National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: August 1, 2002
UI - 12132779
AU - Kailash U; Hedau S; Gopalkrishna V; Katiyar S; Das BC
TI - A simple 'paper smear' method for dry collection, transport and storage of cervical cytological specimens for rapid screening of HPV infection by PCR.
SO - J Med Microbiol 2002 Jul;51(7):606-10
AD - Division of Molecular Oncology, Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology (ICMR), New Delhi, India.
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are major pathogens associated with the development of cancer of the uterine cervix, the most common malignant tumour of women worldwide. Reliable diagnosis of HPV infection, particularly the 'high-risk' types (16/18), may facilitate early identification of 'high-risk' populations for developing cervical cancer and may augment the sensitivity and specificity of primary cervical cancer screening programmes by complementing the conventional Pap test. A simple paper smear method has been developed for dry collection, transport and storage of cervical smears/scrapes at room temperature for subsequent detection of HPV DNA by PCR assay. Imprint biopsies, blood and fine-needle aspirates were also collected by this method. The cervical scrapes or other body fluids were smeared (within 0.5-1 cm diameter) and dried on to sterile small slides made of Whatman 3MM filter paper, and stored individually at room temperature or at 4 degrees C. A small piece (2-3 mm) of the paper smear was punched or cut out with a sterile surgical blade, boiled in an eppendorf tube containing 50 microl of distilled water for 5 min and used directly for PCR amplification. The quality and quantity of DNA derived from paper smears and the results of PCR amplifications for HPV type 16, BRCA1 and p53 genes were identical to those obtained from the same samples following collection in PBS, storage (-70 degrees C) and phenol-chloroform-based DNA extraction. DNA was stable in the paper smears for up to a year, whether stored at room temperature or at 4 degrees C. This method is simple, rapid and cost-effective, and can be effectively employed for large-scale population screening, especially for regions where the specimens are to be transported from distant places to the laboratory.
UI - 12115570
AU - Drain PK; Holmes KK; Hughes JP; Koutsky LA
TI - Determinants of cervical cancer rates in developing countries.
SO - Int J Cancer 2002 Jul 10;100(2):199-205
AD - International Health Program, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
Although cervical cancer (CC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developing countries, incidence rates vary considerably, ranging from 3 to 61 per 10(5) females. Identifying determinants of high vs. low rates may suggest population-level prevention strategies. CC rates for 175 countries were obtained from the IARC. Country-specific behavioral, health, economic and demographic measures were obtained from United Nations agencies and other international organizations. Regression analyses performed for 127 low or medium developed countries identified both geography and religion as independently associated with high CC rates. Among behavioral measures, high fertility rates, early age at birth of first child and high teenage birth rates were significantly associated with high CC rates. Countries with high CC rates had fewer doctors per capita, less immunization coverage, more HIV infections and shorter life expectancies. CC rates also tended to be higher in countries with more spending on health and younger, less educated populations. Patterns of CC rates suggest that programmatic approaches, such as promoting delayed childbearing and sexual monogamy, may be appropriate interventions. For countries with high CC rates and some flexibility in their health-care budgets, a once-in-a-lifetime screen of women 30-50 years of age, using Pap smears, direct visual inspection and/or HPV DNA testing, may be cost-effective. Finally, relatively low immunization rates and a shortage of health-care workers in countries with high CC rates suggest potential challenges for introducing prophylactic HPV vaccines. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 11948100
AU - Young-McCaughan S; Rich IM; Lindsay GC; Bertram KA
TI - The Department of Defense Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program: innovations in the federal funding of biomedical research.
SO - Clin Cancer Res 2002 Apr;8(4):957-62
AD - United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5024, USA.
In response to the lobbying efforts of the women's advocacy movement, in 1993 Congress authorized funds for a substantial increase in support of new and promising research aimed at the eradication of breast cancer. This appropriation resulted in a major expansion of the United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Department of Defense Breast Cancer Research Program. The Office of Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs was established within the United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command to facilitate the management of the expanded extramural research program. Since that time, the programs have grown to include not just breast cancer but also prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, and neurofibromatosis. The unique appropriations to the Office of Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs has resulted in a number of programmatic innovations. These include development of unique mechanisms of grant support, inclusion of consumer advocates on peer and programmatic review panels, and the introduction of criteria-based evaluation and scoring in peer review. This article describes these novel scientific management strategies and outlines their success in meeting program visions and goals.
