National Cancer Institute®
Last Modified: October 1, 2002
UI - 11939218
AU - Cotten A
TI - [Imaging of lipoma and liposarcoma]
SO - JBR-BTR 2002;85(1):14-9
AD - Service de Radiologie osteo-articulaire, Hopital R. Salengro, Lille, France.
The aim of this paper is to describe the two most frequent lipomatous soft tissue tumors, lipoma and liposarcoma, and to highlight the radiologic features allowing their differentiation.
UI - 11998961
AU - Yarali H; Bukulmez O
TI - The effect of intramural and subserous uterine fibroids on implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in patients having intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
SO - Arch Gynecol Obstet 2002 Jan;266(1):30-3
AD - Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Gaziosmanpasa, Ankara, Turkey.
Our objective was to assess the effects of intramural and subserous fibroids on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in a retrospective case-control study of 108 women with uterine fibroids and 324 controls. The fibroids were located and measured by transvaginal ultrasound performed just before the ICSI cycle and all patients had normal endometrial scan. Seventy-three women had intramural and 35 women had subserous fibroids and the maximum diameter in any patient ranged from 0.5-10 cm. The number of fibroids in a patient ranged from 1-8. The first cycle outcome was compared with an age and body mass index matched 324 ICSI patients/cycles. All couples had male factor infertility. The ICSI cycles of patients with intramural and subserous fibroids were comparable in terms of the days of ovarian stimulation, the total dose of gonadotropin used, estradiol level on day of hCG administration, the number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved, fertilization and cleavage rates, number and quality of embryos developed and transferred. The implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were similar. We conclude that the presence of intramural and subserous fibroids does not adversely effect clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in patients undergoing ICSI.
UI - 12100421
AU - Chao TC; Lo YF; Chen SC; Chen MF
TI - Sonographic features of phyllodes tumors of the breast.
SO - Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2002 Jul;20(1):64-71
AD - Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the sonographic features of phyllodes tumors of the breast. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded sonographic features was performed on 2268 patients with phyllodes tumors or fibroadenomas during 1995-98. Data from 110 phyllodes tumors (76 benign, 11 borderline, 23 malignant) and 2204 fibroadenomas were analyzed. RESULTS: The patients with phyllodes tumors were older than the patients with fibroadenoma (mean +/- standard error, 39.7 +/- 1.1 years vs. 33.4 +/- 0.3 years; P < 0.0001). Sixty-four percent of patients with phyllodes tumors were aged 31-50 years, while 68.5% of those with fibroadenoma were aged 21-40 years. Phyllodes tumors were larger than fibroadenomas (5.90 +/- 0.43 cm vs. 1.95 +/- 0.03 cm; P < 0.0001). The ratio of length to anteroposterior diameter of phyllodes tumors was smaller than the ratio of length to anteroposterior diameter of fibroadenomas (1.72 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.89 +/- 0.02; P = 0.0105). Seventy-seven percent of phyllodes tumors were lobulated and 79.5% of fibroadenomas were oval. Lobulated shape of the tumor, heterogeneous echo pattern and absence of microcalcification are significant independent sonographic features in multiple logistic regression analysis to distinguish between phyllodes tumors and fibroadenoma. Benign, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors displayed no significant differences in tumor size or the ratio of length to anteroposterior diameter. CONCLUSIONS: There is a substantial overlap in the sonographic characteristics between phyllodes tumors and fibroadenoma of the breast. If lobulation and heterogeneous hypoechoic internal echoes are observed and calcifications are absent, a diagnosis of phyllodes tumors should be considered. Sonography cannot distinguish between malignant, borderline and benign phyllodes tumors.
UI - 12204056
AU - Sakamoto A; Oda Y; Adachi T; Saito T; Tamiya S; Iwamoto Y; Tsuneyoshi M
TI - Beta-catenin accumulation and gene mutation in exon 3 in dedifferentiated liposarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
SO - Arch Pathol Lab Med 2002 Sep;126(9):1071-8
AD - Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
CONTEXT: beta-Catenin is an adhesion molecule that also plays a role in the Wnt signaling pathway. Objective.-To analyze beta-catenin mutation and accumulation in a series of liposarcomas and malignant fibrous histiocytomas. DESIGN: beta-Catenin mutation in exon 3 was studied using polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and direct sequencing analysis in 30 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liposarcomas. The tumors included 12 dedifferentiated liposarcomas, characterized by both high-grade anaplastic components and well-differentiated liposarcoma components, plus 18 well-differentiated liposarcomas (10 lipoma-like and 8 sclerosing-type cases). The 2 components of dedifferentiated liposarcomas were analyzed independently. beta-Catenin accumulation in the nuclei or cytoplasm and Ki-67 expression (cell-proliferation marker, MIB-1 labeling index) were examined immunohistochemically. Nine storiform-pleomorphic-type malignant fibrous histiocytomas were also studied. RESULTS: Dedifferentiated liposarcomas showed mutation in 2 cases (17%) and accumulation in 5 cases (42%). One of the 2 cases that showed mutations had a mutation in the well-differentiated component; this mutation was silent. The other case had mutations that differed between the 2 components. In well-differentiated liposarcomas, mutation was not seen in any of the cases (0/18; 0%); however, accumulation was seen frequently in the sclerosing-type cases (5/8; 63%), but not in the lipoma-like cases (0/10; 0%). Malignant fibrous histiocytomas showed mutation and accumulation in 5 (56%) and 4 (44%) cases, respectively, without any exact correlation between the cases. Cases with accumulation had a higher MIB-1 labeling index than those without, among both the sclerosing-type well-differentiated liposarcomas (P <.05) and the malignant fibrous histiocytomas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest the possible involvement of beta-catenin activation caused by beta-catenin mutation in liposarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma, but the contribution would seem to be different, depending on the tumor type. beta-Catenin accumulation is also thought to be related to cell proliferation in some of the cases.
