National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: September 1, 2002
UI - 12161607
AU - Kauff ND; Perez-Segura P; Robson ME; Scheuer L; Siegel B; Schluger A;
TI - Rapaport B; Frank TS; Nafa K; Ellis NA; Parmigiani G; Offit K Incidence of non-founder BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in high risk Ashkenazi breast and ovarian cancer families.
SO - J Med Genet 2002 Aug;39(8):611-4
UI - 11881908
AU - Isaacs C; Peshkin BN; Schwartz M; Demarco TA; Main D; Lerman C
TI - Breast and ovarian cancer screening practices in healthy women with a strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer.
SO - Breast Cancer Res Treat 2002 Jan;71(2):103-12
AD - Department of Medical Oncology, Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007-2197, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Studies in women with a family history of cancer demonstrate a wide variability in the uptake of cancer screening measures. Little data exist regarding the breast and ovarian cancer screening practices of women who are members of hereditary breast cancer families. In order to address this issue, we examined the screening behaviors and the determinants of screening in a clinic based group of 216 women with a strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer who were participating in a free genetic counseling and testing research program. At baseline, prior to obtaining genetic counseling or testing, 50% of women ages 30-39, 83% of those age 40-49, 69% of those 50-64, and 53% of those >65 reported having a mammogram in the prior year. Adherence to mammography recommendations was correlated with age, number of relatives with breast cancer, and income. Twenty percent of participants had at least one CA- 125 performed and 31 % had ever obtained a screening ultrasound. Having at least one relative with ovarian cancer was very strongly associated with ovarian cancer screening [OR = 12.3, 95% CI = 4.6-33 for CA-125; OR=4.9, 95% CI=2.4, 10.1 for ultrasound]. No association between cancer worries/distress and either breast or ovarian cancer screening was found. In conclusion, the breast and ovarian screening uptake in healthy women from hereditary breast cancer families is suboptimal, even for women over age 50, for whom annual mammography is clearly indicated. These findings indicate a need for better education about screening guidelines for high-risk women.
UI - 11928869
AU - Brustmann H
TI - Apoptotic bodies as a morphological feature in serous ovarian carcinoma: correlation with nuclear grade, Ki-67 and mitotic indices.
SO - Pathol Res Pract 2002;198(2):85-90
AD - Department of Pathology, Landeskrankenhaus, Moedling/Vienna, Austria.
This study evaluated the relation of apoptosis with mitotic activity, Ki-67 indices, and nuclear and architectural grades in serous ovarian carcinoma. Apoptotic body (ABI) and mitotic indices (MI) were obtained by examining hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from 35 serous ovarian carcinomas for apoptotic bodies and mitotic figures. ABI and MI were reported as the number of apoptotic bodies, and mitotic figures and immunostaining for Ki-67, respectively, as positive cells in 1000 cells. Nuclear grade was determined as grade 1 [n = 11], grade 2 [n = 13], and grade 3 [n = 11] according to recently defined criteria. There was a significant correlation between Ki-67 indices and ABI (p < 0.0001), Ki-67 and MI (p < 0.0001), as well as between MI and ABI (p < 0.0001). ABI increased with nuclear grade (p < 0.0001) and the type of the histological differentiation pattern (from glandular to papillary and solid architectural patterns) (p < 0.0001). Apoptosis, quantitated by ABI, is positively correlated with proliferation, thereby constituting a factor in the regulation of tumor growth of serous ovarian carcinomas. The positive correlation between ABI and increasing nuclear grade, mitotic activity, and architectural growth pattern may indicate that apoptotic bodies are another variable for grading serous ovarian carcinomas.
UI - 12114489
AU - MacDonald DJ; Choi J; Ferrell B; Sand S; McCaffrey S; Blazer KR; Grant
TI - M; Weitzel JN Concerns of women presenting to a comprehensive cancer centre for genetic cancer risk assessment.
SO - J Med Genet 2002 Jul;39(7):526-30
UI - 12139233
AU - Barnes MN; Grizzle WE; Grubbs CJ; Partridge EE
TI - Paradigms for primary prevention of ovarian carcinoma.
SO - CA Cancer J Clin 2002 Jul-Aug;52(4):216-25
AD - Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA.
OBJECTIVE: To provide the clinician with current concepts regarding prevention of ovarian cancer. Specifically, in this review, we provide a rationale for chemoprevention of ovarian cancer, a description of promising chemopreventive agents, and an overview of surgical strategies used in the prevention of ovarian cancer. DATA SOURCES: A computerized the MEDLINE database from the period of 1966 to present. Search terms utilized included ovarian neoplasms, primary prevention, chemoprevention, oral contraceptives, NSAIDs, retinoids, ovariectomy, and tubal sterilization. Additional sources were identified through cross-referencing. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: All identified references relevant to prevention of ovarian carcinoma were reviewed. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Each reference was reviewed to determine the relevant contribution to the fundamental science of ovarian cancer prevention. Particular attention was paid to those studies that offered insight into the development of translational trials in ovarian cancer chemoprevention. CONCLUSIONS: Investigation into chemoprevention for ovarian cancer represents a vastly underdeveloped area of research. Continued research efforts toward identification of novel compounds will accelerate the progress of clinical trials in this neglected area of investigation.
