Whats My Risk - OncoLink Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

Questionnaire

The following questionnaire is comprehensive and asks about your habits, lifestyle and health history. Please be aware that your answers are anonymous. We do not ask for your name, address, date of birth or any identifiable information. The more accurately you answer the questions, the more complete your What's My Risk? profile will be.

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What's My Risk > Medical References Used By Section

Medical References Used By Section

Aflatoxins

IARC (2008), World Cancer Report 2008, IARC Press, Lyon.

Groopman, J.D., Kensler, T.W., Wild, C.P. (2008). Protective interventions to prevent aflatoxin-induced carcinogenesis in developing countries. Annual Review of Public Health. 29:187-203. Review.

Liu, Y. and Wu, F. (2010). Global burden of aflatoxin-induced hepatocellular carcinoma: a risk assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives. 118(6):818-24.

Wild, C.P. and Gong, Y.Y. (2010). Mycotoxins and human disease: a largely ignored global health issue. Carcinogenesis. 31(1):71-82.

Alcohol

IARC (2008), World Cancer Report 2008, IARC Press, Lyon.

American Cancer Society (ACS) website, 2010. www.cacner.org

Mouth Cancer Foundation, 2010 http://www.rdoc.org.uk/smoking_tobacco_risk.html

Allen NE, Beral V, Casabonne D, et al. Moderate alcohol intake and cancer incidence in women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:296-305.

Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). Alcohol: Frequently Asked Questions. 2008. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm on December 22, 2009.

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2009. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2009.

Grønbaek M. (2009). The positive and negative health effects of alcohol- and the public health implications. Journal of Internal Medicine. 265(4):407-20. Review.

Lew JQ, Freedman ND, Leitzmann MF, et al. (2009). Alcohol and risk of breast cancer by histologic type and hormone receptor status in postmenopausal women: the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology.170:308-317.

Marron M, Boffetta P, Zhang ZF, Zaridze D, W�nsch-Filho V, Winn DM, et al.

(2010). Cessation of alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and the reversal of head and neck cancer risk. International Journal of Epidemiology. 39(1):182-96.

Rehm J, Patra J, Popova S.( 2007). Alcohol drinking cessation and its effect on esophageal and head and neck cancers: a pooled analysis. International Journal of Cancer 121(5):1132-7.

Staples, M.P., Elwood, M., Burton, R.C., Williams, J.L., Marks, R., Giles, G.G. (2006). Non-melanoma skin cancer in Australia: the 2002 national survey and trends since 1985. Medical Journal of Australia. 2;184(1):6-10.

Asbestos Exposure

The National Cancer Institute: www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/asbestos

The Centers for Disease Control: www.atsdr.cdc.gov/asbestos/index.html

Cancer Screening

American Cancer Society (ACS) website, 2010. www.cancer.org

US Preventive Task Force: www.ahrq.gov/clinic/ppipix.htm

American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: www.acog.org

Screening and Surveillance for the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer and Adenomatous Polyps, 2008: A Joint Guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology

American College of Gastroenterology Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening 2008

DES Exposure

The National Cancer Institute:

www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/DES

DES Action: www.desaction.org

The Centers for Disease Control: www.cdc.gov/des/consumers/index.html

DES Follow Up Study: www.desfollowupstudy.org/index.asp

Diet, Exercise & Weight

Friedenreich, CM et al. (2010) State of the epidemiological evidence on physical activity and cancer prevention. European Journal of Cancer; 46:2593-2604.

Kushi, LH et al. (2006) American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention. CA Cancer J Clin; 56:254-281.

World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (2007) Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research.

2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.

NIH AARP Diet & Health Study.

The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer & Nutrition (EPIC); International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization.

Diet Specific Concerns

American Cancer Society: www.cancer.org

Bravi, F., Scotti, L., Bosetti, C., Zucchetto, A., Talamini, R., Montella, M., Greggi, S., Pelucchi, C., Negri, E., Franceschi, S., and La Vecchia, C. (2009). Food groups and endometrial cancer risk: a case-control study from Italy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.200(3):293.e1-7.

