest that the hOGG1 Ser(326)Cys polymorphism may alter the impact of some environmental factors on stomach cancer development. For confirmation, an additional study with a larger number of subjects is now required. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 11998562
AU - Dragosics B
TI - [Significance of Helicobacter pylori infection for stomach lymphoma and stomach carcinoma]
SO - Wien Med Wochenschr 2002;152(5-6):135-40
AD - Gesundheitszentrum Wien-Sud, Wienerbergstrasse 13, A-1100 Wien. email@example.com
The discovery of Helicobacter pylori in 1983 revolutionised pathogenetic hypotheses of almost all gastric diseases and markedly enhanced research especially in the field of malignant tumours of this organ. Based on epidemiological studies indicating an association of H. pylori infection and malignant gastric tumours the WHO classified this bacterium as "class I carcinogen" already in 1994. Although the high prevalence of this germ worldwide is sharply contrasting the low incidence of gastric carcinomas and lymphomas its role as independent risk factor in the carcinogenesis of these tumours today is reasonably evidence-based. Thus, epidemiologists are calculating a reduction of 80% of all MALT-type lymphomas and of about 60% of gastric "non cardia" carcinomas in the scenario of an "H. pylori-free" world. However, complete remission of 80% of early lymphomas of MALT-type confined to mucosa and submucosa, only, after antibiotic eradication of the bacterium is well established in literature and follow-up data are confirming sustained response after years. The strength of impact of an H. pylori infection on gastric carcinogenesis will be figured out by prospective studies on a non infected population in the future.
UI - 12133540
AU - Yu J; Miehlke S; Ebert MP; Szokodi D; Wehvnignh B; Malfertheiner P;
TI - Ehninger G; Bayerdoerffer E Expression of cyclin genes in human gastric cancer and in first degree relatives.
SO - Chin Med J (Engl) 2002 May;115(5):710-5
AD - Medical Department I, Technical University Hospital, Dresden, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the role of these cyclins in human gastric cancer. METHODS: 38 gastric cancer patients, 29 first degree relatives of gastric cancer patients, as well as 18 healthy subjects were included. The mRNA expression of cyclins D1, D2, D3 and E in gastric biopsies was evaluated by RT-PCR analysis using specific primers. Histomorphological features such as intestinal metaplasia, atrophy, H. pylori infection and severity of gastritis were determined by the updated Sydney System. RESULTS: Significant mRNA overexpression was found for cyclins D2, D3 and E compared with healthy normal specimen, but cyclin D1 expression was not different between tumor and normal tissues. In addition, cyclin D2 and D3 overexpression was significantly more frequent in first degree relatives than in healthy controls (P < 0.05). Among the various pathological findings, the overexpression of cyclins D2 and E was associated with intestinal metaplasia, and the overexpression of cyclin D3 was associated with intestinal metaplasia as well as atrophy. The overexpression of cyclins D2 and D3 was significantly correlated with H. pylori infection. No correlation was observed between the overexpression of cyclin D1 and any pathological variables. CONCLUSION: The overexpression of cyclins D2, D3 and E is a frequent event in patients with gastric cancer and their first degree relatives and may be an early event in gastric carcinogenesis.
UI - 12080222
AU - Bustamante M; Devesa F; Borghol A; Ortuno J; Ferrando MJ
TI - Accuracy of the initial endoscopic diagnosis in the discrimination of gastric ulcers: is endoscopic follow-up study always needed?
SO - J Clin Gastroenterol 2002 Jul;35(1):25-8
AD - Francesc de Borja Hospital, Valencia, Spain.