UI - 11783065
AU - Huang G; Song Y; He G
TI - [mRNA expression and mutation of MTA1 and nm23H1 genes in ovarian carcinoma in relation to lymph node metastasis]
SO - Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2001 Jan;23(1):31-4
AD - Institute of Cancer Research, First Affiliated Hospital, West China University of Medical Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate mRNA expression and mutation of MTA1 and nm23H1 genes in ovarian carcinoma (OC) in relation to lymph node (LN) metastasis. METHODS: A panel of eight normal ovarian tissues, twenty primary OC specimens and twenty corresponding LNs was examined for mRNA expression and mutation of MTA1 and nm23H1 genes by using RT-PCR and RT-PCR-SSCP. The level of expression was determined by the relative optic density (ROD) of the PCR products. RESULTS: The frequency of MTA1 overexpression was 100% (7/7) in primary OC with metastasis but only 38.5% (5/13) in those without metastasis (P = 0.0103). Overexpression of MTA1 was observed in 87.5% (6/7) of LNs with metastasis but in only 23% (3/13) of LNs without metastasis (P = 0.0118). In contrast with MTA1, low expression of nm23H1 mRNA was seen in 7 of 7 OC with metastasis but only in 4 of 13 (30%) of those without metastasis (P = 0.0043). Low nm23H1 expression was also seen in 7 of 7 LNs with metastasis but only in 5 of 13 (38.5%) nonmetastatic LNs (P = 0.0102). The ROD ratio of MTA1 to nm23H1 increased with the development of metastasis. No mutation of MTA1 and nm23H1 was found by SSCP analysis. CONCLUSION: The mRNA expression of MTA1 and nm23H1 is positively and negatively correlated with LN metastasis, respectively. Expression abnormalities but not mutation of the two genes are frequent events related to LN metastasis of ovarian cancer.
UI - 12133405
AU - Lu Y; Zhang A; Wang S; Li J; Wang C; Ma D
TI - [Role of vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression in ovarian tumor invasion and mechanism]
SO - Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 2002 May;37(5):294-7
AD - Department of Ostetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong Science and Technology University, Wuhan 430030, China.
OBJECTIVE: To study the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) overexpression in ovarian tumor metastasis and associated mechanism. METHODS: The VEGF cDNA was transfected into ovarian tumor cell lines CAOV3 and COC1. Transfected and nontransfected cells were screened for VEGF, gelatinase A (MMP-2) mRNA and protein by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot and substrate zymography, respectively. The invasive ability of two ovarian tumor cell lines was analysed with Boyden chamber invasion assay before and after VEGF cDNA transfection. RESULTS: The expression of VEGF, MMP-2 mRNA and protein were increased (P < 0.05) after VEGF cDNA transfection, detected by RT-PCR, Western blot and substrate zymography. After VEGF cDNA transfection, the mean invasion percentage of two ovarian tumor cells [CAOV3: (42.5 +/- 4.1)%; COC1: (26.8 +/- 2.4)%] were higher than that before transfection [CAOV3: (24.7 +/- 1.9)%; COC1: (8.6 +/- 1.1)%, P < 0.05]. CONCLUSION: The expression of VEGF correlates to the in vitro invasion of ovarian tumor cell and induction of MMP-2 by VEGF is a key component of VEGF-induced ovarian tumor cell invasion.
UI - 12133406
AU - Zhang H; Li Z; Chen M; Zhang G; Xu K
TI - [Loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 3p14, 25 in serum DNA from ovarian cancer patients]
SO - Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 2002 May;37(5):298-300
AD - Department of Molecular Diagnosis, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Shanghai 200032, China.
OBJECTIVE: Investigate the frequency of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosome arm the short arm chromosome 3p14, 25 in the serum DNA from ovarian cancer and its clinical application. METHODS: Thirty-eight ovarian cancer serum samples with 18 corresponding tumor tissues and 8 benign ovarian tumors were obtained, and DNA samples extracted from serum and tissue were examined for 3p14, 25 LOH by using of polymerase chain reaction with four polymorphic microsatellite markers (D3S1029, D3S1228, D3S1300, D3S1481). RESULTS: Matched serum and tissue DNAs from 18 ovarian cancer patients showed significant concordance of 3p14, 25 LOH (P < 0.05). 3p14, 25 LOH in at least one of four loci occurred in 29 out of 38 (76%) serum samples, while 17 serum samples (45%) exhibited LOH at more than one locus. According to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging, there was a trend that the rate of LOH was higher in advanced stages, and the frequency of loss in stage II, III, IV was 2/4, 78%, 8/9 respectively. It was also found that the number of microsatellite markers with 3p14, 25 LOH was increased with tumor progressed. No significant association of pathological types with LOH in serum DNA could be demonstrated except at locus D3S1029. CONCLUSIONS: Since the strong correlation of 3p14, 25 LOH between serum DNA and tumor tissue DNA, as well as the frequency of 3p14, 25 LOH associated with malignancy of ovarian cancer, it is suggested that detection of serum DNA 3p14, 25 LOH may be used as a molecular marker for staging and monitoring human ovarian cancer.