Chan, A.T. and Giovannucci, E.L. (2010). Primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 138(6):2029-2043.

Doyle, V.C. (2007). Nutrition and colorectal cancer risk: a literature review. Gastroenterology Nursing. 30(3):178-82

Ferguson, L.R.(2010). Meat and cancer. Meat Science. 84(2):308-13.

Gierach, G.L., Chang, S.C., Brinton, L.A., Lacey, J.V. Jr., Hollenbeck, A.R., Schatzkin, A., Leitzmann, M.F. (2009). Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and endometrial cancer risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. International Journal of Cancer. 124(9):2139-47.

Jakszyn, P. and Gonzalez, C.A. (2006). Nitrosamine and related food intake and gastric and oesophageal cancer risk: a systematic review of the epidemiological evidence. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 12(27):4296-303.

N�thlings, U., Wilkens, L.R., Murphy, S.P., Hankin, J.H., Henderson, B.E., Kolonel, L.N. (2005). Meat and fat intake as risk factors for pancreatic cancer: the multiethnic cohort study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 97(19):1458-65.

Rieck, G. and Fiander, A. (2006). The effect of lifestyle factors on gynaecological cancer. Best Practice and Research Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 20(2):227-51. Review.

Santarelli, R.L., Pierre, F., Corpet, D.E.(2008). Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence. Nutrition and Cancer. 60(2):131-44.

Zheng, W. and Lee, SA. (2009). Well-done meat intake, heterocyclic amine exposure, and cancer risk. Nutrition and Cancer. 61(4):437-46.

Yu H, Hwang JY, Ro J, Kim J, Chang N. (2010).Vegetables, but not pickled vegetables, are negatively associated with the risk of breast cancer. Nutrition and Cancer. 2010 May;62(4):443-53.

Diseases that increase risk

Farraye FA. Odze RD. Eaden J. Itzkowitz SH. AGA technical review on the diagnosis and management of colorectal neoplasia in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 138(2):746-74, 774.e1-4; quiz e12-3, 2010 Feb.

Fevery J, Verslype C. An Update on cholangiocarcinoma associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2010 May; 26(3) 236-45.

Shinohara ET, Swisher-McClure S, Husson M, Sun W, Metz JM: Esophageal cancer in a young woman with bulimia nervosa: a case report. J Med Case Reports 29(1): 160, 2007.

Thompson M, Kurzrock, R. Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Feb; 10: 803-821.

American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: www.acog.org

The American Cancer Society: www.cancer.org

National Cancer Institute: www.cancer.gov

Centers for Disease Control: www.cdc.gov/cancer

Hepatitis B Foundation: www.hepb.org

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: www2.niddk.nih.gov

American College of Gastroenterology: www.acg.gi.org

Celiac Disease Foundation: www.celiac.org

Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America: www.ccfa.org

PHG Foundation: www.phgfoundation.org

Skin Cancer Foundation: www.skincancer.org

Fanconi Anemia Research Fund, Inc.: www.fanconi.org

Hemochromatosis Information Center: www.hemochromatosis.org

United Network for Organ Sharing: www.unos.org

National Institute of Child Health & Human Development: www.nichd.nih.gov

The Myelodysplastic Syndromes Foundation, Inc.: www.mds-foundation.org

Genetics Home Reference from the National Library of Medicine: ghr.nlm.nih.gov

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Association, Inc.: www.pcosupport.org

The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society: www.leukemia-lymphoma.org/hm_lls

PCS Partners: www.pscpartners.org

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia: www.chop.edu/index.html

The Xeroderma Pigmentosum Society, Inc.: xps.org

Family History

National Cancer Institute: www.cancer.gov

OncoLink: www.oncolink.org

Ovarian Cancer National Alliance: www.ovariancancer.org

Pancreatic Cancer Action Network: www.pancan.org/index.php

Susan Love, MD Research Foundation: www.dslrf.org/index.asp

Abeloff, M., Armitage, J., Niederhuber, J., Kastan, M. & McKenna, G. (Eds.): Clinical Oncology (2008). Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.

