National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: September 1, 2002
UI - 11930117
AU - Pollock PM; Hayward N
TI - Mutations in exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene are rare in melanoma cell lines.
SO - Melanoma Res 2002 Apr;12(2):183-6
AD - Joint Experimental Oncology Program of the Queensland Institute of Medical Research, The University of Queensland, and the Queensland Cancer Fund, P.O. Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston 4029, Australia.
Mutations in exon 3 of the CTNNB1 gene encoding beta-catenin have been reported in colorectal cancer cell lines and tumours. Although one study reported mutations or deletions affecting beta-catenin in 20% of melanoma cell lines, subsequent reports detected a much lower frequency of aberrations in uncultured melanomas. To determine whether this difference in mutation frequency reflected an in vitro culturing artefact, exon 3 of CTNNB1 was screened in a panel of 62 melanoma cell lines. In addition, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect intragenic deletions affecting exon 3. One out of 62 (1.6%) cell lines was found to carry a mutation, indicating that aberration of the Wnt-1/wingless pathway through activation of beta-catenin is a rare event, even in melanoma cell lines.
UI - 12175554
AU - Hashemi J; Lindstrom MS; Asker C; Platz A; Hansson J; Wiman KG
TI - A melanoma-predisposing germline CDKN2A mutation with functional significance for both p16 and p14ARF.
SO - Cancer Lett 2002 Jun 28;180(2):211-21
AD - Department of Oncology-Pathology, Research Laboratory of Radiumhemmet, Cancer Center Karolinska, R8:03, Karolinska Hospital, S-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
The CDKN2A locus on human chromosome 9p21 encodes two proteins, p16 and p14ARF, that mainly regulate cell cycle progression and cell survival via the pRb and p53 pathways, respectively. Germline mutations in CDKN2A have been linked to development of cutaneous melanoma in some families with hereditary melanoma. Due to overlapping open reading frames in exon 2, some mutations in this exon affect both p16 and p14ARF. We previously reported a 24bp deletion in CDKN2A exon 2 in a patient with multiple primary melanomas and melanoma heredity. To further clarify the possible role of the 24bp deletion for melanoma development, especially with respect to p14ARF, we have studied the cellular distribution and function of the resulting p14ARF del (77-84) and p16 del (62-69) mutant proteins. We found that p14ARF del (77-84) had decreased nucleolar localization, and was less efficient than wt p14ARF in stabilizing p53, inducing G1 cell cycle arrest, and inhibiting colony formation. The p16 del (62-69) mutant localized predominantly to the cytoplasm, did not induce G1 cell cycle arrest, and failed to suppress colony formation. We conclude that p14ARF del (77-84) has retained the ability to stabilize MDM2 and p53, but that it is less potent than wt p14ARF. This partial functional defect may complement the clearly defective p16 del (62-69) mutant and thus contribute to melanoma development in patients carrying the 24bp deletion in CDKN2A.
UI - 11931386
AU - Rass K; Gutwein P; Welter C; Meineke V; Tilgen W; Reichrath J
TI - DNA mismatch repair enzyme hMSH2 in malignant melanoma: increased immunoreactivity as compared to acquired melanocytic nevi and strong mRNA expression in melanoma cell lines.
SO - Histochem J 2001 Aug;33(8):459-67
AD - Department of Dermatology, The Saarland University Hospital, Homburg/Saar, Germany.
Mutations in the mismatch DNA repair gene human MutS homologen 2 (hMSH2) are causative for microsatellite instability and carcinogenesis in various human tumours, including hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Because microsatellite instability has been detected in malignant melanoma, we have investigated hMSH2 in melanocytic tumours. We found strong nuclear immunoreactivity for hMSH2 that was elevated in malignant melanoma and melanoma metastases as compared to acquired nevi. These findings suggest that increased genomic instability in malignant melanoma is associated with elevated protein levels of this DNA repair enzyme. hMSH2 is not exclusively regulated by proliferative activity in melanocytes, because there was no correlation between staining patterns of hMSH2 and the proliferation marker Ki-67. In contrast, immunoreactivity scores for hMSH2 and p53 were both upregulated in malignant melanocytic tumours. These findings support the concept that hMSH2 gene expression may be regulated in melanocytes by the p53 protein, as has been reported previously in other tissues. Using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we detected strong hMSH2 mRNA expression in each of 8 melanoma cell lines analysed (highest amounts in SK-MEL-25 cells, lowest amounts in MML-I cells). In conclusion, our findings indicate that hMSH-2 may be of importance for genetic stability, tumorigenesis and progression of malignant melanoma.
UI - 11792747
AU - Landi MT; Baccarelli A; Tarone RE; Pesatori A; Tucker MA; Hedayati M;
TI - Grossman L DNA repair, dysplastic nevi, and sunlight sensitivity in the development of cutaneous malignant melanoma.