UI - 11075848
AU - Bell KA; Kurman RJ
TI - A clinicopathologic analysis of atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors and well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the ovary.
SO - Am J Surg Pathol 2000 Nov;24(11):1465-79
AD - Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA.
Atypical proliferative (borderline) endometrioid tumors (APTs) and well-differentiated endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary constitute a spectrum of morphologically diverse proliferative tumors. There is currently no agreement on the criteria for distinguishing them. We report the clinicopathologic features of 56 proliferative endometrioid tumors focusing on the criteria for invasion, the clinical significance of microinvasion and cytologic atypia, and prognosis. Endometriomas, adenofibromas, adenosarcomas and moderately to poorly differentiated carcinomas were excluded, as were patients with concurrent endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium. The tumors were classified as atypical proliferative tumor (APT) (33 tumors), APT with intraepithelial carcinoma (high-grade cytology in a tumor lacking stromal invasion) (three tumors), APT with microinvasion (invasion <5 mm) (five tumors), and invasive carcinoma (invasion > or = 5 mm) ( 15 tumors). All tumors were confined to the ovary (stage I). In 50 patients, the tumor involved one ovary, and in three patients, the tumors were bilateral. The predominant growth pattern was adenofibromatous in 29 tumors and glandular or papillary in 27 tumors. In 8 (24%) of 41 APTs, areas of benign adenofibroma were identified, and in 13 (87%) of 15 carcinomas, areas of associated APT were identified. Stromal invasion was manifested by confluent glandular growth in all 15 invasive carcinomas and all tumors with microinvasion. Destructive infiltrative growth was also present in 2 (13%) of 15 carcinomas. Confluent glandular growth was the most common manifestation of stromal invasion and therefore served as the best criterion for the diagnosis of carcinoma. Squamous differentiation was observed in 24 tumors, and mucinous differentiation was seen in 20 tumors and was most often seen in APTs. Endometriosis was present in 14 patients with APTs and one patient with carcinoma. Four patients had hyperplasia or atypical hyperplasia of the endometrium. One patient with an APT had a concurrent peritoneal serous neoplasm. Twenty-one patients had available clinical follow-up. Twenty (95%) of 21 patients, including six with invasive carcinoma, two with microinvasion, one with intraepithelial carcinoma, and 11 with APT were alive with no evidence of disease with a mean follow-up of 47 months. One patient with carcinoma had recurrent tumor after 46 months and was alive 40 months after resection of the recurrent tumor. In this large series of proliferative endometrioid tumors, all were stage I and only one patient had a recurrence. Most carcinomas contained evidence of a precursor APT, and in some APTs, an associated benign adenofibroma was identified. Microinvasion or intraepithelial carcinoma occurred in 19% of APTs. This finding likely reflects the various stages of endometrioid carcinogenesis in the ovary. For clinical management, we suggest that these tumors be divided into two categories-APTs and well-differentiated carcinoma-because based on the available data, cytologic atypia and microinvasion appear not to affect the prognosis.
UI - 11936817
AU - Cozen W; Peters R; Reichardt JK; Ng W; Felix JC; Wan P; Pike MC
TI - Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) genotype and phenotype, galactose consumption, and the risk of borderline and invasive ovarian cancer (United States).