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic follow-up study of gastric ulcers has been recommended routinely because of the possibility that a gastric neoplasm will be missed in the initial endoscopy. Some authors, most of them reporting data from areas of low gastric carcinoma incidence, have questioned this policy because of the low numbers of curable cancers detected and the high cost of such a program. GOALS: To assess the accuracy of endoscopy diagnosis of gastric ulcers, and to evaluate the efficacy and cost of a gastric ulcer follow-up endoscopic program in an area with an intermediate incidence rate of gastric cancer. STUDY: A retrospective study was used to identify all the gastroscopies in which a gastric ulcer had been diagnosed during a 6-year period. The endoscopic impression was compared with the histologic diagnosis, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the likelihood ratio. Patients who completed a follow-up program also were reviewed. For each neoplasm discovered, the number of endoscopies and global cost were calculated. RESULTS: In the 741 gastroscopies performed, 547 gastric ulcers were diagnosed in 529 patients. Biopsies were taken in 330 patients, in whom 341 gastric ulcers were found. At the index endoscopy, 41 gastric neoplasms (12.4%) were diagnosed. The accuracy of endoscopic malignancy diagnosis was as follows: positive predictive value of 0.68, negative predictive value of 0.98, sensitivity of 0.82, and specificity of 0.95. The likelihood ratio was 16. A total of 117 patients completed the follow-up program. Three new cases of gastric cancer (2.6%) were identified. In these three cases, the initial opinion of the endoscopist was uncertain. In the authors' experience, the cost of each gastric cancer diagnosed has been $4.653 (U.S. dollars). CONCLUSIONS: The endoscopic impression correlates with the histologic diagnosis even in a area of intermediate gastric cancer incidence. Endoscopic follow-up study may be restricted to cases of uncertain or malignant endoscopic impression.
UI - 12121875
AU - Pagliocca A; Wroblewski LE; Ashcroft FJ; Noble PJ; Dockray GJ; Varro A
TI - Stimulation of the gastrin-cholecystokinin(B) receptor promotes branching morphogenesis in gastric AGS cells.
SO - Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2002 Aug;283(2):G292-9
AD - Physiological Laboratory, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Epithelial organization is maintained by cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. In the case of the gastric epithelium, at least some of these events are regulated by the hormone gastrin. In addition, gastric epithelial cells are organized into characteristic tubular structures (the gastric glands), but the cellular mechanisms regulating the organization of tubular structures (sometimes called branching morphogenesis) are uncertain. In the present study, we examined the role of the gastrin-cholecystokinin(B) receptor in promoting branching morphogenesis of gastric epithelial cells. When gastric cancer AGS-G(R) cells were cultured on plastic, gastrin and PMA stimulated cell adhesion, formation of lamellipodia, and extension of long processes in part by activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase. Branching morphogenesis was not observed in these circumstances. However, when cells were cultured on artificial basement membrane, the same stimuli increased the formation of organized multicellular arrays, exhibiting branching morphogenesis. These effects were reversed by inhibitors of PKC but not of PI-3 kinase. We conclude that, in the presence of basement membrane, activation of PKC by gastrin stimulates branching morphogenesis.
UI - 12149877
AU - Simsa J; Leffler J; Schwarz J; Vajtrova R; Keil R
TI - [Gastric carcinoma--the sentinel node concept: initial experience]
SO - Rozhl Chir 2002 Jun;81(6):312-5
AD - Chirurgicka klinika 2. LF UK a FN Motol, Praha.
Gastric cancer is a serious malignant disease. The only hope for long time survival is radical surgery. It consists of gastrectomy and also resection of adjacent lymphatic tissues. The extent of lymphadenectomy is one of the currently discussed questions. D2 lymphadenectomy is now becoming standard also in our country. This extensive procedure can be quite difficult and needs an experienced surgeon. It is also connected with prolonged operation time and higher costs. According to some authors, this procedure is also associated with a higher morbidity. The question, whether D2 lymphadenectomy should be performed, could be answered by the sentinel node concept, which is the topic of our work.
UI - 12048630
AU - Hosokawa O; Kaizaki Y; Watanabe K; Hattori M; Douden K; Hayashi H; Maeda
TI - S Endoscopic surveillance for gastric remnant cancer after early cancer surgery.
SO - Endoscopy 2002 Jun;34(6):469-73
AD - Department of Surgery, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui, Japan. hoso-o.@mitene.or.jp
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The aims of this article were to clarify the incidence of gastric remnant cancer after surgery for early gastric cancer, and to develop surveillance programs for patients who have undergone partial gastrectomy in order to detect such lesions at an early stage. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 642 patients with partial gastrectomy for early gastric cancer were enrolled in a surveillance program for gastric remnant cancer between 1985 and 1996. In 509 patients, the interval between endoscopic examinations was no more than 2 years. RESULTS: Among the 509 patients examined periodically, 15 patients were diagnosed as having gastric remnant cancer; in 12 patients, the cancers were detected at an early stage. All gastric remnant cancers were found distant from the site of the anastomosis, and in eight patients the cancers were located on the lesser curvature. The cumulative 5-year prevalence rate was estimated as 2.4 % and the 10-year prevalence rate as 6.1 %. The initial tumors in the patients with gastric remnant cancer were of the microscopically intestinal type, without exception. The interval between the preceding examination and diagnosis was shorter in the patients with early cancer than in those with advanced cancer ( P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Periodical surveillance endoscopy for gastric remnant cancer is recommended after surgery for early gastric cancer, particularly in patients whose cancers are of the intestinal type. The examinations can be repeated at 2 - 3-year intervals, and special attention should be given to the lesser curvature away from the anastomotic site.