SO - J Natl Cancer Inst 2002 Jan 16;94(2):94-101
AD - Genetic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892-7236, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Exposure to UV radiation is associated with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). In mammalian cells, UV radiation induces DNA damage that can be repaired by the nucleotide excision repair system. We designed this case-control study to determine whether DNA repair capacity (DRC) is associated with the risk of CMM and to identify risk factors that may interact biologically with DRC in the development of melanoma. METHODS: Global DRC was measured in lymphocytes with the host-cell reactivation assay. Data were analyzed by use of multiple regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: DRC could be determined for 132 case patients with incident melanoma and for 145 age- and sex-matched control subjects. No statistically significant association between melanoma risk and DRC by itself was found (odds ratio [OR] = 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.6 to 1.7, adjusted for age, sex, lymphocyte viability, and sample storage time). DRC, however, strongly influenced CMM risk in individuals with a low tanning ability or dysplastic nevi. Individuals with a low tanning ability and a low DRC had a higher risk for CMM (OR = 8.6; 95% CI = 2.7 to 27.5) than individuals with a higher tanning ability and a high DRC. Likewise, individuals with dysplastic nevi and a low DRC had a higher relative risk (OR = 6.7; 95% CI = 2.4 to 18.6) than those lacking dysplastic nevi and having a high DRC. Subjects with dysplastic nevi and a high DRC had an intermediate risk. A likelihood-ratio test gave statistically significant interactions between DRC and tanning response (P =.001) and between DRC and dysplastic nevus status (P =.04), which were independently associated with CMM risk. CONCLUSIONS: DRC may modify the risk for melanoma in the presence of other strong risk factors, such as a low tanning ability and the presence of dysplastic nevi. The occurrence of melanoma in subjects without these risk factors appears to be independent of DRC.
UI - 12163334
AU - Rebbeck TR; Kanetsky PA; Walker AH; Holmes R; Halpern AC; Schuchter LM;
TI - Elder DE; Guerry D P gene as an inherited biomarker of human eye color.
SO - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002 Aug;11(8):782-4
AD - Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. email@example.com
Human pigmentation, including eye color, has been associated with skin cancer risk. The P gene is the human homologue to the mouse pink-eye dilution locus and is responsible for oculocutaneous albinism type 2 and other phenotypes that confer eye hypopigmentation. The P gene is located on chromosome 15q11.2-q12, which is also the location of a putative eye pigmentation gene (EYCL3) inferred to exist by linkage analysis. Therefore, the P gene is a strong candidate for determination of human eye color. Using a sample of 629 normally pigmented individuals, we found that individuals were less likely to have blue or gray eyes if they had P gene variants Arg305Trp (P = 0.002), Arg419Gln (P = 0.001), or the combination of both variants (P = 0.003). These results suggest that P gene, in part, determines normal phenotypic variation in human eye color and may therefore represent an inherited biomarker of cutaneous cancer risk.
UI - 12050676
AU - Kopper L; Timar J
TI - [Gene expression profiles in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer]
SO - Magy Onkol 2002;46(1):3-9
AD - I.sz.Patologiai es Kiserleti Rakkutato Intezet, Semmelweis Egyetem, Budapest, H1085, Hungary. firstname.lastname@example.org
DNA-microarray technology can be used to assess the expression of several thousands of genes at the same time.The identification of the gene expression profiles may help to better characterize human cancer.These studies may reveal subclasses of tumor types with similar histopathologic profile but different clinical courses.Furthermore,such studies could help to define therapeutic sensitivity and to estimate prognosis of various cancers.Identification of gene expression profiles of cancer can identify new therapeutic targets or cancer susceptibility genes.The DNA-microarray technology may write a new chapter in molecular oncology.
UI - 12205045
AU - Iervolino A; Trisciuoglio D; Ribatti D; Candiloro A; Biroccio A; Zupi G;
TI - Del Bufalo D Bcl-2 overexpression in human melanoma cells increases angiogenesis through VEGF mRNA stabilization and HIF-1-mediated transcriptional activity.
SO - FASEB J 2002 Sep;16(11):1453-5
AD - Experimental Chemotherapy Laboratory, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.
The aim of this paper was to study the molecular mechanisms by which bcl-2 increases hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. We demonstrated that bcl-2 overexpression in M14 human melanoma cell line enhances hypoxia-induced VEGF mRNA stability and promoter activation. In particular, the half-life of the message was longer in bcl-2 transfectants (approximately 330 min) than in control cells (approximately 180 min). In addition, bcl-2 overexpression increased VEGF promoter activity through the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) transcription factor. Increased HIF-1a protein expression and DNA binding activity were detected in bcl-2 overexpressing cells compared with control cells. An enhanced functional activity of secreted VEGF was found both in in vitro and in vivo angiogenic assays, and the use of VEGF specific antibodies validated the role of VEGF on bcl-2-induced angiogenesis. Taken together our results indicate that bcl-2 plays an important role in melanoma angiogenesis, and that VEGF mRNA stabilization and HIF-1-mediated transcriptional activity are two important control points in bcl-2/hypoxia-induced VEGF expression.
UI - 11951125
AU - Gibbs P; Brady BM; Robinson WA
TI - The genes and genetics of malignant melanoma.