SO - Cancer Causes Control 2002 Mar;13(2):113-20
AD - Department of Preventive Medicine, USC Keck School of Medicine, USC/Norris Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that high levels of galactose consumption and/or low levels of galactose-I-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) activity may result in an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Similarly, some have reported that carriers of the N314D (asparagine at codon 314 replaced by aspartate) GALT polymorphism, which can be associated with low GALT activity, may have a higher risk of ovarian cancer. We examined these issues as part of a large case-control study of ovarian cancer conducted in Los Angeles between 1992 and 1998. METHODS: A total of 1,439 histologically confirmed borderline and invasive ovarian cancer cases among English-speaking non-Asian women were ascertained through the population-based cancer registry for Los Angeles County and completed in-person interviews were obtained from 689 of these (78% of cases approached). Controls consisted of 645 English-speaking non-Asian women with at least one intact ovary matched to cases on race/ethnicity (African-American, Latina, non-Latina White), date of birth (+/-3 years), and neighborhood of residence. Interviewer-administered questionnaires included information on reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use, medical history, and diet. Dietary information for the year before each case's diagnosis (and the same period for her matched control) was obtained using a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained from 452 controls, 136 cases with borderline ovarian cancer, and 312 cases with invasive ovarian cancer. The N314D polymorphism was characterized using PCR-RFLP and GALT enzyme activity, and was determined for a sample of the subjects with GALT genotype using an erythrocyte-based radioactive enzyme assay. RESULTS: We found no effect of N314D GALT genotype on the risk of borderline ovarian cancer (odds ratio (OR)=0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.54-1.6) or invasive ovarian cancer (OR=0.78; 95% CI= 0.53-1.2). Neither did we observe a relationship between GALT activity or lactose/galactose intake and risk of borderline or invasive ovarian cancer. Among N314D carriers, galactose consumption was associated with an increased risk of borderline (OR = 2.7, p = 0.01), but not invasive (OR = 1.2, p = 0.34), ovarian cancer; however, this result was based on only 24 N314D-positive borderline cases. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in galactose intake and GALT metabolism do not contribute significantly to the risk of ovarian cancer. There is some evidence that galactose intake may play a role in the development of borderline ovarian cancer among women who carry the uncommon GALT N314D polymorphism. More data are needed if this latter suggestion is to be definitively addressed.
UI - 12082861
AU - Bertelsen K; Knudsen JB
TI - [Ovarian cancer]
SO - Ugeskr Laeger 2002 Jun 3;164(23):3056-9
AD - Onkologisk haematologisk afdeling R, Odense Universitetshospital, DK-5000 Odense C.
UI - 12080712
AU - Zhang Y; Chao Y; Yang Z
TI - [Mutation and expression of p16 in human ovarian neoplasms]
SO - Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 1999;24(6):529-32
AD - Xiangya Hospital, Hunan Medical University, Changsha 410008.
OBJECTIVES: To detect mutation and expression of p16 in human ovarian neoplasms and to understand the relations between p16 and development of ovarian neoplasms. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction-single strand polymorphism analysis and immunohistochemistry were respectively used to detect mutations in exon 1 and 2 and protein expression in 14 patients with ovarian neoplasms. Metastasis tissue of 5 mentioned patients were screened at the same time. RESULTS: No expression of p16 was found in 7 ovarian neoplasm tissues. No mutation in exon 1 of p16 was found in any patient tissues, but mutations in exon 2 were found in 4 patients tissues and expression of p16 was not found in 2 of them. There was correspondence between primary focus and metastasis in either gene mutation or protein expression. CONCLUSIONS: Inactivation of p16 may be involved in the development of ovarian neoplasms. Gene mutation is a kind of inactivation. Alterations of p16 probably occur before metastasis.
UI - 12163323
AU - Zhang M; Binns CW; Lee AH
TI - Tea consumption and ovarian cancer risk: a case-control study in China.
SO - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002 Aug;11(8):713-8
AD - School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
To investigate whether tea consumption has an etiological association with ovarian cancer, a case-control study was conducted in China during 1999-2000. The cases were 254 patients with histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer. The 652 controls comprised 340 hospital visitors, 261 non-neoplasm hospital outpatients, and 51 women recruited from the community. Information on the frequency, type, and duration of tea consumption was collected by personal interview using a validated questionnaire. The risk of ovarian cancer for tea consumption was assessed using adjusted odds ratios based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, accounting for confounding demographic, lifestyle, and familial factors including hormonal status and family ovarian cancer. The ovarian cancer risk declined with increasing frequency and duration of overall tea consumption. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.39 for those drinking tea daily and 0.23 for those drinking tea for >30 years, compared with nontea drinkers. The dose response relationships were significant, and the inverse association with ovarian cancer was observed for green tea consumption. We concluded that increasing frequency and duration of tea drinking, especially green tea, can reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. However, the protective effects of black tea and Oolong tea need to be additionally investigated.
UI - 12184039
AU - Cherry C; Vacchiano SA
TI - Ovarian cancer screening and prevention.
SO - Semin Oncol Nurs 2002 Aug;18(3):167-73
AD - Family Risk Assessment Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, 7701 Burholme Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA.
OBJECTIVES: To review current ovarian cancer prevention and detection recommendations using a risk assessment framework, and discuss the genes related to hereditary ovarian cancer syndromes. DATA SOURCES: Published articles, consensus opinions, and reports. CONCLUSIONS: Women at highest risk are those with a family history and/or genetic predisposition. Management guidelines include pelvic exam, CA125, and transvaginal ultrasound, although their efficacy is limited. Individualized risk assessment can be useful in assisting women who face decisions regarding prevention options. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Nurses are challenged to identify women at increased risk for ovarian cancer, and to recognize the complex issues faced when these women pursue screening and prevention strategies.