UI - 12210059
AU - Hoon Cho N; Cordon-Cardo C; Li GC; Hyun Kim S
TI - Allotype imbalance or microsatellite mutation in low-grade soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities in adults.
SO - J Pathol 2002 Sep;198(1):21-9
AD - Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seodaemoon-Ku, Shinchon-Dong, Seoul, Korea. firstname.lastname@example.org
The ability to repair DNA double-strand breaks is essential to maintain chromosomal stability. Virtually all soft tissue sarcomas contain chromosomal instabilities, including clonal aberrations and cytogenetic aberrations. However, the relevance of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in the pathogenesis of soft tissue sarcoma has not been clarified. The main aim of this work is to compare the prognostic impact of genotypic imbalance in low-grade soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities, and to correlate this with the translational level of DNA-PK. This study investigated 28 adult low-grade malignant spindle cell tumours of the extremities, predominantly fibrosarcomas, for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite mutation on flanking regions of each DNA-PK subunit, with identical immunophenotypes. Twelve different polymorphic markers flanking the specific loci of three subunits comprise the genetic map of DNA-PK, at 22q13, 2q35, and 8q11. Translational activity was also analysed by western blot and conventional immunohistochemistry. The overall sarcoma 5-year survival rate was 61.7%. LOH was identified in the specific coding region of DNA-PK in 39.29% for the DNA-PK catalytic subunit (cs), 17.86% for Ku70, and only 7.14% for Ku80. A positive LOH for DNA-PKcs was shown to be a significant factor for poor survival (log rank test p = 0.0160). Immunoreactivity and immunoblot results correlated with the loss of DNA-PKcs allotype in soft tissue sarcoma (Fisher's exact test p = 0.0037). Ku70 and DNA-PKcs were almost identical in terms of immunoreactivity. In conclusion, whereas microsatellite mutation seems an uncommon event during the evolution of low-grade fibrosarcoma of the extremities in adults, the loss of DNA-PKcs defines a biologically more aggressive subset. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
UI - 8002180
AU - Zhang ZF; Begg CB
TI - Is Trichomonas vaginalis a cause of cervical neoplasia? Results from a combined analysis of 24 studies.
SO - Int J Epidemiol 1994 Aug;23(4):682-90
AD - Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021.
BACKGROUND. We conducted this combined analysis of available data from studies with information on this issue to clarify the association between Trichomonas vaginalis infection and cervical neoplasia. METHODS. We performed MEDLINE searches (1966-1993) using the key words and phrases 'trichomonas vaginitis' and 'neoplasms, cervix' for articles published in English, and searched citations of the articles obtained from MEDLINE. A total of 24 articles (two cohort studies and 22 case-control) were included in this data analysis. In the analysis, the studies were evaluated for heterogeneity using Breslow-Day tests for homogeneity of the odds ratios and of rate ratios. If the odds ratios from studies are heterogeneous, it is not appropriate to combine them using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Also, publication bias was evaluated by assessing the association between the observed effect size and the variance of the effect size using a rank correlation test. RESULTS. The combined summary relative risk for the two cohort studies was 1.93 (95% confidence interval: 1.22-2.65) indicating an approximate doubling of the risk of cervical neoplasia in the presence of T. vaginalis infection. The attributable risks among exposed subjects and among the source population were 47.4% and 2.1% respectively. Results of the 22 retrospective studies were much less consistent. However, most of them demonstrated a significant positive association. CONCLUSIONS. This combined analysis suggests that there is an association between T. vaginalis and the risk of cervical neoplasia, but that such infections account for only 2% of cervical neoplasia.
UI - 8570805
AU - Wang PD; Lin RS
TI - Epidemiologic differences between candidial and trichomonal infections as detected in cytologic smears in Taiwan.
SO - Public Health 1995 Nov;109(6):443-50
AD - Taipei Wanhwa District Health Center, Taiwan.