SO - J Cutan Med Surg 2002 May-Jun;6(3):229-35
AD - Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have identified several clinical variables associated with an increased risk of developing cutaneous melanoma that include phenotype, amount of and response to sun exposure, and family history. However, these observations are of limited relevance to clinical practice as the risk associated with each factor is individually modest and the characteristics of these variables lack precision when applied to a particular individual. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature regarding recent advances made in the understanding of the genes and genetics of clinical variables associated with an increased risk of melanoma. CONCLUSION: Variants of the MC1R (melanocortin-1 receptor) have been identified as major determinants of high-risk phenotypes, such as red hair and pale skin, and the ability to tan in response to UV exposure. Several studies also suggest that such variants may increase melanoma risk independent of their contribution to phenotype. A strong genetic basis for both nevus density and size has been demonstrated and the link between nevi and the development of MM has become better defined. Finally, germline defects in several genes involved in cell cycle regulation, namely, p16 and CDK4, have been demonstrated in many familial melanoma kindreds. This progress has introduced the prospect of genetic testing as a means of identifying a limited number of high-risk individuals who can be targeted with regular screening and education regarding UV exposure and skin self-examination. Ultimately, through rational genetic therapy targeted to correcting the underlying molecular defect, altering the natural history of melanoma development may be possible.
UI - 12202501
AU - Edmunds SC; Kelsell DP; Hungerford JL; Cree IA
TI - Mutational analysis of selected genes in the TGFbeta, Wnt, pRb, and p53 pathways in primary uveal melanoma.
SO - Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002 Sep;43(9):2845-51
AD - Centre for Cutaneous Research, St Bartholomew's and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary College, University of London, London, United Kingdom.
PURPOSE: It is known that the pRb pathway cell-cycle inhibitor p16(INK4A) plays a significant role in cutaneous melanoma and that alteration of p16(INK4A), which resides within the 9p21-22 locus that also contains p15(INK4B) and p14(ARF), may occur in up to one third of uveal melanomas. The absence of TGFbeta responsiveness noted in cultured uveal melanoma cells also suggests that the TGFbeta pathway plays a role in the formation of this tumor. Therefore, mutational screening was performed in several key genes in tumor-suppressor pathways that are known to be altered in some uveal melanomas. METHODS: Using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) analysis and DNA sequencing, a series of 67 uveal melanomas were screened for inactivating mutations in the TGFbeta pathway members Smad4 and TGFbeta receptor type 2 (TGFbetaR2), the downstream cell-cycle inhibitor p15(INK4B), and the cell-cycle inhibitors p14(ARF) and p16(INK4A). p16(INK4A) was also investigated for promoter hypermethylation. Mutational analysis was also performed on the Wnt pathway gene beta-catenin, known to be mutated in approximately one quarter of cutaneous melanoma cell lines. RESULTS: Polymorphisms in p16(INK4A) were detected in 3 of 50 samples, but no inactivating mutations were detected in any of the genes screened. Promoter hypermethylation of p16(INK4A) was detected in 5 of 55 tumors, and loss of heterozygosity of the p16(INK4A) locus was detected in 5 of 16 tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Most primary uveal melanomas do not appear to contain somatic mutations in Smad4, TGFbetaR2, p14(ARF), p15(INK4B), p16(INK4A), or beta-catenin. However, methylation of the p16(INK4A) promoter and loss of heterozygosity of the p14(ARF)-p16(INK4A) locus occurs in some tumors.
UI - 12095976
AU - Lee JE; Abdalla J; Porter GA; Bradford L; Grimm EA; Reveille JD;
TI - Mansfield PF; Gershenwald JE; Ross MI Presence of the human leukocyte antigen class II gene DRB1*1101 predicts interferon gamma levels and disease recurrence in melanoma patients.
SO - Ann Surg Oncol 2002 Jul;9(6):587-93
AD - Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Increased interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) levels are an independent predictor of melanoma recurrence. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes can regulate cytokine production; we investigated whether these genes would predict IFN-gamma levels and recurrence in melanoma patients. METHODS: Of 591 patients who presented with localized melanoma, 579 underwent identification of HLA class II alleles; 233 melanoma patients and 90 controls underwent determination of plasma IFN-gamma levels. HLA class II genes were examined for association with IFN-gamma levels and disease recurrence. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 60 months, melanoma patients with IFN-gamma levels above the mean control value were more likely to have developed disease recurrence compared with patients with levels below the mean. The HLA class II gene HLA-DRB1*1101 was the strongest predictor of recurrence, and HLA-DRB1*1101-positive melanoma patients had increased levels of IFN-gamma compared with patients lacking the gene. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with localized melanoma, both HLA-DRB1*1101 and increased IFN-gamma levels were associated with an increased risk for recurrence; HLA-DRB1*1101-positive patients had relatively increased levels of IFN-gamma. HLA class II genes may mediate cytokine production in melanoma patients, and this mechanism may help determine the risk of disease recurrence.
UI - 12198773
AU - Shiras A; Bhosale A; Patekar A; Shepal V; Shastry P
TI - Differential expression of CD44(S) and variant isoforms v3, v10 in three-dimensional cultures of mouse melanoma cell lines.