UI - 12099650
AU - Damhuis RA; Meurs CJ; Dijkhuis CM; Stassen LP; Wiggers T
TI - Hospital volume and post-operative mortality after resection for gastric cancer.
SO - Eur J Surg Oncol 2002 Jun;28(4):401-5
AD - Department of Cancer Registry and Research, Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. email@example.com
AIMS: In low-volume hospitals, expertise in gastric surgery is difficult to maintain because of the decreasing incidence of gastric cancer and the fall of surgery for ulcer disease. We evaluated the prognostic impact of hospital volume on post-operative mortality (POM) in a consecutive series of 1978 patients. METHODS: Information on patients undergoing resection for gastric cancer in the period 1987-97 was retrieved from the Rotterdam Cancer Registry. The relationship between hospital volume and POM was analysed by logistic regression, adjusting for other prognostic factors. RESULTS: POM was 7.9% on average but varied between the 22 hospitals from 3.1% to 15.1% (P=0.15). Hospital volume had no prognostic influence (P=0.74). Prognostic factors were age (70-79 years odds ratio (OR)=3.8, 80+ years OR=6.0), sex (male OR=1.7), stage (IV OR=1.8) and (partial) gastrectomy for cardia cancers (OR=2.0). CONCLUSION: Variation in POM between hospitals was large but not related to hospital volume. For cardia cancer, POM rates were lower after oesophagogastrectomy.
UI - 12099651
AU - Marubini E; Bozzetti F; Miceli R; Bonfanti G; Gennari L;
TI - Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group Lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer: prognostic role and therapeutic implications.
SO - Eur J Surg Oncol 2002 Jun;28(4):406-12
AD - Institute of Medical Statistics and Biometry, University of Milan, Via G. Venezian 1, 20133 Milan, Italy.
AIMS: Surgeons involved in the treatment of gastric cancer are interested in the extent of lymphadenectomy as the latter may not only influence the reliability of the tumour, node and metastasis classification but also be relevant for the long-term oncological outcome. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prognostic role of the number of resected lymph nodes (as an indicator of the scope of lymphadenectomy) and of the number of metastatic lymph nodes on the long-term mortality for all causes and to provide clinicians with estimates of predictive survival probabilities. METHODS: The study involved 615 cancer patients subjected to a curative (R0) subtotal or total gastrectomy in a randomized Italian trial. According to the trial protocol, a D2 lymphadenectomy had been advised. The number of resected and metastatic lymph nodes was analysed as a continuous variable in multiple Cox models. RESULTS: There was no difference in operative mortality (about 1.8%) according to the number of lymph nodes in the specimen (< or =15, 16-25, >25). The risk of long-term death for all causes tended to decrease with increasing number of resected lymph nodes up to about 25, and then could be considered stable for wider lymphadenectomies. An increasing risk of death for all causes was associated with an increasing number of metastatic lymph nodes; the risk could be considered stable for more than 20 metastatic lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS: A lymphadenectomy including more than 25 lymph nodes is suggested, provided that there is a low risk of operative mortality.
UI - 12137323
AU - Ljubicic N; Kujundzic M; Roic G; Banic M; Cupic H; Doko M; Zovak M
TI - Benign epithelial gastric polyps--frequency, location, and age and sex distribution.
SO - Coll Antropol 2002 Jun;26(1):55-60
AD - Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Sestre milosrdnice, Zagreb, Croatia.