The epidemiologic differences between cytology-detected candidial and trichomonal infections were assessed in 15,933 women attending the 12 district health centres in the Taipei area and a consecutive 1114 patients, visiting venereal disease clinics, whose smears were screened Pap smears were examined for the presence of specific organisms, such as trichomonas vaginalis, vaginal candida, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, actinomyces, leptothrix, aspergillu, gardnerella and others. More emphasis was placed on the candidial and trichomonal infection in inflammatory Pap smears. The overall prevalence of candidial and trichomonal infections was 3.40% and 1.88%, respectively. There were striking differences in the prevalence of trichomoniasis ranging from 1.74% in the district health centre population to 3.77% in the venereal disease clinic patients; however, the prevalence of candidial infection remained the same (3.40%) in these two distinct population groups. Indices of socioeconomic status--education and personal hygiene--showed an inverse association with the prevalence of trichomoniasis but a positive correlation with candidiasis. Among participants, younger age (< 20 years old) was independently associated with candidial (OR = 1.95) and trichomonal (OR = 3.87) infections. No sexual behavioural factors were associated with candidial infection in this study; however, having multiple sexual partners (OR = 5.07) was associated with a significantly elevated risk of trichomoniasis, while using condoms was associated with a diminished risk (OR = 0.38). The presence of candidiasis and trichomoniasis was highly associated with abnormal cytologic findings, particularly those indicative of inflammation. There was little evidence that findings suggestive of cervical cancer could be attributed to either candidial or trichomonal infections. These data suggest that trichomoniasis is consistent with venereal transmission of the disease, but transmission by contaminated objects cannot be ruled out because there is an increased relation between trichomoniasis infection and socioeconomic conditions and personal hygiene. Elucidation of such differences may be helpful in designing different strategies to control these infections. Furthermore, the findings can provide a good baseline of prevalence for investigating the relationship between these two pathogens and cervical dysplasia.
UI - 11928993
AU - Kondoh N; Shuda M; Arai M; Oikawa T; Yamamoto M
TI - Activation of anchorage-independent growth of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells by dexamethasone.
SO - In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2002 Feb;38(2):111-7
AD - Department of Biochemistry II, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan.
Anchorage independence is an important hallmark of the transformation that correlates with tumorigenicity. We have isolated a variant clone of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells (cl-2) that is specifically defective in anchorage-independent growth. Interestingly, 10(-7) M dexamethasone (DEX) substantially rescued the anchorage-independent growth of cl-2 cells in semisolid culture. DEX also promoted the anchorage-independent growth of parental HT1080 cells. However, the agent had no effect on the anchorage-dependent growth of cl-2 and parental cells in ordinary liquid culture. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that the population of G0/G1 cells increased, whereas that of S and G2/M cells decreased in growth-arrested cl-2 cells in suspension culture. However, such an effect of anchorage loss on cell cycle progression was alleviated by adding 10(-7) M DEX. In cl-2 cells in semisolid culture, DEX suppressed the expression of P27Kip1, whereas it stimulated the expression of cyclin A and hyperphosphorylated retinoblastoma (Rb) proteins. On the other hand, DEX had no effect on cyclin D1 and P21Cap1 expression. These effects of DEX, except for the suppression of P27Kip1, were blocked by an antimicrofilament drug, cytochalasin D. Our results suggest that the stimulation of anchorage-independent growth by DEX involves at least two regulatory mechanisms, i.e., one that leads to the suppression of P27Kip1 protein without requiring cytoskeletal integrity, and another that requires cytoskeletal integrity, leading to stimulation of cyclin A and hyperphosphorylation of Rb protein.
UI - 12206985
AU - Noel G; Jauffret E; Crevoisier RD; Habrand JL; Mammar H; Haie-Meder C;
TI - Hasboun D; Ferrand R; Boisserie G; Pontvert D; Beaudre A; Gaboriaud G; Mazal A; Guedea F; Petriz L; Mazeron JJ [Radiation therapy for chordomas and chondrosarcomas of the base of the skull and cervical spine]
SO - Bull Cancer 2002 Jul-Aug;89(7-8):713-23
AD - Centre de protontherapie, BP 65, 91402 Orsay Cedex, France. email@example.com
PURPOSE: Prospective analysis of local tumour control, survival and treatment complications in 67 consecutive patients treated with fractionated photon and proton radiation for a chordoma or a chondrosarcoma of the base of the skull and of the cervical spine. patients with a median age of 52.3 years (14-85), were treated using 201 MeV proton beam of the centre de protontherapie d'Orsay (CPO), 49 for a chordoma and 18 for a chondrosarcoma. Irradiation combined high-energy photons and protons. Photons represented 2/3 of the total dose and protons 1/3. The median total dose delivered within gross tumour volume was 67 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) (60-70). RESULTS: With a mean follow-up of 32 months (4-71), the 3-year local control rates were for chordomas and chondrosarcomas of 70.8% and 85.2%, respectively and 4-year overall survival rates of 87.7% and 75%, respectively. Fourteen tumours (21.5%) failed locally (eight within the gross tumor volume, four into the CTV and 2 in an unknown site). Seven patients died of tumour and one of intercurrent disease. In univariate analysis, age inferieur ou egal a 52.3 years (p = 0.002), maximum tumoral diameter < 44.7 mm (p = 0.02) and GTV < 28.4 mL (0.02), at time of radiotherapy, influenced positively the local control. According to multivariate analysis, only age was an independent prognostic factor of local control. Only five (7.7%) patients presented grade 3 or 4 complications. CONCLUSION: In base of skull chordomas and chondrosarcomas, the combined photon and proton therapy offers excellent chances of cure at the price of an acceptable toxicity. These results should be confirmed with a longer follow-up.