SO - Clin Exp Metastasis 2002;19(5):445-55
AD - National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS), NCCS Complex, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
Multi-cellular spheroids (MCS) generated from tumor cells serve as excellent in vitro models for understanding the mechanisms of tumor progression and micro-metastasis. We have compared the expression of molecular markers with reference to their growth as conventional adherent monolayers (2-D) and anchorage independent cultures (3-D) using two mouse melanoma cell lines, B16F10 and Clone M3. The two cell lines differed in their ability to form spheroids with respect to their aggregation potential, with B16F10 forming large clusters compared to Clone M3. A panel of molecular markers comprising cell adhesion molecules, cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors and members of the cadherin-catenin complex were analyzed by flow cytometry in 2-D and 3-D cultures. There was a distinct difference in the patterns of expression of CD44(S) and variant isoforms v3, v10 in spheroids compared to cells grown as monolayers in both cell lines. Also, there was an increase in cells positive for CDK inhibitor p27 in 3-D cultures from the B16F10 cell line. The expression of alpha and gamma catenin was down regulated in spheroids. As these molecules are implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, alterations in the expression of these molecules in 3-D cultures compared to their 2-D counterparts suggests the importance of spheroids as experimental model for tumorigenesis.
UI - 12164944
AU - Cesinaro AM; Natoli C; Grassadonia A; Tinari N; Iacobelli S; Trentini GP
TI - Expression of the 90K tumor-associated protein in benign and malignant melanocytic lesions.
SO - J Invest Dermatol 2002 Jul;119(1):187-90
UI - 10096573
AU - Devalaraja MN; Wang DZ; Ballard DW; Richmond A
TI - Elevated constitutive IkappaB kinase activity and IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation in Hs294T melanoma cells lead to increased basal MGSA/GRO-alpha transcription.
SO - Cancer Res 1999 Mar 15;59(6):1372-7
AD - Department of Cell Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37212-2637, USA.
The basal transcription of the CXC chemokine, melanocyte growth stimulatory activity (MGSA)/growth-regulated protein (GRO)-alpha, is up-regulated in Hs294T melanoma cells compared with the normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Previous studies characterized a cytokine-inducible, functional nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB consensus element in the immediate 5' regulatory region of the MGSA/GRO-alpha gene at -78 bp. Although the cytokine-inducible mechanisms for transcription of this gene are fairly well delineated, the mechanisms involved in its basal up-regulation of transcription in Hs294T melanoma cells are poorly understood. Recently, we demonstrated an increased rate of IkappaB-alpha degradation in Hs294T cells, which leads to an increased nuclear localization of NF-kappaB (R. L. Shattuck-Brandt and A. Richmond. Cancer Res., 57: 3032-3039, 1997). Here we demonstrate that Hs294T melanoma cells have elevated basal IkappaB kinase (IKK) activity relative to RPE cells, causing an increased constitutive IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation and degradation. We also show here that the resultant elevated nuclear NF-kappaB (p50/p65) in these cells is responsible for the increased basal transcription of MGSA/GRO-alpha. Pretreatment of Hs294T or RPE cells with proteasome inhibitors MG115 or MG132 captures the slower migrating, constitutively phosphorylated form of IkappaB-alpha in Hs294T melanoma cells, but not in RPE cells. In addition, a phospho-specific antibody that specifically recognizes the inhibitory form of IkappaB that is phosphorylated at Ser-32 reacted with IkappaB-alpha in Hs294T cell, but not in unstimulated RPE cells. Although the basal level of protein expression of IKK-alpha or IKK-beta are the same in both Hs294T and RPE cells, immunoprecipitation with IKK-alpha antibody combined with activity assay reveal a constitutively active IKK complex in Hs294T melanoma cells. Cotransfection of a 350-bp MGSA/GRO-alpha promoter-luciferase reporter construct with either the dominant negative IKK-alpha or the repressors of NF-kappaB, the IkappaB-alpha wild type or mutants lacking the inducible phosphorylation sites, demonstrates that the increased basal MGSA/GRO-alpha transcription in the Hs294T cells is due to the enhanced nuclear activation of NF-kappaB.
UI - 10353757
AU - Meyskens FL Jr; Buckmeier JA; McNulty SE; Tohidian NB
TI - Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B in human metastatic melanomacells and the effect of oxidative stress.
SO - Clin Cancer Res 1999 May;5(5):1197-202
AD - Department of Medicine and the Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California-Irvine, Orange 92868, USA. email@example.com
The biological basis for the general pharmacological resistance of human melanoma is unknown. A unique biochemical feature of the melanocyte is the synthesis of melanin, which leads to the generation of hydrogen peroxide and the consumption of reduced glutathione. This activity produces a state of chronic oxidative stress in these cells. We demonstrated previously that the expression of the c-jun family was dysregulated in metastatic melanoma cells compared with normal human melanocytes (D. T. Yamanishi et al., J. Invest. Dermatol., 97: 349-353, 1991). In the current investigation, we measured the levels of two major redox response transcription factors, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1, in metastatic melanoma cells and normal melanocytes and their response to oxidative stress. The basal DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB as measured by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay in metastatic melanoma cells was increased 4-fold compared with that of normal melanocytes. This level of binding was paralleled by a 1.5- to 4-fold increase in the expression of p50 (NF-kappaB1), p65 (Rel-A), and IkappaB-alpha as measured by Northern blot analysis. In contrast, the expression of p75 (c-rel) was markedly decreased (60%) in melanoma cells compared with normal melanocytes. Following oxidative stress produced by enzyme-generated H2O2, free H2O2, or incubation with buthionine sulfoximine, NF-kappaB binding activity increased 1.5- to 2.5-fold in melanoma cells (buthionine sulfoximine > H2O2), but only slightly in normal melanocytes. In contrast, activator protein-1 binding activity was unaffected or increased in normal melanocytes in response to oxidative stress, but was either unaffected or decreased in melanoma cells. These results suggest that the redox regulation of melanoma cells at the molecular level is fundamentally different from normal melanocytes and may offer a unique avenue for preventive or therapeutic intervention as well as new insights into the pathogenesis of melanocyte transformation.