UI - 12184040
AU - Martin VR
TI - Ovarian cancer.
SO - Semin Oncol Nurs 2002 Aug;18(3):174-83
AD - Ambulatory Care, Fox Chase Cancer Center, 7701 Burholme Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA.
OBJECTIVES: To review the progress in the management of ovarian cancer in the last decade and future directions. DATA SOURCES: Research studies, review articles, and abstracts. CONCLUSIONS: There is an increased understanding of ovarian cancer biology, the genetic basis for hereditary ovarian cancer, staging and the role of cytoreductive surgery, and more effective chemotherapy, resulting in an increase in the percentage of patients who will live 5 years from the time of diagnosis. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: The nurse can play an invaluable role as the options of treatment are considered and weighed against quality-of-life considerations.
UI - 12177805
AU - Luo LY; Herrera I; Soosaipillai A; Diamandis EP
TI - Identification of heat shock protein 90 and other proteins as tumour antigens by serological screening of an ovarian carcinoma expression library.
SO - Br J Cancer 2002 Jul 29;87(3):339-43
AD - Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON M5G 1X5, Canada.
Serological screening of recombinant cDNA expression libraries has been widely used for the identification of tumour antigens in various cancer types. Identification of tumour antigens in ovarian cancer may facilitate the development of vaccine-based therapies and of disease biomarkers. The purpose of our investigation is to identify tumour antigens in ovarian cancer by using the serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression libraries method. A recombinant ovarian carcinoma cDNA expression library was screened with ascites fluid, pooled from five ovarian cancer patients. Twelve tumour antigens encoded by known genes were isolated, including ribosomal protein S18, heat shock protein 90, JK-recombination signal binding protein, ribonucleoprotein H1, RAN binding protein 7, TG-interacting factor, eukaryotic translation initiation factor p40 subunit, human amyloid precursor protein-binding protein 1, ribosomal protein L8, CDC23, IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1, and ribosomal protein L3. Heat shock protein 90 was chosen for further investigation. The prevalence of hsp90 autoantibodies in ovarian cancer was determined with immunoassay. Sera from 22 normal females, 32 from ovarian cancer (22 stage III/IV, 10 stage I/II), 37 colorectal cancer, 13 breast cancer, 10 lung cancer, 20 benign gynaecologic diseases, and 10 benign breast lesions were screened. Seven (32%) stage III/IV ovarian cancer, 1 (10%) stage I/II ovarian cancer, 1 (3%) colorectal cancer, 1 (8%) breast cancer, and 1 (5%) benign gynaecologic disease sera were found to contain hsp90 autoantibodies. These data support the view that hsp90 autoantibodies are frequently found in late stage ovarian cancer. Hsp90 may, therefore, represent a novel biomarker for ovarian cancer and a candidate ovarian cancer vaccine target. Copyright 2002 Cancer Research UK
UI - 9415688
AU - Benkendorf JL; Reutenauer JE; Hughes CA; Eads N; Willison J; Powers M;
TI - Lerman C Patients' attitudes about autonomy and confidentiality in genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility.
SO - Am J Med Genet 1997 Dec 19;73(3):296-303
AD - Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA.
The identification of BRCA1 and BRCA2, two breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility genes, has brought many ethical and social issues to the forefront. This paper presents the results of a survey assessing the attitudes of 238 unaffected first-degree relatives of women with breast or ovarian cancer regarding the ethical issues of autonomy and confidentiality as they relate to BRCA1/2 testing. Baseline knowledge about BRCA1/2 and ethnic and psychosocial characteristics of our study population were examined to determine their association with women's attitudes. The majority of women (86-87%) felt that health care providers should not disclose the results of genetic tests for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility to insurance companies or employers without written consent; however, only 56-57% felt that written consent should be required for a spouse or immediate family to receive this information. Ninety-eight percent of the women surveyed agreed that genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer risk should be voluntary. Likewise, most women (95%) agreed that a person should be able to have genetic testing against a doctor's recommendation and 88% of the women surveyed agreed that parents should be able to consent to genetic susceptibility testing on behalf of their minor children. African American women were less concerned than Caucasian women about the protection of confidentiality in families, they were more likely to agree that an individual should still have access to testing when their physicians recommended against it, and they were more supportive of parents' rights to consent to genetic predisposition testing on behalf of their minor children. Women with coping styles characterized by higher optimism were more likely to favor access to genetic testing when a physician recommended against it, and to support parents' rights to consent to testing of their minor children. Therefore, the setting and manner in which genetic counseling and testing are delivered must be appropriately tailored to reflect these attitudinal differences and preferences.