Clague J, Lin J, Cassidy A, Matin S, Tannir NM, Tamboli P, Wood CG, Wu X. Family history and risk of renal cell carcinoma: results from a case-control study and systematic meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Mar;18(3):801-7.

Matakidou, A, Eisen, T & Houlston, RS. (2005) Systematic review of the relationship between family history and lung cancer risk. British Journal of Cancer 93:825-833.

Genetics

Jewish Genetic Diseases: www.mazornet.com/genetics/index.htm

National Cancer Institute: www.cancer.gov

Al-Sukhni, W., Aronson, M., Gallinger, S. (2008). Hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes: familial adenomatous polyposis and lynch syndrome. The Surgical Clinics of North America. 88(4):819-44, vii.

Dent, R. and Warner, E. (2007). Screening for hereditary breast cancer. Seminars in Oncology. 34:392-400.

Jasperson, K.W., Tuohy, T.M., Neklason, D.W., Burt, R.W. (2010). Hereditary and familial colon cancer. Gastroenterology. 138(6):2044-58.

Jatoi, I. and Anderson, W.F. (2008). Management of women who have a genetic predisposition for breast cancer. Surgical Clinics of North America. 88(4):845-61, vii-viii.

Kedar-Barnes, I, Rozen, P. (2004) The Jewish people: their ethnic history, genetic disorders and specific cancer susceptibility. Familial Cancer 3:193-199.

Kwak, E.L. and Chung, D.C. (2007). Hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes: an overview. Clinical Colorectal Cancer. 6(5):340-4.

Lindor NM, Petersen GM, Hadley DW, Kinney AY, Miesfeldt S, Lu KH, Lynch P, Burke W, Press N. Recommendations for the care of individuals with an inherited predisposition to Lynch syndrome: a systematic review. JAMA. 2006 Sep 27;296(12):1507-17. Review.

Lux, M.P., Fasching, P.A., Beckmann, M.W. (2006). Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: review and future perspectives. Journal of Molecular Medicine. 84(1):16-28.

Lynch, HT, Rubinstein, WS, Locker, GY. (2004) Cancer in Jews: introduction and overview. Familial Cancer 3:177-192.

Lynch, H.T., Lynch, J.F., Lynch, P.M., Attard, T. (2008). Hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes: molecular genetics, genetic counseling, diagnosis and management. Familial Cancer. 7(1):27-39.

Lynch, P.M. (2007). Prevention of colorectal cancer in high-risk populations: the increasing role for endoscopy and chemoprevention in FAP and HNPCC. Digestion. 76(1):68-76.

Mohamad, H.B. and Apffelstaedt, J.P. (2008). Counseling for male BRCA mutation carriers-a review. The Breast. 17:441-450.

Pruthi, S., Gostout, B.S., Lindor, N.M. (2010). Identification and Management of Women With BRCA Mutations or Hereditary Predisposition for Breast and Ovarian Cancer. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 85(12):1111-20. Review.

Tinelli, A., Malvasi, A., Leo, G., Vergara, D., Pisan�, M., Ciccarese, M., Chiuri, V.E., Lorusso, V. (2010). Hereditary ovarian cancers: from BRCA mutations to clinical management. A modern appraisal. Cancer Metastasis Review. 29(2):339-50.

Hormone Therapy, Birth Control Pills & Chemoprevention for Breast Cancer

Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation: www.dslrf.org

National Cancer Institute: www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/prevention/breast/Patient

Casey, P. M., Cerhan, J. R., & Pruthi, S. (2008). Oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer. Mayo Clin Proc, 83(1), 86-90; quiz 90-81.

Cogliano V, Grosse Y, Baan R, et al. Carcinogenicity of combined oestrogen-progestagen contraceptives and menopausal treatment. Lancet Oncol. 2005;6(8):552-553.