UI - 12235000
AU - Demou ZN; McIntire LV
TI - Fully automated three-dimensional tracking of cancer cells in collagen gels: determination of motility phenotypes at the cellular level.
SO - Cancer Res 2002 Sep 15;62(18):5301-7
AD - Steele Laboratory for Tumor Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
We developed a fully automated three-dimensional cell tracking system that quantified the effect of extracellular matrix components on the infiltration and migration of tumor cells. The three-dimensional trajectories of two highly invasive cell lines, the human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma and the human MDA-MB-231 adenocarcinoma, were determined for long-term infiltration in plain or Matrigel-containing collagen type I gels. We modeled the trajectories with a novel formulation of the continuous Markov chain model that can distinguish between the tendencies for infiltration or lateral motion. Parameters such as the speed of subpopulations, the persistence of motion in certain directions, the turning frequency of the cells, the ultimate direction of motion, and the cell distribution with the infiltration depth were obtained to quantify the migration and infiltration at the cellular level. Distinct migratory and infiltration phenotypes were identified for the two cell types that were significantly dependent on gel composition. The HT-1080 cell line expressed a high motility phenotype on the plain collagen gel surface. The Matrigel-containing gel significantly enhanced the infiltration and the turning frequency of the HT-1080 cells. This study shows that tumor cell infiltration and migration are dynamic processes that depend significantly on the cell type and the microenvironment.
UI - 11918915
AU - Wurl P; Kappler M; Meye A; Bartel F; Kohler T; Lautenschlager C; Bache
TI - M; Schmidt H; Taubert H Co-expression of survivin and TERT and risk of tumour-related death in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma.
SO - Lancet 2002 Mar 16;359(9310):943-5
Increased expression of survivin has been shown to be a negative predictor of survival in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma. We investigated 89 adults with soft-tissue sarcomas to ascertain the relation between co-expression of survivin and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) transcripts and prognosis. We quantified mRNA expression of survivin and TERT transcripts. Cox's proportional-hazards regression model showed co-expression of both genes to be a significant negative prognostic factor for patients with stage I to stage IV tumours (p=0 small middle dot0004; relative risk 20 small middle dot1, 95% CI 3 small middle dot8-106 small middle dot4) and for those at stage II and III (p=0 small middle dot0002; 42 small middle dot1, 6 small middle dot0-294 small middle dot9) compared with low expression of both genes. Co-expression of survivin and TERT transcripts identifies patients at high risk of tumour-related death.
UI - 12045714
AU - Emile JF; Lemoine A; Bienfait N; Terrier P; Azoulay D; Debuire B
TI - Length analysis of polymerase chain reaction products: a sensitive and reliable technique for the detection of mutations in KIT exon 11 in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
SO - Diagn Mol Pathol 2002 Jun;11(2):107-12
AD - Service d'anatomie Pathologique, Hopital Paul Brousse and UPRES 1596, Universite Paris Sud, France. firstname.lastname@example.org
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the digestive tract. These tumors express the c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase, and many have activating mutations in the juxtamembrane region coded by the exon 11 of KIT. Detection of these mutations has prognostic and therapeutic impact. The aim of the study was to compare a new detection method by length analysis of polymerase chain reaction products (LAPP) to direct sequencing. The detection of either deletion or insertion mutations within the exon 11 of KIT was performed on genomic DNA extracted from 40 paraffin-embedded samples from 38 patients. Double-strand direct sequencing revealed a mutation in 25 of 40 samples. In two additional samples, a mutation was suspected but could not be determined by sequencing. LAPP revealed a mutation in 27 samples, corresponding to the 25 determined and 2 suspected samples. One of these latter samples contained three different alleles. Mutations corresponded to either deletions (n = 24) or insertion (n = 1) and had the same size with sequencing and LAPP. Our results show that LAPP is as accurate and more sensitive than direct sequencing for the detection of deletion or insertion mutations of exon 11 of KIT in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
UI - 11135162
AU - Mayer E; Kriegsmann J; Gaumann A; Kauczor HU; Dahm M; Hake U; Schmid FX;
TI - Oelert H Surgical treatment of pulmonary artery sarcoma.