UI - 10792001
AU - Sullivan GF; Yang JM; Vassil A; Yang J; Bash-Babula J; Hait WN
TI - Regulation of expression of the multidrug resistance protein MRP1 by p53 in human prostate cancer cells.
SO - J Clin Invest 2000 May;105(9):1261-7
AD - Department of Pharmacology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey/Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA.
The expression of several drug-resistance genes, including MRP and p53, increases with advancing stage of human prostate cancer. Altered transcription could account for the genotypic alterations associated with prostate cancer progression, and it was recently reported that the promoter of MRP1 is activated in the presence of mutant p53. To determine whether there is a relationship between p53 status and the expression of MRP1, a human, temperature-sensitive p53 mutant (tsp Val(138)) was transfected into LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. In the transfected cell line (LVCaP), the wild-type p53 produced growth arrest at the G1/S interface of the cell cycle, inhibited colony formation, and induced p21(waf1/cip1). Temperature shifting to 38 degrees C (p53 mutant) produced a time-dependent increase in expression of MRP1. This change in MRP1 expression was also seen in isogenic cell lines in which p53 was inactivated by human papilloma virus (HPV)16E6 protein or by a dominant-negative mutant. Functional assays revealed a decrease in drug accumulation and drug sensitivity associated with mutant p53 and increased MRP1 expression. These results provide the first mechanistic link between expression of MRP1 and mutation of p53 in human prostate cancer and support recent clinical associations. Furthermore, these data suggest a mechanism tying accumulation of p53 mutations to the multidrug resistance phenotype seen in this disease.
UI - 10976534
AU - Huang S; DeGuzman A; Bucana CD; Fidler IJ
TI - Level of interleukin-8 expression by metastatic human melanoma cells directly correlates with constitutive NF-kappaB activity.
SO - Cytokines Cell Mol Ther 2000 Mar;6(1):9-17
AD - Department of Cancer Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether constitutive NF-kappaB activity regulates the expression level of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in metastatic human melanoma cells. Cultures of metastatic human A375 melanoma cells expressed higher levels of IL-8 mRNA and protein than nonmetastatic A375 human melanoma cells. No discernible differences in IL-8 half-life were found between metastatic and nonmetastatic cells, but cells that overexpressed IL-8 had a higher transcription rate and increased IL-8 promoter activity. Analysis of the IL-8 promoter using deletion mutants revealed that the region within -133 was essential for constitutive IL-8 promoter activity and that mutation of NF-kappaB binding sites eliminated the constitutive IL-8 promoter activity. The activation of constitutive IL-8 transcription directly correlated with the level of constitutive NF-kappaB activity. Transfection of melanoma cells with a dominant-negative mutant IkappaBalpha expression vector (pLXSN-IkappaBalphaM) significantly decreased the level of constitutive NF-kappaB activity and expression of IL-8, demonstrating that constitutive NF-kappaB/relA activities contribute to overexpression of IL-8 in highly metastatic human melanoma cells.
UI - 12043285
AU - Anastassiou G; Tschentscher F; Zeschnigk M
TI - [Prognostically relevant markers of malignant melanoma of the uvea]
SO - Ophthalmologe 2002 May;99(5):327-32
AD - Augenklinik, Universitatsklinikum Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen. firstname.lastname@example.org
In addition to classic risk factors such as tumor size, tumor location, and histological cell type, a range of other potentially prognostic parameters have been discovered in the past few years. Many of these have only been described once so that they cannot be considered established markers. A few, however, such as vascular patterns or monosomy 3, were independently identified by several groups and now constitute recognized prognostic markers. The association of these factors with the disease course provides us with ever-new insights into the biology of this tumor. In particular, with the aid of new technologies such as microarray analysis, researchers around the globe hope that new and exciting discoveries will be made that can also modify therapy concepts.
UI - 9353349
AU - Wong LH; Krauer KG; Hatzinisiriou I; Estcourt MJ; Hersey P; Tam ND;
TI - Edmondson S; Devenish RJ; Ralph SJ Interferon-resistant human melanoma cells are deficient in ISGF3 components, STAT1, STAT2, and p48-ISGF3gamma.
SO - J Biol Chem 1997 Nov 7;272(45):28779-85
AD - Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.