UI - 11709704
AU - Lee SH; Zhang W; Choi JJ; Cho YS; Oh SH; Kim JW; Hu L; Xu J; Liu J; Lee
TI - JH; Lee SH Overexpression of the thymosin beta-10 gene in human ovarian cancer cells disrupts F-actin stress fiber and leads to apoptosis.
SO - Oncogene 2001 Oct 11;20(46):6700-6
AD - Molecular Therapy Research Center, College of Medicine, Sung Kyun Kwan University, Samsung Medical Center, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710, Korea.
To understand the molecular changes during ovarian cancer development, we profiled differentially expressed genes in five paired normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Among the genes that showed differential expression, thymosin beta-10 expression was decreased in four of five cancer tissues. The decreased level of expression was confirmed by Northern. To investigate the gene's functional role in ovarian cancers, we constructed an adenovirus vector expressing thymosin beta-10 and used it to infect ovarian cancer cell lines PA-I and SKOV3. The infected cells showed disrupted F-actin stress fibers, markedly decreased cell growth, and a high rate of apoptosis. Thus, because loss of thymosin beta-10 expression may contribute to the development of a subset of ovarian cancers, restoration of thymosin beta-10 expression may be a new strategy for ovarian cancer treatment.
UI - 12214460
AU - Isonishi S
TI - [Latest information in the diagnoses of ovarian carcinoma]
SO - Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2002 Aug;29(8):1351-7
AD - Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jikei University School of Medicine.
Despite improvements in median and overall survival from a combination of improved operation techniques and chemotherapy with platinum-compounds and paclitaxel, long-term survival rates for patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma remain disappointing, and ongoing efforts are aimed at developing more effective primary therapies. In early ovarian carcinoma, conservative management is used to denote surgery that preserves reproductive potential without compromising curability. With some exceptions, such a strategy may be applicable for women younger than 40, who wish to bear children. A major dilemma facing gynecologic oncologists is to determine whether the accurate staging laparotomy is needed for apparent low-risk stage I ovarian carcinoma and how many cycles of chemotherapy will be needed for high-risk stage I ovarian carcinoma. In advanced ovarian carcinoma, main objectives of salvage therapy include: a improvement in quality of life and symptoms; b. tumor load reduction and survival advantage; c. evaluation of potentially active new drugs to be included in first-line treatment. We need to evaluate the potential benefit on survival of systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy during primary or secondary cytoreductive surgery in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma. Paclitaxel/cisplatin is considered to be the international standard treatment based on the data of GOG 111 trial showing that paclitaxel/cisplatin has provided a survival benefit better than that of cyclophosphamide/cisplatin. This choice of standard therapy might, however, be questioned based on the results of the largest randomised study, ICON3. There were no statistically significant differences in progression-free or overall survival among paclitaxel/carboplatin and carboplatin only or a platinum combination (cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/cisplatin). The best selection for adjuvant chemotherapy is still controversial and a large number of studies are now ongoing.
UI - 12168882
AU - Hogdall EV; Hogdall CK; Christensen L; Glud E; Blaakaer J; Bock JE;
TI - Vuust J; Norgaard-Pedersen B; Kjaer SK Distribution of p53 codon 72 polymorphisms in ovarian tumour patients and their prognostic significance in ovarian cancer patients.
SO - Anticancer Res 2002 May-Jun;22(3):1859-64
AD - Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: The p53 gene is frequently mutated in various human tumours. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms are often observed in exons and introns of the p53 gene in normal tissues and tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prevalence of a polymorphism involving codon 72 of exon 4 in the p53 gene was studied in peripheral white blood cells and tumour tissues from Danish ovarian tumour patients and in peripheral white blood cells from controls. The analyses were performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. The amino acid residue at this position is either arginine (p53-Arg) or proline (p53-Pro). RESULTS: There was no correlation between the frequency of the three genotypes (Pro/Pro, Arg/Arg and Arg/Pro) and age, stage or histological type of the tumour. A significant difference in survival was observed between ovarian cancer stage III patients with a shift from one genotype in the blood to another genotype in the tissue and patients with no shift (p=0.0216). CONCLUSION: Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and multivariate Cox regression analysis stratified to stage III ovarian cancer patients showed that a shift from one genotype in the blood to another genotype in the tissue is a prognostic factor in Danish ovarian cancer patients.
UI - 12168891
AU - Andreopoulou E; Andreopoulos D; Adamidis K; Fountzila-Kalogera A;
TI - Fountzilas G; Dimopoulos MA; Aravantinos G; Zamboglou N; Baltas D; Pavlidis N Tumor volumetry as predictive and prognostic factor in the management of ovarian cancer.
SO - Anticancer Res 2002 May-Jun;22(3):1903-8
AD - Department of Medical Oncology, University of Ioannina, Greece.