UI - 11519444
AU - Iaremchuk AIa; Vakulenko GA; Khadi D
TI - [Etiotropic treatment of patients with early uterine carcinoma as a basis for prevention of relapses and complications]
SO - Lik Sprava 2001 Mar-Apr;(2):90-3
In this paper, consideration is given to the role that etiological and pathogenetic factors have in the development of malignant tumours. Prevention of possible recurrencies and complications in patients with incipient forms of hysterocarcinoma warrant etiotropic treatment which has been shown to be effective and essential for the object to succeed in.
UI - 12146020
AU - Hanselaar AG
TI - Criteria for organized cervical screening programs. Special emphasis on The Netherlands program.
SO - Acta Cytol 2002 Jul-Aug;46(4):619-29
AD - Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Based on the criteria of Wilson and Jungner and experiences in the population-based organized cervical screening program in the Netherlands, conditions for efficient and effective population screening for cervical cancer are described. The purpose of this paper is to determine if these criteria are met for cervical cancer screening and to give recommendations for improvement. Cervical cancer is still an important health problem; the present incidence reflects both background risk and screening activity during previous decades. A positive effect of screening is reached because of the long development time of the disease and the ability of the Pap smear test to detect precancer and early, symptomatic disease. Considerable reduction in the incidence and mortality of cervical cancers can be reached if all women attend and all detected lesions are adequately followed up. Common terminology and classification criteria for histology and cytology should be used. Whether newly developed techniques that may improve or replace cytology can be used in screening programs should be a multidisciplinary decision after clinical trials have given evidence-based information on the performance, cost-effectiveness and need of these techniques. When cervical cancer screening is undertaken, it should be offered in organized programs at the medical level closest to the patients, the general practitioner. High compliance is the most important factor in reducing cervical cancer incidence. Quality control and assurance must be performed at all levels. In the case of limited resources, the program should use a five-year interval and concentrate on the age range 25-60 years, with special attention to women who have never been screened or were screened > 10 years previously. Evaluation of medical and organizational aspects is mandatory. Cooperation between all involved parties is a prerequisite of creating a successful screening program.
UI - 12040228
AU - Middelton L; Dimond E; Calzone K; Davis J; Jenkins J
TI - The role of the nurse in cancer genetics.
SO - Cancer Nurs 2002 Jun;25(3):196-206
AD - Urology Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. 20892-1873, USA.
Knowledge gained from the Human Genome Project and related genetic research is already impacting clinical oncology nursing practice. Because cancer is now understood to be a genetic disease, changes in the traditional approaches to prevention, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of cancer are becoming increasingly genetically based. Therefore, to ensure competency in oncology nursing practice at all levels, nurses must incorporate an understanding of the underlying biology of carcinogenesis and the molecular rationale underlying strategies to prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer.
UI - 12184549
AU - Anonymous
TI - Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2002. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
SO - MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2002 May 10;51(RR-6):1-78
These guidelines for the treatment of patients who have sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on September 26-28, 2000. The information in this report updates the 1998 Guidelines for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (MMWR 1998;47 [No. RR-1]). Included in these updated guidelines are new alternative regimens for scabies, bacterial vaginosis, early syphilis, and granuloma inguinale; an expanded section on the diagnosis of genital herpes (including type-specific serologic tests); new recommendations for treatment of recurrent genital herpes among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); a revised approach to the management of victims of sexual assault; expanded regimens for the treatment of urethral meatal warts; and inclusion of hepatitis C as a sexually transmitted infection. In addition, these guidelines emphasize education and counseling for persons infected with human papillomavirus, clarify the diagnostic evaluation of congenital syphilis, and present information regarding the emergence of quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and implications for treatment. Recommendations also are provided for vaccine-preventable STDs, including hepatitis A and hepatitis B.
UI - 12144830
AU - Tiller K; Meiser B; Butow P; Clifton M; Thewes B; Friedlander M; Tucker
TI - K Psychological impact of prophylactic oophorectomy in women at increased risk of developing ovarian cancer: a prospective study.