SO - J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001 Jan;121(1):77-82
AD - Department for Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Pathology, and Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary artery sarcomas are rare and usually fatal tumors. The diagnosis is difficult and delayed in most cases. Newer imaging techniques could allow early diagnosis in patients with symptoms of pulmonary vascular obstruction. Surgical resection improves clinical symptoms and offers the only chance of cure. We report the case histories of 7 patients with primary pulmonary artery sarcomas treated by surgical resection with or without adjuvant therapy. METHODS: Seven patients (3 women and 4 men; mean age, 52.3 years; preoperative New York Heart Association functional class III/IV, n = 5/2) underwent operations. Malignancy was preoperatively suspected in 5 patients, and 2 patients had a presumptive diagnosis of chronic pulmonary embolism. Tumor resection with partial or total prosthetic replacement (n = 2), reconstruction (n = 5), or both, of central parts of the pulmonary arteries was performed in 6 patients. Thromboendarterectomy was necessary in 4 patients, and pneumonectomy was necessary in 2 patients. Six patients received adjuvant therapy. RESULTS: There was no perioperative mortality. All patients had a substantial improvement in exercise tolerance and hemodynamics 3 months after their operations. Four patients died 7, 9, 18, and 19 months after their operations because of recurrent tumor or pulmonary metastases. Two patients are alive 21 and 35 months after primary surgical repair, with pulmonary metastases detected by computed tomographic scans. One patient is alive 62 months after resection without clinical or radiologic signs of tumor recurrence or metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis of primary pulmonary artery sarcomas can be improved by computed tomography and magnetic resonance scanning. Radical surgical resection probably presents the only chance for cure. The role of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment modalities has to be defined. Pulmonary artery sarcoma need not necessarily be a fatal diagnosis.
UI - 11934388
AU - Udayakumar AM; Sundareshan TS; Appaji L; Biswas S; Mukherjee G
TI - Rhabdomyosarcoma: cytogenetics of five cases using fine-needle aspiration samples and review of the literature.
SO - Ann Genet 2002 Jan-Mar;45(1):33-7
AD - Cytogenetics Unit, Department of Pathology, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
Cytogenetic analyses of fine-needle aspiration samples were performed on five cases of which three were alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS), one was embryonal RMS and one was RMS of mixed alveolar and embryonal histology. Three cases of alveolar RMS and one case of embryonal RMS showed t(2;13). A del(1)(p11) in a mixed alveolar and embryonal RMS was observed without the presence of t(2;13). add(17)(q25) was present in one of the alveolar RMS along with a t(2;13). Modal number of chromosome in the five cases ranged from hyperdiploid to hypertetraploid. Clinical, cytological, histopathological and cytogenetic findings are correlated. The role of additional abnormalities is discussed with a review of appropriate literature.
UI - 12355942
AU - Matsumoto S; Kawaguchi N; Manabe J; Matsushita Y; Tanizawa T
TI - [Pilot study of an alternative CYVADIC + CBDCA protocol for adult soft tissue sarcoma as adjuvant chemotherapy]
SO - Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2002 Sep;29(9):1571-4
AD - Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital.
An alternative CYVADIC + CBDCA protocol was tried as a postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with adult soft tissue sarcoma. The regimen for CYVADIC was day 1: VCR: 1.5 mg/m2 (day 1), doxorubicin: 50 mg/m2 (day 1), DTIC: 250 mg/m2 (day 1-2), and cyclophosphamide: 500 mg/m2 (day 2), and that for CBDCA was 400 mg/m2. CYVADIC and CBDCA were 1997, 80 patients with soft tissue sarcoma underwent surgery in our hospital. This protocol was used in 8 of these cases of high grade adult soft tissue sarcoma. Round cell sarcoma was excluded from this study. The 5-year disease free survival rate was 60% and the overall survival rate was 70%. Three cases showed lung metastases. Two patients died of disease and one patient survives free from disease after removal of the lung metastases. No patients showed severe toxicity. We conclude that this protocol merits further evaluation.
UI - 12195759
AU - Pestieau SR; Jelinek JS; Sugarbaker PH
TI - Abdominal and pelvic CT for detection and volume assessment of peritoneal sarcomatosis.
SO - Tumori 2002 May-Jun;88(3):209-14
AD - Washington Cancer Institute, Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, NW, Washington, DC 20010, USA.