Fisher B, Jeong JH, Dignam J, et al. Findingsfrom recent National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project adjuvant studies in stage I breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2001;30:62–66.

Fletcher, S. Editorial. Failure of Estrogen Plus Progestin Therapy for Prevention. Journal of the American Medical Association 2002;288.

Gaffield, M. E., Culwell, K. R., & Ravi, A. (2009). Oral contraceptives and family history of breast cancer. Contraception, 80(4), 372-380.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Vol 91: Combined Estrogen- Progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Menopausal Therapy. Lyon, France.

Iodice, S., Barile, M., Rotmensz, N., Feroce, I., Bonanni, B., Radice, P., et al. Oral contraceptive use and breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1/2 carriers: a meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer, 46(12), 2275-2284.

Vogel VG, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, et al. The Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR): Report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-2 Trial. JAMA 2006;295:2727–41.

Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and Benefits of Estrogen Plus Progestin in Healthy Postmenopausal Women. Principal Results from the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 2002;288:321–33.

Human Papilloma Virus

McGill University HITCH Cohort Study: www.mcgill.ca/hitchcohort

De Vuyst, H., Clifford, G. M., Nascimento, M. C., Madeleine, M. M., & Franceschi, S. (2009). Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus in carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva, vagina and anus: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer, 124(7), 1626-1636.

Grulich, A. E., Jin, F., Conway, E. L., Stein, A. N., & Hocking, J. Cancers attributable to human papillomavirus infection. Sex Health, 7(3), 244-252.

Marur, S., D'Souza, G., Westra, W. H., & Forastiere, A. A. HPV-associated head and neck cancer: a virus-related cancer epidemic. Lancet Oncol, 11(8), 781-789.

Palefsky, J. M., & Rubin, M. (2009). The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus and related neoplasia. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am, 36(1), 187-200.

Obesity

American Cancer Society: www.cancer.org

National Cancer Institute: www.cancer.gov

Brawer R. Brisbon N. Plumb J. Obesity and cancer. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice. 36(3):509-531, 2009.

Percik R. Stumvoll M. Obesity and cancer. Experimental & Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes. 117(10):563-6, 2009 Nov.

Roberts DL. Dive C. Renehan AG. Biological mechanisms linking obesity and cancer risk: new perspectives. Annual Review of Medicine. 61:301-16, 2010.

Wolin KY. Carson K. Colditz GA. Obesity and cancer. Oncologist. 15(6):556-65, 2010.

Occupational / Environmental Risks

Baan, R., Straif, K., Grosse, Y., Secretan, B., El Ghissassi, F., Bouvard, V., Benbrahim-Tallaa, L., Cogliano, V. (2008). Carcinogenicity of some aromatic amines, organic dyes, and related exposures. Lancet Oncology. 9(4):322-3.

Beveridge, R., Pintos, J., Parent, M.E., Asselin, J., Siemiatycki, J. (2010). Lung cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to nickel, chromium VI, and cadmium in two population-based case-control studies in Montreal. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 53(5):476-85.

Boffetta, P., Jourenkova, N., Gustavsson, P. (1997). Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cancer Causes and Control. 8(3):444-72.

Bonneterre, V., Deschamps, E., Persoons, R., Bernardet, C., Liaudy, S., Maitre, A., de Gaudemaris, R. (2007). Sino-nasal cancer and exposure to leather dust. Occupational Medicine. 57(6):438-43.

Bosetti, C., Boffetta, P., La Vecchia, C. (2006). Occupational exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and respiratory and urinary tract cancers: a quantitative review to 2005. Annals of Oncology. 18(3):431-46 Review.

d'Errico, A., Pasian, S., Baratti, A., Zanelli, R., Alfonzo, S., Gilardi, L., Beatrice, F., Bena, A., Costa, G. (2009). A case-control study on occupational risk factors for sino-nasal cancer. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 66(7):448-55.