The mechanism of IFN resistance was examined in three long-term cell lines, SK-MEL-28, SK-MEL-3, and MM96, exhibiting significant variation in responsiveness to the antiproliferative and antiviral effects of type I IFNs. The JAK-STAT components involved in IFN signal transduction were analyzed in detail. After exposure to IFN, activation of the IFN type I receptor-linked tyrosine kinases, JAK-1 and TYK-2, was detected at similar levels in both IFN-sensitive and IFN-resistant cell types, indicating that IFN resistance did not result from a deficiency in signaling at the level of receptor-associated kinase activation. However, analysis of ISGF3 transcription factor components, STAT1, STAT2, and p48-ISGF3gamma, revealed that their expression and activation correlated with cellular IFN responsiveness. The analysis was extended to also include IFN-sensitive primary melanocytes, three additional IFN-resistant melanoma cell lines, and seven cell cultures recently established from melanoma patient biopsies. It was consistently observed that the most marked difference in ISGF3 was a lack of STAT1 in the resistant versus the sensitive cells. Transfection of the IFN-resistant MM96 cell line to express increased levels of STAT1 protein partially restored IFN responsiveness in an antiviral assay. We conclude that a defect in the level of STAT1 and possibly all three ISGF3 components in IFN-resistant human melanoma cells may be a general phenomenon responsible for reduced cellular responsiveness of melanomas to IFNs.
UI - 9605150
AU - Wong LH; Hatzinisiriou I; Devenish RJ; Ralph SJ
TI - IFN-gamma priming up-regulates IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) components, augmenting responsiveness of IFN-resistant melanoma cells to type I IFNs.
SO - J Immunol 1998 Jun 1;160(11):5475-84
AD - Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) mediates transcriptional activation of IFN-sensitive genes (ISGs). The component subunits of ISGF3, STAT1alphabeta, STAT2, and p48-ISGF3gamma, are tyrosine phosphorylated before their assembly into a complex. Subsequently, the ISGF3 complex is translocated to the nucleus. We have recently established that the responsiveness of human melanoma cell lines to type I IFNs correlates directly with their intracellular levels of ISGF3 components, particularly STAT1. In the present study, we show that pretreating IFN-resistant melanoma cell lines with IFN-gamma (IFN-gamma priming) before stimulation with type I IFN also results in increased levels of ISGF3 components and enhanced DNA-binding activation of ISGF3. In addition, IFN-gamma priming of IFN-resistant melanoma cell lines increased expression of type I IFN-induced ISG products, including ISG54, 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthase, HLA class I, B7-1, and ICAM-1 Ags. Furthermore, IFN-gamma priming enhanced the antiviral effect of IFN-beta on the IFN-resistant melanoma cell line, MM96. These results support a role for IFN-gamma priming in up-regulating ISGF3, thereby augmenting the responsiveness of IFN-resistant melanoma cell lines to type I IFN and providing a molecular basis and justification for using sequential IFN therapy, as proposed by others, to enhance the use of IFNs in the treatment of melanoma.
UI - 1625484
AU - Rockman S; Begley CG; Kannourakis G; Mann GJ; Dobrovic AN; Kefford RF;
TI - McGrath K SCL gene in human tumors.
SO - Leukemia 1992 Jul;6(7):623-5
AD - Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Victoria, Australia.
The SCL gene encodes a member of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of transcription factors and is reportedly involved in up to 25% of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). We have surveyed over 120 primary human tumors including melanomas, myeloid, and lymphoid leukemias, and other solid tumors without evidence of rearrangements involving SCL. These results are further supported by low level expression of SCL in these tumors (as assessed by a polymerase chain-reaction-based method). We conclude that rearrangement/translocation with subsequent activation of SCL occurs infrequently in myeloid leukemias and melanomas.
UI - 7496160
AU - Chetty R; Cerroni L; Pulford K; Giatromanolaki A; Biddolph S; Kaklamanis
TI - L; Gatter K TAL1 gene deletions and TAL1 protein expression in sporadic melanoma.
SO - Melanoma Res 1995 Aug;5(4):251-4
AD - University Department of Cellular Science, University of Oxford, UK.
Studies on cytogenetic abnormalities and cell lines have implicated chromosome 1p32 as being important in the pathogenesis of melanoma. Genetic linkage studies have also mapped a melanoma-susceptibility locus to chromosome 1p. The gene TAL1 is present on chromosome 1p32, and deletions within it are the commonest chromosomal abnormality in T-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). A melanoma cell line harbouring a 1p32 deletion involving the TAL1 gene and the presence of TAL1 protein in developing mouse melanocytes led us to investigate whether TAL1 deletions and/or TAL1 protein expression occur in sporadic melanomas. DNA extracted from 32 fresh melanomas was amplified by standard polymerase chain reaction for the four common deletions of the TAL1 gene that occur in T-ALL. In addition, frozen and paraffin-embedded sections of these melanomas were stained with monoclonal antibodies that detect full-length and truncated TAL1 protein. The results of the study show that deletions of TAL1 do not occur in melanoma. Indeed, full and truncated TAL1 protein also could not be detected immunohistochemically in the paraffin-embedded and frozen sections of the melanomas. We conclude that the TAL1 gene and its protein are probably not directly involved in the oncogenesis of melanomas.
UI - 9973934
AU - Nelson MA; Ariza ME; Yang JM; Thompson FH; Taetle R; Trent JM; Wymer J;
TI - Massey-Brown K; Broome-Powell M; Easton J; Lahti JM; Kidd VJ Abnormalities in the p34cdc2-related PITSLRE protein kinase gene complex (CDC2L) on chromosome band 1p36 in melanoma.
SO - Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1999 Jan 15;108(2):91-9
AD - Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson 85724, USA.