OBJECTIVE: Peritoneal sarcomatosis is a common finding in patients with recurrent abdominal or pelvic sarcoma. CT of the abdomen and pelvis is the standard radiological examination for evaluation of tumor volume and location in the peritoneal cavity; however data regarding the reliability of recurrent sarcoma detection has not been available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of CT in detecting recurrent peritoneal sarcomatosis. METHODS: Abdominal and pelvic CT scans of 33 patients with abdominal or pelvic sarcoma recurrence were retrospectively reviewed. Subsequently all patients underwent surgery at which time complete exploration of the abdomen and pelvis was performed. Twenty-five CT parameters were evaluated and statistically analyzed using the findings at surgery as a standard. RESULTS: Among the anatomic sites, the lesser omentum and the Douglas pouch showed a sensitivity of 100%. In the nine abdominopelvic regions sensitivity was greater than 85% in the central region, the left lower quadrant and the pelvis. In all regions and sites, the pelvis and Douglas pouch showed the highest accuracy (91%). The volume of tumor present within an abdominopelvic region influenced the sensitivity. A sensitivity of 72.5% was recorded when tumor nodules were less than 0.5 cm in diameter. This increased to 90% when tumor diameter was greater than 5 cm. CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal and pelvic CT is a reliable test to evaluate recurrent sarcoma. The nodules in the pelvis were most accurately detected. Even small nodules of 0.5 cm were detected; the sensitivity increased as the nodules became greater than 5 cm.
UI - 11896115
AU - Alektiar KM; Leung D; Zelefsky MJ; Brennan MF
TI - Adjuvant radiation for stage II-B soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity.
SO - J Clin Oncol 2002 Mar 15;20(6):1643-50
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA. email@example.com
PURPOSE: Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to improve local control in patients with high-grade soft tissue sarcoma (STS) of the extremity. This study sought to define the optimal management in patients with stage II-B (high-grade, size < or = 5 cm) tumors. PATIENTS with primary stage II-B STS underwent limb-sparing surgery with negative microscopic margins. Eighty-eight patients (43%) received RT; 116 (57%) did not. The RT and no-RT groups were balanced with regard to age, site (upper v lower extremity), whether patients had prior unplanned excision, and location (central, i.e., shoulder/groin v non-central). The RT group had more deep tumors (P =.03). Adjuvant RT was delivered with brachytherapy in 60% and external-beam radiation in 40% of patients. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 67 months, the 5-year local control, distant relapse-free survival, and disease-specific survival rates were 82%, 80%, and 88%, respectively. There was no significant difference in local control between the RT and no-RT groups (84% v 80%, respectively, P =.3). Tumor depth, site, and prior unplanned excision did not correlate with local control. The only independent predictors of poor local control were central tumor location (relative risk [RR] = 3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2 to 7; P =.005) and age more than 50 years (RR = 6; 95% CI, 2 to 13; P =.001). CONCLUSION: In this retrospective study, adjuvant RT did not significantly improve local control in patients with stage II-B STS of the extremity. The outcome of patients with central tumor location was poor, and efforts to identify the optimal local treatment approach for such patients are warranted.
UI - 12228214
AU - Timmerman RD
TI - Adjuvant radiation for stage IIb soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity.
SO - J Clin Oncol 2002 Sep 15;20(18):3929-30; discussion 3930
UI - 8019926
AU - Lawrence W Jr
TI - Soft tissue sarcomas in adults and children: a comparison.
SO - CA Cancer J Clin 1994 Jul-Aug;44(4):197-9
In most cases, soft tissue sarcomas in children are quite different from soft tissue sarcomas in adults and require a different approach to staging and treatment. Dr. Lawrence, Professor of Surgery and Director Emeritus of the Massey Cancer Center at the Medical College of Virginia, provides his insight into the differences and similarities in the clinical management of pediatric soft tissue sarcomas and soft tissue sarcomas in adults.
UI - 8019927
AU - Karakousis CP; Perez RP
TI - Soft tissue sarcomas in adults.
SO - CA Cancer J Clin 1994 Jul-Aug;44(4):200-10
AD - Department of Surgical Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York.
Soft tissue sarcomas are relatively rare in adults, accounting for less than one percent of newly diagnosed cancers in the United States each year. However, increased physician awareness of these tumors may lead to earlier diagnosis and improved results. The five-year survival rate has been increasing, and treatment using a combination of modalities has significantly reduced the number of amputations performed. This article reviews the clinical presentation, diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of soft tissue sarcomas in adults.
UI - 12239049
AU - Tateishi U; Hasegawa T; Kusumoto M; Yokoyama R; Moriyama N
TI - Radiologic manifestations of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma of the soft tissues.
SO - AJR Am J Roentgenol 2002 Oct;179(4):973-7
AD - Division of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-Ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan.
OBJECTIVE: Our study was conducted to summarize the clinical and radiologic presentations and imaging features of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma, a rare aggressive soft-tissue sarcoma, in 16 patients. CONCLUSION: The chest wall, inguinal region, thigh, and perineum were the most common sites of the disease. Tumors exhibited multilobulated contours in 87.5% of the patients, which may be suggestive of this tumor type. Nodal involvement was identified on CT and MR imaging and confirmed pathologically in 62.5% of the patients. Although CT or MR findings are nonspecific, proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma shows a multinodular configuration and admixes with regional lymph node metastasis on imaging studies.