Doi, M., Hattori, N., Yokoyama, A., Onari, Y., Kanehara, M., Masuda, K., Tonda, T., Ohtaki, M., Kohno, N. (2011). Effect of Mustard Gas Exposure on Incidence of Lung Cancer: A Longitudinal Study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 173: 659-666.

Ghanei, M. and Harandi, A.A. (2010). Lung carcinogenicity of sulfur mustard. Clinical Lung Cancer. 11(1):13-7.

Hayes, R.B. (1997). The carcinogenicity of metals in humans. Cancer Causes and Control. 8(3):371-85.

Hosseini-khalili, A., Haines, D.D., Modirian, E., Soroush, M., Khateri, S., Joshi, R., Zendehdel, K., Ghanei, M., Giardina, C. (2009). Mustard gas exposure and carcinogenesis of lung. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagensis. 678(1):1-6.

IARC (2008), World Cancer Report 2008, IARC Press, Lyon.

J�rup, L. (2003). Hazards of heavy metal contamination. British Medical Bulletin. 68:167-82.

Joseph, P. (2009). Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 238(3):272-9. Review.

Olfert, S.M., Felknor, S.A., Delclos, G.L. (2006). An updated review of the literature: risk factors for bladder cancer with focus on occupational exposures. Southern Medical Journal. 99(11):1256-63.

Olsson, A.C., Fevotte, J., Fletcher, T., Cassidy, A., 't Mannetje, A., Zaridze, D., Boffetta, P., et al. (2010). Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and lung cancer risk: a multicenter study in Europe. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 67(2):98-103.

Peters, S., Talaska, G., J�nsson, B.A., Kromhout, H., Vermeulen, R. (2008). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure, urinary mutagenicity, and DNA adducts in rubber manufacturing workers. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention. 17(6):1452-9.

Ramanakumar, A.V., Nadon, L., Siemiatycki, J. (2008). Exposures in painting related occupations and risk of selected cancers: results from a case-control study in Montreal. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 51(6):419-27.

Ramanakumar, A.V., Parent, M.�., Richardson, L., Siemiatycki, J. (2011).Exposures in painting-related occupations and risk of lung cancer among men: results from two case-control studies in Montreal. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 68(1):44-51.

Sathiakumar, N. and Delzell, E. (2009). A follow-up study of mortality among women in the North American synthetic rubber industry. Journal of Occupational Environmental Medicine. 51(11):1314-25.

Scarselli, A., Binazzi, A., Ferrante, P., Marinaccio, A. (2008). Occupational exposure levels to wood dust in Italy, 1996-2006. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 65(8):567-74.

Sorahan, T. (2008). Bladder cancer risks in workers manufacturing chemicals for the rubber industry. Occupational Medicine .58(7):496-501.

Radiation

DermNet NZ: www.dermnetnz.org

Food & Drug Administration: www.fda.gov/Radiation-EmittingProducts/RadiationEmittingProductsandProcedures/MedicalImaging/default.htm

Baerlocher, MO & Detsky, AS. Discussing Radiation Risks Associated With CT Scans With Patients. JAMA 2010;304:2170-2171.

Cardis, E., Howe, G., Ron, E., Bebeshko, V., Bogdanova, T., Bouville, A., Carr, Z., Chumak, V., Davis, S., Demidchik, Y., Drozdovitch, V., Gentner, N., Gudzenko, N., Hatch, M., Ivanov, V., Jacob, P., Kapitonova, E., Kenigsberg, Y., Kesminiene, A., Kopecky, K.J., Kryuchkov, V., Loos, A., Pinchera, A., Reiners, C., Repacholi, M., Shibata, Y., Shore, R.E., Thomas, G., Tirmarche, M., Yamashit,a S., Zvonova, I. (2006). Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on. Journal of Radiological Protection. 26(2):127-40.

Doody, M.M., Freedman, D.M., Alexander, B.H., Hauptmann, M., Miller, J.S., Rao, R.S., Mabuchi, K., Ron, E., Sigurdson, A.J., Linet, M.S. (2006). Breast cancer incidence in U.S. radiologic technologists. Cancer. 15;106(12):2707-15.