The two genes encoding the PITSLRE protein kinase isoforms, CDC2L1 and CDC2L2, are localized to human chromosome band 1p36. The PITSLRE protein kinases are a part of the p34cdc2 supergene family. Several protein products of the CDC2L locus may be effector(s) in apoptotic signaling. The larger PITSLRE p110 isoforms appear to regulate some aspect of RNA splicing/transcription during the cell cycle. One or more of these genes may function as tumor suppressor genes in melanoma. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, one allele of the CDC2L gene complex on chromosome 1 was either deleted or translocated in 8 of 14 different melanoma cell lines. We also observed mutations in the 5' promoter region of the CDC2L1 gene in four different cell lines relative to normal melanocytes using PCR-SSCP analysis and direct DNA sequencing. Western blot analysis revealed decreased level of PITSLRE protein expression in several cell lines, as well as in four surgical malignant melanoma specimens relative to normal melanocytes. Thus, the decreased PITSLRE protein expression appears to result from deletion of the CDC2L alleles and possibly by mutations within the 5' promoter region. We propose that aberrations in the CDC2L genes may contribute to the pathogenesis or progression of melanoma.
UI - 11478303
AU - Poetsch M; Dittberner T; Woenckhaus C
TI - Does the PITSLRE gene complex contribute to the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma of the skin? A study of patient-derived tumor samples?
SO - Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2001 Jul 15;128(2):181-2
UI - 12210088
AU - Meije CB; Das PK; Jans MM; Hau C; van der Wal AC; Alders M; Hakvoort TB;
TI - Weidle UH; Lamers WH; Swart GW Multiple complementary transcripts of pCMa1, a novel gene located at chromosome 11p15.1-2, and melanocytic cell transformation.
SO - J Pathol 2002 Aug;197(5):668-76
AD - Department of Biochemistry, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
The cDNA clone pCMa1 (0.45 kb) is one of the 12 novel cDNAs, previously identified when comparing RNA expression profiles of melanocytes, naevus cells, and non-metastatic melanoma cells. This clone did not reveal a unique long open reading frame. The pCMa1 gene localized to the distal, telomere proximal region on the short arm of chromosome 11.p15.1-2. Northern blot analyses with single-stranded cRNA probes revealed the presence of various complementary pCMa1 transcripts of different lengths, which are not enriched in the poly(A)(+) RNA fraction. The arbitrarily defined plus strand (used as a probe) mainly hybridized to 0.45 kb and 4.0 kb minus transcripts in total RNA samples, and the minus strand (used as a probe) hybridized to a major plus transcript of 4.0 kb. By RNA in situ hybridization, the highest levels of the plus transcripts were observed in melanocytic naevi (12/12), particularly in congenital naevi, whereas normal skin melanocytes (12/12) were negative. pCMa1 plus transcripts were detected in naevus cell nests (100%) near the dermo-epidermal junction. Expression, however, diminished to some extent in the deeper parts of the melanocytic naevi. Although most of the cutaneous primary melanoma lesions (11/15) showed detectable, but variable levels of plus transcripts of pCMa1 in the papillary to reticular dermis, not more than 10% of the melanoma cells were positive. The majority of melanoma metastases (6/7) were negative, while the positive lesion originated from a patient with a positive primary melanoma. Furthermore, plus transcripts were present in the nuclei of non-metastatic melanoma cells in culture, whereas metastatic cells showed elevated expression both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. Briefly, the data show transient up-regulation of pCMa1 in neoplastic progression of melanocytic cells, with peak levels occurring during naevus stages, and suggest that pCMa1 is a molecular marker in melanocytes for the early changes from the proliferating phenotype to malignant transformation. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
UI - 12115485
AU - Feng Y; Shi J; Goldstein AM; Tucker MA; Nelson MA
TI - Analysis of mutations and identification of several polymorphisms in the putative promoter region of the P34CDC2-related CDC2L1 gene located at 1P36 in melanoma cell lines and melanoma families.
SO - Int J Cancer 2002 Jun 20;99(6):834-8
AD - Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.
Chromosome 1 abnormalities are the most commonly detected aberrations in many cancers including malignant melanoma. Partial deletions and an allelic loss of the chromosome 1p36 region observed in melanoma indicate the presence of putative tumor suppressor gene(s) in this region. A candidate gene, CDC2L1, which encodes PITSLRE proteins related to p34(cdc2), is mapped to 1p36. To determine whether CDC2L1 mutation is involved in melanoma development, we examined 20 melanoma cell lines and 11 members of melanoma-prone families linked to chromosome 1p36. Mutation analysis throughout the entire coding region of the CDC2L1 gene revealed only 1 mutation (C-->T at nucleotide location 97 of exon 7, Ser-->Leu) in the melanoma cell line UACC 903 out of 20 melanoma cell lines and 6 melanoma cases. However, 4 polymorphic nucleotide changes, C-48T, G-53C, T-103C and T-210C, in the putative promoter region of CDC2L1 were identified. The 4 variants were located within or beside the conserved binding sites of transcription factors TCF11, MZF1 and TAAC box, indicating their potential effects on the regulation of CDC2L1 expression. No aberrant methylation of the CDC2L1 CpG island in the promoter region was observed by sodium bisulfite genomic sequencing. These results indicate that mutations are rare in the CDC2L1 gene in these melanoma cell lines and melanoma families and that the aberrant cytosine methylation of the CDC2L1 CpG island is not the mechanism of CDC2L1 repression in melanoma. The contribution of 4 promoter polymorphisms to the transcriptional regulation of the gene and its association with melanoma warrants further investigation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 12098005
AU - Vrba M; Cihalova V; Juraskova V
TI - Variability of chromosomes in the VUP permanent cell line derived from uveal malignant melanoma.