UI - 12239308
AU - Lim C; Sohn H; Lee D; Gwack Y; Choe J
TI - Functional dissection of latency-associated nuclear antigen 1 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus involved in latent DNA replication and transcription of terminal repeats of the viral genome.
SO - J Virol 2002 Oct;76(20):10320-31
AD - Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.
Latency-associated nuclear antigen 1 (LANA1) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is implicated in the maintenance of the viral genome during latent infection. LANA1 colocalizes with KSHV episomes on the host chromosome and mediates their maintenance by attaching these viral structures to host chromosomes. Data from long-term selection of drug resistance in cells conferred by plasmids containing the terminal repeat (TR) sequence of KSHV revealed that KSHV TRs and LANA1 act as cis and trans elements of viral latent replication, respectively. In this study, we further characterized the cis- and trans-acting elements of KSHV latent replication by using a transient replication assay with a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme, DpnI. Transient reporter and replication assays disclosed that the orientation and basal transcriptional activity of TR constructs did not significantly affect the efficiency of replication. However, at least two TR units were necessary for efficient replication. The N-terminal 90 amino acids comprising the chromosome-binding domain of LANA1 were required for the mediation of LANA1 C-terminal DNA-binding and dimerization domains to support the transient replication of KSHV TRs. LANA1 interacted with components of the origin recognition complexes (ORCs), similar to Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1. Our data suggest that LANA1 recruits ORCs to KSHV TRs for latent replication of the viral genome.
UI - 12185297
AU - Spira AI; Ettinger DS
TI - The use of chemotherapy in soft-tissue sarcomas.
SO - Oncologist 2002;7(4):348-59
AD - Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The treatment of advanced soft-tissue sarcomas is often palliative, although a subset of patients may be cured or have a long disease-free interval. This paper reviews the historical data over 30 years of treatment that has led to the use of ifosfamide and doxorubicin as the mainstay in the treatment of metastatic disease. These treatments have a high toxicity, relative to other chemotherapeutic regimens, with median response durations on the order of months. Agents developed in the last few years, whose role in the treatment of sarcomas is still evolving, are discussed as well. Finally, we discuss the role of chemotherapy in combination with surgery and radiation in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings.
UI - 12365113
AU - Sur RK; Nayler S; Ahmed SN; Donde B; Uijs RR; Cooper K; Giraud A
TI - Angiosarcomas--clinical profile, pathology and management.
SO - S Afr J Surg 2000 May;38(1):13-6
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology and Anatomical Pathology, University of the Witwatersrand, South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg.
Files of 8 patients with primary angiosarcomas treated in the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of the Witwatersrand from 1982 to 1995 were identified. None of these patients had received prior radiotherapy or chemotherapy which would have predisposed them to the formation of an angiosarcoma. Slides of 6 patients were reviewed. Five of the 6 were confirmed as having angiosarcomas, while 1 patient was found to have a peripheral neuro-epithelial tumour. Four patients had angiosarcomas of the breast, while there was 1 patient each with angiosarcoma of the skin, intestine and brain. Complete excision was the primary modality of management whenever possible. Postoperative radiotherapy was given in cases of incomplete excision, patient refusal of radical surgery or gross tumour. Four patients died within 4 months of diagnosis. Three patients are alive (2 with no evidence of disease) 22-96 months after diagnosis. In 1 patient follow-up details were not available as he did not return for treatment. Angiosarcomas are aggressive malignant tumours arising from the endothelial cells. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice in the management of this aggressive disease, which has a poor prognosis.
UI - 11211309
AU - Granter SR; Weilbaecher KN; Quigley C; Fletcher CD; Fisher DE
TI - Clear cell sarcoma shows immunoreactivity for microphthalmia transcription factor: further evidence for melanocytic differentiation.
SO - Mod Pathol 2001 Jan;14(1):6-9
AD - Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Microphthalmia transcription factor, a melanocytic nuclear protein critical for the embryonic development and postnatal viability of melanocytes, is a master regulator in modulating extracellular signals. Recently, microphthalmia transcription factor expression was shown to be both a sensitive and specific marker of epithelioid melanoma. We investigated the sensitivity of D5, an anti-microphthalmia transcription factor antibody, for diagnosis of clear cell sarcoma (also known as malignant melanoma of soft parts). Immunoreactivity in a nuclear pattern for D5 was present in 8 of 12 (75%) tumors. D5 staining was strong in three tumors, moderate in two, and weak in three. S-100 protein expression was seen in all 12 cases that had clear cell sarcoma examined. HMB-45 staining was seen in 11 of 12 (92%) tumors. Focal Melan-A positivity was seen in 3 of 7 (43%) tumors. Although D5 was shown in a previous study to be a highly sensitive and specific marker for epithelioid melanomas, the results of this study expand the spectrum of tumors showing immunoreactivity for D5. D5 immunoreactivity in clear cell sarcoma provides further evidence for melanocytic differentiation in this unusual tumor.