Gilbert, E.S. (2009).Ionising radiation and cancer risks: what have we learned from epidemiology? International Journal of Radiation Biology. 85(6):467-82. Review.

Hall, E.J. and Brenner, D.J. (2008). Cancer risks from diagnostic radiology. British Journal of Radiology. 81(965):362-78. Review.

IARC (2008), World Cancer Report 2008, IARC Press, Lyon.

Lin, EC. Radiation Risk From Medical Imaging. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010;85:1142-1146.

Linet, M.S., Kim, K.P., Miller, D.L., Kleinerman, R.A., Simon, S.L., de Gonzalez, A.B. (2010). Historical review of occupational exposures and cancer risks in medical radiation workers. Radiation Research. 174(6):793-808. Review.

Preston, D.L., Ron, E., Tokuoka, S., Funamoto, S., Nishi, N., Soda, M., Mabuchi, K., Kodama, K. (2007).Solid cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors: 1958-1998. Radiation Research. 168(1):1-64.

Reiners, C. (2009). Radioactivity and thyroid cancer. Hormones. 8(3):185-91. Review

Seminars in Radiation Oncology, April 1999, Vol. 9, Issue 2, Treatment of Benign Disease.

Smith-Bindman, R., Lipson, J., Marcus, R., Kim, K.P., Mahesh, M., Gould, R., Berrington de Gonz�lez, A., Miglioretti, D.L. (2009). Radiation dose associated with common computed tomography examinations and the associated lifetime attributable risk of cancer. Archives of Internal Medicine. 169(22):2078-86.

Williams, D. (2009). Radiation carcinogenesis: lessons from Chernobyl. Oncogene. 27 Suppl 2:S9-18. Review.

Wakeford, R. (2009).Radiation in the workplace-a review of studies of the risks of occupational exposure to ionising radiation. Journal of Radiological Protection. 29(2A):A61-79.

Yoshinaga, S., Mabuchi, K., Sigurdson, A.J., Doody, M.M., Ron, E. (2004). Cancer risks among radiologists and radiologic technologists: review of epidemiologic studies. Radiology. 233(2):313-21. Review.

Radon

ACS website, 2011: www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerCauses/OtherCarcinogens/Pollution/radon

EPA website, 2011: www.epa.gov/radon

Al-Zoughool M, Krewski D. (2009).Health effects of radon: a review of the literature.

International Journal of Radiation Biology. 85(1):57-69. Review.

Schmid, K., Kuwert, T., Drexler, H. (2010). Radon in indoor spaces: an underestimated risk factor for lung cancer in environmental medicine. Deutsches Arzteblatt International. 107(11):181-6.

Wakeford, R. (2009).Radiation in the workplace-a review of studies of the risks of occupational exposure to ionising radiation. Journal of Radiological Protection. 29(2A):A61-79.

Smoking

American Cancer Society: www.cancer.org

National Cancer Institute: www.cancer.gov

U.S. Surgeon General Reports on Smoking: www.surgeongeneral.gov/index.html

Action on Smoking and Health: ash.org.uk

Determined to Quit: www.determinedtoquit.com

Environmental Protection Agency: www.epa.gov/smokefree/community.html

Kill the Can: www.killthecan.org

National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research: www.nidcr.nih.gov

Oral Cancer Foundation: oralcancerfoundation.org/tobacco/index.htm

Oral Health America: oralhealthamerica.org/programs/nstep

Aldington, S, et al. (2008) Cannabis use and risk of lung cancer: a case-control study. Eur Respir Journal. 31: 280-286.

Boffetta P, Hecht S, Gray N, Gupta P, Straif K. (2008). Smokeless tobacco and cancer. Lancet Oncology. 9(7):667-75.