SO - Gynecol Oncol 2002 Aug;86(2):212-9
AD - Department of Medical Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were twofold: to prospectively assess whether expressed intention to undergo prophylactic oophorectomy translated into uptake and to evaluate the psychological impact of the procedure in a sample of unaffected women with a strong family history of breast/ovarian cancer. METHODS: Ninety-five women, initially assessed at the time of their first attendance at a familial cancer clinic, were followed-up 3 years later. A total of 22 women (23.2%) in this study had undergone a prophylactic oophorectomy. Ten women (10.5%) who had undergone a prophylactic oophorectomy during the 3-year follow-up period were compared to 73 women (76.9%) who did not have a prophylactic oophorectomy. Twelve women (12.6%) who had the procedure prior to study entry were also assessed for psychological adjustment and associated information needs. RESULTS: Age emerged as a significant predictor of uptake of prophylactic oophorectomy (chi(2) = 7.13, P = 0.009). Among those who had the procedure after study entry, a significant reduction in ovarian cancer anxiety was observed (Z = -2.19, P = 0.029). Of the 22 women who had undergone a prophylactic oophorectomy in total (both before and after study entry), 86.4% reported a high degree of satisfaction with their decision to have the procedure. A low level of screening uptake was also reported by women who did not have a prophylactic oophorectomy but for whom screening was recommended. CONCLUSION: Findings demonstrate that prophylactic oophorectomy is successful in reducing anxiety about ovarian cancer. The results also suggest that women perceive that the benefit of anxiety reduction may outweigh the potentially adverse effects of the procedure, given that women expressed a high level of satisfaction with their decision.
UI - 12186605
AU - Nelson HD; Humphrey LL; Nygren P; Teutsch SM; Allan JD
TI - Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy: scientific review.
SO - JAMA 2002 Aug 21;288(7):872-81
AD - Oregon Health and Science University, Mail Code BICC 504, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Rd, Portland, OR 97201, USA. email@example.com
CONTEXT: Although postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is widely used in the United States, new evidence about its benefits and harms requires reconsideration of its use for the primary prevention of chronic conditions. OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefits and harms of HRT for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, thromboembolism, osteoporosis, cancer, dementia, and cholecystitis by reviewing the literature, conducting meta-analyses, and calculating outcome rates. DATA SOURCES: All relevant English-language studies were identified in MEDLINE (1966-2001), HealthSTAR (1975-2001), Cochrane Library databases, and reference lists of key articles. Recent results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) are included for reported outcomes. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: We used all published studies of HRT if they contained a comparison group of HRT nonusers and reported data relating to HRT use and clinical outcomes of interest. Studies were excluded if the population was selected according to prior events or presence of conditions associated with higher risks for targeted outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Meta-analyses of observational studies indicated summary relative risks (RRs) for coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence and mortality that were significantly reduced among current HRT users only, although risk for incidence was not reduced when only studies that controlled for socioeconomic status were included. The WHI reported increased CHD events (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.63). Stroke incidence but not mortality was significantly increased among HRT users in the meta-analysis and the WHI. The meta-analysis indicated that risk was significantly elevated for thromboembolic stroke (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.40) but not subarachnoid or intracerebral stroke. Risk of venous thromboembolism among current HRT users was increased overall (RR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.64-2.81) and was highest during the first year of use (RR, 3.49; 95% CI, 2.33-5.59) according to a meta-analysis of 12 studies. Protection against osteoporotic fractures is supported by a meta-analysis of 22 estrogen trials, cohort studies, results of the WHI, and trials with bone density outcomes. Current estrogen users have an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration of use. Endometrial cancer incidence, but not mortality, is increased with unopposed estrogen use but not with estrogen with progestin. A meta-analysis of 18 observational studies showed a 20% reduction in colon cancer incidence among women who had ever used HRT (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74-0.86), a finding supported by the WHI. Women symptomatic from menopause had improvement in certain aspects of cognition. Current studies of estrogen and dementia are not definitive. In a cohort study, current HRT users had an age-adjusted RR for cholecystitis of 1.8 (95% CI, 1.6-2.0), increasing to 2.5 (95% CI, 2.0-2.9) after 5 years of use. CONCLUSIONS: Benefits of HRT include prevention of osteoporotic fractures and colorectal cancer, while prevention of dementia is uncertain. Harms include CHD, stroke, thromboembolic events, breast cancer with 5 or more years of use, and cholecystitis.
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