UI - 11826187
AU - Antonescu CR; Tschernyavsky SJ; Woodruff JM; Jungbluth AA; Brennan MF;
TI - Ladanyi M Molecular diagnosis of clear cell sarcoma: detection of EWS-ATF1 and MITF-M transcripts and histopathological and ultrastructural analysis of 12 cases.
SO - J Mol Diagn 2002 Feb;4(1):44-52
AD - Department of Patholog, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.
Clear cell sarcoma (CCS), also known as melanoma of soft parts, is an uncommon deep soft tissue tumor presenting typically in the lower extremities of young adults. Previous cytogenetic studies have established the specificity of the recurrent t(12;22)(q13;q12), resulting in a EWS-ATF1 fusion, for CCS. The prevalence of the EWS-ATF1 fusion in CCS remains unclear, since most genetically confirmed CCS have been reported as isolated cytogenetic or molecular diagnostic case reports. We therefore studied histologically confirmed CCS from 12 patients for the presence of EWS-ATF1 by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), using RNA extracted from either frozen (four cases) or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (eight cases) material. All primary tumors were located in the deep soft tissues of the extremities. Histologically, 10 cases had a typical epithelioid nested appearance. Most or all cases showed immunostaining for HMB45 (12 of 12), S-100 protein (10 of 12), and MITF (12 of 12). Ultrastructural analysis showed melanosomes in six of seven cases. The presence of an EWS-ATF1 fusion transcript was identified by RT-PCR in 11 of 12 cases (91%), all of which showed the same fusion transcript structure, namely the previously described in-frame fusion of EWS exon 8 to ATF1 codon 65. RT-PCR analysis for the melanocyte-specific splice form of the MITF transcript was positive in all cases tested (4 of 4). These data confirm that EWS-ATF1 detection can be used as a highly sensitive diagnostic test for CCS and that CCS expresses the melanocyte-specific form of the MITF transcript, further supporting its genuine melanocytic differentiation.
UI - 12149925
AU - Schorle CM; Unni KK; Aigner T
TI - [Neoplastic chondroneogenesis as a characteristic of mesenchymal chondrosarcomas]
SO - Orthopade 2002 Jun;31(6):544-50
AD - Schwerpunkt Knorpelforschung-Osteoarthrose, Pathologisches Institut, Universitat Erlangen-Nurnberg, Krankenhausstrasse 8-10, 91054 Erlangen. Thomas.Aigner@patho.imed.uni-erlangen.de
Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare skeletal malignancies, which are typically characterized by tumor compartmentation. One tumor area is formed by small, undifferentiated neoplastic cells, whereas the second compartment is composed of cartilaginous areas. In this study, the application of in situ detection techniques enabled us to characterize the different tumor compartments according to their cellular differentiation patterns. The use of characteristic marker genes identified all steps of chondrogenesis within the different tumor compartments. Undifferentiated tumor cells in the small-cell areas were negative for vimentin and the cytoprotein S-100, whereas other tumor cells expressed collagen type IIA and vimentin indicating a chondroprogenitor cellular phenotype in these small-cell areas. Fully differentiated chondrocytic cells expressing collagen type II were found in the chondroid areas. The focal expression of type X collagen indicated hypertrophic differentiation of the neoplastic chondrocytes. The results characterize mesenchymal chondrosarcomas as skeletal malignancies that arise from undifferentiated chondroprogenitor cells and have the potential to undergo all steps of chondrocytic differentiation.
UI - 12198946
AU - Briccoli A; Campanacci L; Biagini R; Rocca M; Malaguti C; Mercuri M
TI - Chondrosarcoma of the ribs and sternum. Considerations on 20 cases treated.
SO - Chir Organi Mov 2002 Jan-Mar;87(1):17-23
AD - Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Universita di Bologna, Italy.
Over the last 20 years at the Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute in Bologna 20 cases of chondrosarcoma (CS) of the thoracic wall (14 males, 6 females, mean age 49 years) have been submitted to surgery. Localization was costal in 11 cases, costosternal in 3, sternal in 3, costovertebral in 3. The most frequent histological variety was central with 15 observations. All of the cases were treated surgically. Exeresis was wide in 14 cases, marginal in 6. Reconstruction of the thoracic wall took place either by direct suturing or (14 cases) using prosthetic materials (Marlex mesh, 1 or 2 shapeable metal plates). Of the 20 cases treated, 16 patients are still alive (80%) with a mean survival rate of 33.5 months and a mean reduction in the postoperative ventilative index of function of less than 10%. The results obtained lead us to believe that surgical treatment involving wide exeresis is adequate, and the reconstruction method using Marlex mesh and metal plates is reliable.
UI - 10753532
AU - Eroglu A; Kocaoglu H; Demirci S; Akgul H
TI - Isolated limb perfusion with cisplatin and doxorubicin for locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma of an extremity.
SO - Eur J Surg Oncol 2000 Apr;26(3):213-21
AD - Department of Surgical Oncology, Ankara University Medical School,