CDC, 2010. �Betel Quid with Tobacco.� (http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/smokeless/betel_quid/)

Chen YJ, Chang JT, Liao CT, Wang HM, Yen TC, Chiu CC, Lu YC, Li HF, Cheng AJ. (2008). Head and neck cancer in the betel quid chewing area: recent advances in molecular carcinogenesis. Cancer Science. 99(8):1507-14.

IARC (2008), World Cancer Report 2008, IARC Press, Lyon.

Iodice S, Gandini S, Maisonneuve P, Lowenfels AB. (2008). Tobacco and the risk of pancreatic cancer: a review and meta-analysis. Langenbecks Archives of Surgery. 393(4):535-45. Epub 2008 Jan 12. Review.

Lee PN, Hamling J. (2009). Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America. Biomed( BMC) Medicine. 29;7:36. Review.

Levitz JS, Bradley TP, Golden AL.(2004). Overview of smoking and all cancers. Medical Clinics of North America. 88(6):1655-75, xiii.

Phukan RK, Ali MS, Chetia CK, Mahanta J. (2001). Betel nut and tobacco chewing; potential risk factors of cancer of oesophagus in Assam, India. British Journal of Cancer 1;85(5):661-7.

Prasad R, Singhal S, Garg R. (2009). Bidi smoking and lung cancer. Bioscience Trends. 3(2):41-3.

Rastam S, Li FM, Fouad FM, Al Kamal HM, Akil N, Al Moustafa AE. (2010). Water pipe smoking and human oral cancers. Med Hypotheses. 74(3):457-9. Epub 2009 Nov 4.

Sasco AJ, Secretan MB, Straif K. (2004). Tobacco smoking and cancer: a brief review of recent epidemiological evidence. Lung Cancer. 45 Suppl 2:S3-9.

Singh et al. Evaluation of the DNA Damaging Potential of Cannabis Cigarette Smoke by the Determination of Acetaldehyde Derived N2-Ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine Adducts. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 2009; 22 (6): 1181

Sun Safety

American Academy of Dermatology: www.skincarephysicians.com/skincancernet/index.html

American Cancer Society (ACS) website, 2010. www.cancer.org

The Skin Cancer Foundation website, 2010. www.skincancer.org

Melanoma Education Foundation. www.skincheck.org

Coelho, S.G. and Hearing, V.J. (2010). UVA tanning is involved in the increased incidence of skin cancers in fair-skinned young women. Pigment Cell Melanoma Research. 23:57-63.

Lazovich, D., Vogel, R.I., Berwick, M., Weinstock, M.A., Anderson, K.E., Warshaw, E.M. (2010). Indoor tanning and risk of melanoma: a case-control study in a highly exposed population. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. 19(6):1557-68.

Roberts, D.J., Hornung, C.A., Polk, H.C., Jr. (2009). Another duel in the sun: weighing the balances between sun protection, tanning beds, and malignant melanoma. Clinical Pediatrics. 48 (6):614-22.

References for Australian sun safety

Cancer Council ACT: www.actcancer.org/sun-smart/skin-cancer.aspx

Australian Government: www.skincancer.gov.au

Australian Cancer Network Melanoma Guidelines Revision Working Party. Cancer Council Australia and Australian Cancer Network, Sydney and New Zealand Guidelines Group, Wellington, 2008: 8. Available at www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/file/publications/synopses/cp111.pdf.

Coory, M., Baade, P., Aitken, J., Smithers, M., McLeod, G.R., Ring, I.(2006). Trends for in situ and invasive melanoma in Queensland, Australia, 1982-2002. Cancer Causes and Control. 17(1):21-7.

Rosendahl, C., Hansen, C., Cameron, A., Bourne, P., Wilson, T., Cook, B., Baker, M., Keir, J., Dicker, T., Reid, M., Williamson, R., Weedon, D., Soye,r H.P., Youl, P.H., Wilkinson, D. (2011). Measuring performance in skin cancer practice: the SCARD initiative. International Journal of Dermatology. 50(1):44-51.

Women's Health

The Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool website: www.cancer.gov/bcrisktool


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