SO - Neoplasma 2002;49(3):184-8
AD - Research Institute of Child Health, Brno, 662 62 Czech Republic.
A permanent cell line [VUP] derived 31 years ago from human malignant melanoma of the choroid has been characterized by genetically firmly anchored heteronuclearity. The most significant chromosomal changes of this cell line are: high instability of the chromosome No. 13 with the rise of new chromosomes formed by translocations, homologous stability of chromosomes 6, 15, and X. Structural changes were not revealed in chromosomes 15 and 22. The variability of chromosomes was studied both by classical conventional methods as well as with GTG banding and DNA hybridization in situ (FISH). Structural diversity was demonstrated in a number of morphologically congruent chromosomes. For example, X chromosome classified morphologically as chromosome No. 10 was determined by means of FISH technique, as a centric fragment Xq with translocated acentric fragment of other chromosomes. Furthermore, mar-t, previously considered to be q arm of chromosome No. 4, is formed by a centric fragment of chromosome No. 13 and an acentric fragment of chromosome No. 1.
UI - 12184809
AU - Panelli MC; Wang E; Phan G; Puhlmann M; Miller L; Ohnmacht GA; Klein HG;
TI - Marincola FM Gene-expression profiling of the response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and melanoma metastases to systemic IL-2 administration.
SO - Genome Biol 2002 Jun 25;3(7):RESEARCH0035
AD - Immunogenetics Section, Department of Transfusion Medicine, Clinical Center, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
Early changes in transcriptional profiles of circulating mononuclear cells were compared with those occurring within the microenvironment of melanoma metastases following systemic IL-2 administration. The results suggest that the immediate effects of IL-2 administration on the tumor microenvironment is transcriptional activation of genes predominantly associated with monocyte cell function.
UI - 9626360
AU - Lethe B; Lucas S; Michaux L; De Smet C; Godelaine D; Serrano A; De Plaen
TI - E; Boon T LAGE-1, a new gene with tumor specificity.
SO - Int J Cancer 1998 Jun 10;76(6):903-8
AD - Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Brussels Branch, Universite Catholique de Louvain. email@example.com
Representational difference analysis was used to identify genes that are expressed in a human melanoma cell line and not in normal skin. A cDNA clone that appeared to be specific for tumors was obtained and the corresponding gene was sequenced. This new gene was named LAGE-I. Using a LAGE-I probe to screen a cDNA library from the same melanoma cell line, we identified a closely related gene, which proved to be identical to NY-ESO-I, a gene recently reported to code for an antigen recognized by autologous antibodies in an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Gene LAGE-I maps to Xq28. It comprises 3 exons. Alternative splicing produces 2 major transcripts encoding polypeptides of 210 and 180 residues, respectively. Expression of LAGE-I was observed in 25-50% of tumor samples of melanomas, non-small-cell lung carcinomas, bladder, prostate and head and neck cancers. The only normal tissue that expressed the gene was testis. As for MAGE-AI, expression of LAGE-I is induced by deoxy-azacytidine in lymphoblastoid cells, suggesting that tumoral expression is due to demethylation. The expression of LAGE-I is strongly correlated with that of NY-ESO-I. It is also clearly correlated with the expression of MAGE genes.
UI - 10987311
AU - Zarour HM; Storkus WJ; Brusic V; Williams E; Kirkwood JM
TI - NY-ESO-1 encodes DRB1*0401-restricted epitopes recognized by melanoma-reactive CD4+ T cells.
SO - Cancer Res 2000 Sep 1;60(17):4946-52
AD - Department of Medicine and Melanoma Center, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pennsylvania 15213, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The NY-ESO-1 gene is expressed by a range of human tumors and encodes HLA-A2-restricted melanoma peptides recognized by CD8+ CTLs. Here we report that the NY-ESO-1 gene also encodes two overlapping, but non-cross-reactive, HLA-DRB1*0401-presented peptides that are recognized by CD4+ T cells. The NY-ESO-1(119-143) peptide was able to induce specific CD4+ T cells in vitro from both an HLA-DRB1*0401+ normal donor and an HLA-DRB1*0401+ patient with melanoma. Bulk and cloned CD4+ T cells produced IFN-gamma specifically in response to, and also lysed, T2.DR4 cells pulsed with peptide NY-ESO-1(119-143) and the autologous tumor cell line, but not a DRB1*0401+ melanoma cell line that does not express NY-ESO-1. Interestingly, the NY-ESO119-143 peptide contains two overlapping putative "core" epitopes recognized by non-cross-reactive anti-NY-ESO-1(119-143) CD4+ T-cell clones. Taken together, these data support the use of this novel DR4-restricted tumor peptide, NY-ESO-1(119-143), or its two "sub-epitopes" in immunotherapeutic trials designed to generate or enhance specific CD4+ T-cell responses against tumors expressing NY-ESO-1 in vivo.