BACKGROUND: The usefulness of tumor volumetry in ovarian epithelial cancer has never been intensively investigated. The aim of the present study was to determine the value of quantitative analysis of tumor volume as a predictive method for response to treatment and as a prognostic method for disease outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five women with advanced ovarian cancer who presented with measurable disease on CT scan prior to chemotherapy were retrospectively studied. The patients were treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 113.36 weeks. An independent radiologist identified and delineated tumor contours in each slice of sequential CT scans before and after therapy. Volumetry was measured with a three-dimensional approach by utilizing a digitizer and a specific algorithm on a software computed program. RESULTS: Data were analyzed according to initial and to residual tumor volumes. Patients with low initial volume of <52 cm3 exhibited higher responses (p<0.01), while patients with medium (52-165 cm3) or high (>165 CM3) initial tumor volume had a shorter time to progression (p<0.01). Patients without or with low residual volume of <35 cm3 were found to have a longer time to progression (p<0.05) and longer survival (p<0.01 and p<0.05). In addition, serum CA 125 levels followed precisely tumor volumetry for both initial and residual disease. CONCLUSION: Tumor volumetry in advanced ovarian cancer was found to have predictive value for response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Initial tumor volume has prognostic significance only for the time to progression, whereas residual tumor volume has for both time to progression and survival.
UI - 12174480
AU - Malik IA
TI - A prospective study of clinico-pathological features of epithelial ovarian cancer in Pakistan.
SO - J Pak Med Assoc 2002 Apr;52(4):155-8
AD - National Cancer Institute, Karachi.
BACKGROUND: Although geographic and racial differences in the incidence of cancer are well recognized, information regarding any dissimilarity in clinico-pathological behavior of cancers is scarce. In particular, information from the developing countries regarding clinico-pathologic features of even some of the common cancers such as ovarian cancer is lacking. METHODS: Information was prospectively collected on all patients with epithelial ovarian cancer referred to the National Cancer Institute, Karachi, Pakistan between January 1, 1993 and June 30, 1998. Information was obtained directly from the patients and a close relative. Medical records were reviewed and radiologic and pathologic re-evaluation was done when necessary. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty six patients were accrued. Mean age was 49.5 (+/- 13) years. Most of the well defined risk factors such as early menarche, late menopause, nulliparity, lack of lactation were uncommonly observed. Twenty percent of the patients had a positive family history of cancer. Most of these relatives were young (46.1 years), first degree (68%) and had breast or ovarian cancer. Clinical presentation, histologic features and stage of disease were similar to the North American or European women with epithelial ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Younger age at presentation and higher frequency of positive family history are two unusual features of Pakistani patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. This suggests a more significant role played by the genetic factors in these patients. Further work is needed.
UI - 12174914
AU - Galani E; Sgouros J; Petropoulou C; Janinis J; Aravantinos G;
TI - Dionysiou-Asteriou D; Skarlos D; Gonos E Correlation of MDR-1, nm23-H1 and H Sema E gene expression with histopathological findings and clinical outcome in ovarian and breast cancer patients.
SO - Anticancer Res 2002 Jul-Aug;22(4):2275-80
AD - National Hellenic Research Foundation, Institute of Biological Research and Biotechnology, Athens, Greece.
The development of a molecular screening method for cancer patients is of great importance, since it would contribute to the selection of the most effective chemotherapy regimen for each patient. In the present study we applied such a method, semi-quantative RT-PCR analysis, and we examined the expression of the multidrug resistance gene MDR-1, the metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 and the non-MDR drug resistant gene H Sema E in 53 ovarian and breast cancer specimens. Moreover, we have correlated the expression profile of these genes with the histopathological findings and clinical outcome of the examined patients. The majority of specimens were found to be positive for MDR-1 and H Sema E gene expression, while nm23-H1 was detected in less than 50% of the patients. Correlation and statistical analysis of the molecular data with clinicopathological features showed that nm23-H1 could serve as a good prognostic factor for ovarian cancer patients. In breast cancer patients, nm23-H1 expression was associated with a 6.1 higher death risk. Ovarian cancer patients who express nm23-H1, but not MDR-1 and H Sema E, tend to have longer survival than patients with any other gene combination. Finally, breast cancer patients with advanced disease showed a better response when they were negative for all the three genes studied. In conclusion this work proposes that the combined study of the expression of different genes may be a useful approach for evaluating patients' response to therapy.
UI - 12174952
AU - Huber S; Medl M; Baumann L; Czembirek H
TI - Value of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in the preoperative evaluation of suspected ovarian masses.