Prospective investigation has been undertaken with the aim to study the frequency, location and age and sex distribution of various histological types of benign gastric epithelial polyps. Histological type--adenomatous, hyperplastic and fundic gland polyps--was diagnosed on the basis of at least three histological samples taken from the polyp. Biopsy samples were also taken from the antrum and the body of the stomach so that gastritis could be graded and classified, and the presence of H. pylori could be determined by histology. All 6,700 patients, who had undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in a one-year period, participated in this study. Among them 42 benign gastric epithelial polyp were found in 31 patients: adenomatous gastric polyps in 7 patients, hyperplastic gastric polyp in 21 and fundic gland polyp in 3 patients. All patients with hyperplastic polyps had chronic active superficial gastritis, whereas most of the patients with adenomatous polyps had a chronic atrophic gastritis with high prevalence of intestinal metaplasia. Among 21 patients with hyperplastic gastric polyps, 16 (76%) patients were positive for H. pylori infection in contrast to only 2 patients (29%) with adenomatous gastric polyps and 1 patient (33%) with fundic gland polyp. Presented data indicates that hyperplastic gastric polyps are the most common and they are associated with the presence of chronic active superficial gastritis and concomitant H. pylori infection. Adenomatous polyps are rarer and they tend to be associated with chronic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Fundic gland polyp is the rarest type of gastric polyps.
UI - 12146033
AU - Geramizadeh B; Shafiee A; Saberfirruzi M; Kumar PK; Shaheem A
TI - Brush cytology of gastric malignancies.
SO - Acta Cytol 2002 Jul-Aug;46(4):693-6
AD - Department of Pathology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71344, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To compare endoscopic biopsy and cytology versus biopsy alone in the diagnosis of gastric malignancies. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective study included 229 cases referred for endoscopy for visible gastric lesions during a four-year period (1996-2000). Both biopsy and brush cytology were performed, and all the slides were screened by a cytotechnologist and reviewed by a pathologist. RESULTS: Of the 229 cases, 97 (42.4%) were proven to be malignant and 132 (57.6%) definitely benign. Biopsy was positive in 90 patients (92.7%), while brush cytology was positive in 85 (87.1%). Combined use of biopsy and brush cytology yielded higher diagnostic sensitivity (100%). CONCLUSION: Brush cytology is a safe, easy and rapid method of diagnosing gastric malignancies. Brush cytology is a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of gastric malignancies and should be considered a routine method in combination with biopsy. Multiple repeated endoscopies are recommended in cases of positive cytology and negative biopsy to rule out or confirm malignancy.
UI - 12146999
AU - Theuer CP; Campbell BS; Peel DJ; Lin F; Carpenter P; Ziogas A; Butler JA
TI - Microsatellite instability in Japanese vs European American patients with gastric cancer.
SO - Arch Surg 2002 Aug;137(8):960-5; discussion 965-6
AD - Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine College of Medicine, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: The stage-stratified survival following gastrectomy for gastric cancer is far better in Japan than in the United States. The process of carcinogenesis may differ in gastric cancers from Japan and the United States, accounting for prognostic differences, as patients of Asian descent treated in United States also exhibit superior survival in comparison with non-Asian patients. HYPOTHESIS: The phenotype of gastric cancer differs between Japanese and American patients. DESIGN: Retrospective case-case (blinded) study. SETTING: University hospitals in Japan and the United States. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared the frequency of microsatellite instability (MSI) at 7 loci from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastrectomy specimens, between cases of gastric cancer at Hitachi General Hospital (N = 18) and in US patients of European descent treated in Orange County, Calif (N = 20). Microsatellite instability, Lauren classification, and T stage were determined without knowledge of the country of origin of the specimens. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The frequency of MSI in Japanese vs European American gastric cancer specimens. RESULTS: The frequency of MSI in Japanese gastric carcinoma specimens was higher than in specimens from American patients of European descent (39% vs 20%, respectively). In contrast, a high frequency of MSI was demonstrated in only 3 European American specimens (15% of all specimens in this group). Tumors from Japanese and American men were more likely to demonstrate MSI than those from women (50% vs 5.6%, respectively; P =.004). Among advanced-stage tumors, Japanese specimens were significantly more likely to demonstrate MSI (55%) than European American specimens (7.1%; P =.02). Specimens from Japan and America demonstrating MSI were equally likely to be from men, involve the gastroesophageal junction, and demonstrate intestinal histologic abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced gastric cancers from Japan are more likely to demonstrate MSI. These data warrant a study of larger numbers of patients to assess whether differences in MSI expression correlates with prognostic differences between gastric carcinoma in patients in Japan vs the Unit