SO - Anticancer Res 2002 Jul-Aug;22(4):2501-7
AD - Department of Radiology, Lainz Hospital, Vienna, Austria. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: The stage of ovarian carcinoma at diagnosis directly affects prognosis. Thus, thorough pretreatment evaluation is basic to the successful management of suspected ovarian masses. Among currently available imaging techniques in characterization of suspected ovarian neoplasms, sonography (US) is indisputedly the primary imaging approach. When US is inconclusive, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is generally prefered to computed tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 93 patients, who on the basis of clinical findings were suspected to have ovarian cancer and who were scheduled for subsequent surgical staging underwent preoperative transvaginal and abdominal ultrasound as well as magnetic resonance imaging in a prospective comparative study. US and MR images were evaluated for their information on the characterization and staging of the ovarian masses. RESULTS: MRI correctly characterized malignant and benign tumors in 89% of cases versus 85% by ultrasound. The site of the primary tumor was correctly diagnosed in 94% of cases by MRI vs. 90% by ultrasound. For US, the positive predictive value was 85%, the negative predictive value 73% vs. 92% and 89% for MRI. In differentiation of nonadvanced disease from advanced malignancy, US showed a false-positive rate of 0.416 and false-negative rate of 0.258 vs. 0.125 and 0.032 respectively, for MRI. CONCLUSION: MRI was superior in diagnosis of malignant ovarian masses though US, too, performed well at lesion detection and characterization. With regard to tumor staging MRI is emerging as a problem-solving modality and may allow more appropriate clinical decisions to be made in selected patients with complex adnexal disease.
UI - 12009392
AU - Munkarah AR; Morris R; Baumann P; Deppe G; Malone J; Diamond MP; Saed GM
TI - Effects of prostaglandin E(2) on proliferation and apoptosis of epithelial ovarian cancer cells.
SO - J Soc Gynecol Investig 2002 May-Jun;9(3):168-73
AD - Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 4707 St. Antoine -5 West, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.
OBJECTIVE: There is strong evidence indicating that prostaglandins (PG) and their synthesizing enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) play an important role in tumorigenesis. The purposes of the present study were to determine the pattern of expression of COX-2 and the effect of PG treatment on proliferation and apoptosis in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. METHODS: Two epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines, MDAH-2774 and SKOV3, were grown in flasks to confluence. Cells were then treated with exogenous dimethyl prostaglandin E(2) (dmPGE(2)) at increasing concentrations of 0-10 microg/mL. Total RNA was extracted from cells at different treatment doses and subjected to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for the semiquantitative analysis of COX-2, Bcl-2, and bax expression. Flow cytometry was performed to assess effect of treatment on the cell cycle. The TUNEL assay was used to assess apoptosis. RESULTS: We found that COX-2 was constitutively expressed in the MDAH-2774 and SKOV3 epithelial ovarian cancer cells as determined by detection of a 304-bp amplified fragment using specific primers for the COX-2 gene. Treatment of both cell lines with dmPGE(2) resulted in dose-dependently higher expression of COX-2, Bcl-2, and bax mRNA compared with untreated cells. These changes were associated with an increase in the proliferative fraction and with a simultaneous reduction in apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Prostaglandin E(2) stimulated proliferation and reduced apoptosis in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. These effects were associated with overexpression of COX-2 and an increase in the ratio of Bcl-2:bax mRNA.
UI - 11956590
AU - Curci A; Capasso I; Romano A; Bruni P; Motti ML; Pignata S; D'Aiuto G;
TI - Casamassimi A; D'Urso M; Fusco A; Viglietto G Characterization of 2 novel and 2 recurring BRCA1 germline mutations in breast and/or ovarian carcinoma patients from the area of Naples.
SO - Int J Oncol 2002 May;20(5):963-70
AD - Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Fondazione Pascale, Naples, Italy.
We have analyzed 18 families with high incidence of breast cancer or breast and ovarian cancer for the presence of BRCA1 mutations. We identified 4 mutations in the BRCA1 gene in 4 unrelated probands who belong to families with at least 1 case of breast and 1 case of ovarian cancer. Two of the mutations reported in this study are novel (GAA(1172)-->TAA in family Naples 14, GAA(1765)-->TAA in family Naples 20) whereas the others are already present in the Breast Cancer Information Core Electronic Database (http://nchgr.nih.gov/ Intramural research/Lab transfer/Bic/) (5382insC in family Naples 18 and 2080delA in family Naples 19). Conversely, no mutation in the BRCA1 gene was detected in 14 families characterized by 2 or more cases of breast cancer only, even if bilateral and with early-onset. These results indicate that germline mutations in the BRCA1 gene highly predispose for a cancer syndrome that involves the presence of both breast and ovarian cancer.
UI - 11753956
AU - Gras E; Catasus L; Arguelles R; Moreno-Bueno G; Palacios J; Gamallo C;
TI - Matias-Guiu X; Prat J Microsatellite instability, MLH-1 promoter hypermethylation, and frameshift mutations at coding mononucleotide repeat microsatellites in ovarian tumors.
SO - Cancer 2001 Dec 1;92(11):2829-36